==| Chapter 1  |==
The Little Bang Theory
  ==| Chapter 2  |==
The Tharsis Bulge of Mars
  ==| Chapter 3  |==
Mars Puts On A Little Weight
  ==| Chapter 4  |==
The Biggest Volcanoes
  ==| Chapter 5  |==
Where Astra Fragmented
  ==| Chapter 6  |==
Ancient Ring System of Mars
  ==| Chapter 7  |==
The Flood of Mars - Its Ice Age
  ==| Chapter 8  |==
Tilts of Mars and The Earth
  ==| Chapter 9  |==
The Energy Exchange
  ==| Chapter 10  |==
Angular Momentum Exchange
  ==| Chapter 11  |==
The First Nine Clues
  ==| Chapter 12  |==
Clues Ten, Eleven And Twelve




Chapter 1 - Endnotes

Chapter 1, Note # 1 Alexander Heidel, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels.  1946, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Pr., p.87.

Chapter 1, Note # 2 Louis Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews.  1909, Philadelphia, The Jewish Publishing. Society of America, Vol.  I, p. 162.z

Chapter 1, Note # 3 Loc. cit.

Chapter 1, Note # 4 Ginzberg, op. cit.  Vol. V, p. 164.

Chapter 1, Note # 5 Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 105.

Chapter 1, Note # 6 Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. V, p. 100.

Chapter 1, Note # 7 Patrick Moore and Garry Hunt, Atlas of the Solar System.  1983, Chicago, Rand McNally, p. 220.

Chapter 1, Note # 8 Patrick Moore, op. cit. p. 212.

Chapter 2 - Endnotes

Chapter 2, Note # 1 Patrick Moore and Hunt, Garry, Atlas of the Solar System.  1983, Chicago, Rand McNally, p. 229.

Our measurements of the breadth and length of the Tharsis Bulge is 900 miles broad by 1,000 miles long.  It is suspected that Moore and Hunt have an error in their estimate of the breadth of Tharsis.  In any case, Tharsis is a dominating feature of the physical geography of Mars in its Serene Hemisphere.

Chapter 3 - Endnotes

Chapter 3, Note # 1 Moore, Patrick and Garry Hunt, Atlas of the Solar System.  1983, Chicago, Rand McNally, p. 226.

Chapter 3, Note # 2 Loc. cit.

Chapter 3, Note # 3 Loc. cit.

Chapter 3, Note # 4 The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, translated by Alexander Heidel.  1946, Chicago, Univ.  of Chicago Press, p. 87.  (Tablet XI, lines 167, 170).

Chapter 3, Note # 5 Ginzberg, Louis, op. cit., Vol. V. p. 240-241.

Chapter 3, Note # 6 Ginzberg, Louis, The Legends of the Jews.  1938, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, Volume V, p. 164.  On the other hand, an old tradition states (Al Barceloni, 247) that each one of the seven planets has its own angel as follows; the sun has Raphael, Venus, Aniel; Mercury, Michael; the Moon, Gabriel; Saturn Kafziel; Jupiter, Zadkiel; Mars.  Sammael.

Repeatedly in Talmudic material Sammael, the "angel of Mars," is reported as being an evil archangel, in contrast to the others.

Chapter 4 - Endnotes

Chapter 4, Note # 1 Hesiod, translated by Richmond Lattimore.  1959, Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Press, Theogony, p. lines 825-829.

Chapter 4, Note # 2 Hesiod, op. cit.  The Shield of Herakles, lines 425-427.

Chapter 4, Note # 3 Hesiod, op. cit.  Theogony, lines 824-830.

Chapter 5 - Endnotes

Chapter 5, Note # 1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 1958, Vol. II, p. 574.  The "iron age" in ancient thought occurred before the Noah Flood event.  See Gen. 4:22.  Modern archaeologists have misdated the first iron age, and have it confused with a later iron age.  Ancients of the third millennium B.C. smelted a variety of metals including manganese.  Perhaps they had some form of electrolysis.

Chapter 5, Note # 2 J. Lempriere, Lempriere's Classical Dictionary.  London, 1984, Bracken Books, page 95.

Chapter 5, Note # 3 Loc. cit.

Chapter 5, Note # 4 Astra is that Greek goddess after which the Statue of Liberty, in New York harbor, was designed by Bartholdi.  Note her tiara composed of stars.  The spread of the stars in her tiara are reminiscent of an explosion in process.  The Statue of Liberty was a present from the French people to the American people.  Congress authorized the use of Bedloe's Island in New York harbor, already suggested by Bartholdi.  The French contributed $450,000 and the American people $350,000.  The statue was unveiled Oct. 28, 1886.  Its height is 305.5 feet, measuring to the top of its starry tiara.  Note the spread of the angles of the spikes in the celestial crown.  The spread of angles resembles the spread of angles of a typical fragmentation.  In New York harbor is the most visible portrait of Astra in the world.

Chapter 6 - Endnotes

Chapter 6, Note # 1 (The Sumerians had glass before the Flood, and may have cast glass into lenses and developed optical instruments.  They may have seen the rings of Saturn and also Uranus).

Chapter 6, Note # 2 Moore, Patrick and Garry Hunt, Atlas of the Solar System.  l983, Chicago, Rand McNally, p. 241.

Chapter 6, Note # 3 Van Flandern, Tom, Dark Matter, Missing Planets & New Comets.  1993, Berkeley, North Atlantic Books, p. 277.

Chapter 6, Note # 4 Patten, Donald and Samuel Windsor, The Recent Organization of the Solar System.  1995, Seattle, Pacific Meridian Publishing. Co., pp. 69 - 108.

Chapter 6, Note # 5 Van Flandern, op. cit., p. 226.

Chapter 7 - Endnotes

Chapter 7, Note # 1 Moore, Patrick and Garry Hunt, Atlas of the Solar System.  1983, Chicago, Rand McNally, p. 224.

Chapter 7, Note # 2 Moore, op. cit., p. 219.

Chapter 7, Note # 3 Moore, op. cit., p. 216.

Chapter 7, Note # 4 Moore, op. cit., p. 419.

Chapter 7, Note # 5 Pickering, James S., 1001 Questions Answered About Astronomy.  1959, New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., p.  54-55.

Chapter 7, Note # 6 Smithsonian, August 1995, p. 71.

Chapter 7, Note # 7 Moore, op. cit., p. 225.

Chapter 7, Note # 8 Moore, op. cit., p. 224.

Chapter 7, Note # 9 Moore, op. cit., p. 212.

Chapter 7, Note # 10 Moore, op. cit., p. 225.

Chapter 7, Note # 11 The Harper Encyclopedia of Science.  1967, Harper & Row, p. 264.N

Chapter 7, Note # 12 Moore, op. cit., p. 399.

Chapter 7, Note # 13 Clube, Victor and Bill Napier, Cosmic Serpent.  1982, New York, Universe Books, p. 131.  Clube and Napier suppose icy short term comets are originally interstellar in origin, out in the Milky Way, and entered inner Solar System space eventually to become the cause of ancient historical catastrophes.

But short term icy comets have less than one trillionth of the mass needed to create spin axis shifts and orbital perturbations of the order described herein.  On the contrary, short term icy comets are the PRODUCT of Glacis during one of the planetary catastrophes, the closest to our planet.  Icy comets are not the cause of ancient catastrophes, as Clube and Napier suggest, but rather are a product of one of them, which was the closest.

Chapter 7, Note # 14 Ginzberg, Louis, The Legends of the Jews.  1925, 1953, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society of America, Vol. I., p. 162.

Chapter 7, Note # 15 Heidel, Alexander, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels.  1946, Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, p. 87.  (Tablet 11 lines 167-173.)

Chapter 7, Note # 16 Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. V, p. 182.

Chapter 7, Note # 17 Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. V., p. 182-183.

Chapter 7, Note # 18 Hesiod, Translated by Richard Lattimore.  1959, Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Press, lines 194-196, p. 194.

Chapter 7, Note # 19 Hesiod, op. cit., lines 141-150, p. 199-200.

Chapter 7, Note # 20 Hesiod, op. cit., lines 188-196, p. 202-203.

Chapter 8 - Endnotes

Chapter 8, Note # 1 Wm. Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act I, Scene I, Lines 157-165.

Chapter 8, Note # 2 Few studies have been made on the behavior of composite gyroscopes, i.e. solid shell supported on laminar layers of liquids, varying in temperature, viscosity, density and gas content.  Extensive behavior information for solid gyroscopes, both gimbled and not gimbled, is available.  A good starting point is J. P. Den Hartog's dissertation published as a part of the Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, edited by Theodore Baumeister (formerly Lionel S. Marks), published by McGraw-Hill, New York.

The postulated behavior of liquid core planets presented here is based upon general principles of fluid mechanics, electro-magnetic field theory and Newtonian principles of gravitational attraction.  These postulations have not been tested nor have they been particularized or quantitized in representative math models in a rigorous manner.

The study of soft, planetary gyroscopes should prove rewarding as well as interesting.  The effects on magma of the "stirring" resulting from spin axis precession would include changes in temperature gradients, chemical compositions, electric current flow, magnetic field perturbations, thinning or thickening of the crust, etc.  This is all in addition to the geologic changes in the crust, oceanographic changes on the crust, and the extra-terrestrial electrical effects during the proximity of the two close passing planets.

Chapter 8, Note # 3 C. Warren Hunt, Environment of Violence.  1990, Calgary, Polar Publishing, p. 156 ff.  Silanes are silicon hydrides.

This theory of the genesis of petroleum pools has two parts.  The aspect involving the mixing of hydrogen with carbides to create silanes, hydrocarbons and metal hydrides, credited to C. Warren Hunt, a Canadian petroleum geologist with more than five decades of field experience.  Hunt is a catastrophist, terrestrial if not yet a Solar System catastrophist.

The other aspect of this theory is the mixing mechanism.  It involves sudden, nearby Mars flybys, and also requires rapid and sudden mixing of highly reactive molecules that are common to the Earth's interior, such as silanes, carbides and various other hydrides with water at the intimate molecular level, and at high temperatures and pressures.  Such catastrophic mixing as a precedent for the genesis of petroleum accumulations is the concept of your authors.

Chapter 8, Note # 4 James Strong, Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.  1890, Nashville, Abingdon Press, Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, p. 69.p.

Chapter 8, Note # 5 Raphael G. Kazmann, On the Orientation of Ancient Temples and Other Anomalies.  Aeon II, 2, p. 51.

Chapter 8, Note # 6 Kazmann, Loc. cit.

Chapter 8, Note # 7 Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews.  Vol. II, Book 9, Chap. 8, (p. 237.)

Chapter 8, Note # 8 Josephus, Loc. cit.

Chapter 9 - Endnotes

Chapter 9, Note # 1 For his cutting edge work, Kepler was harassed from job to job and from city to city, from Graz to Prague to Linz to Sagan to Regensburg.  The harassment was by the Medieval Association for the Advancement of Science, Austrian branch.  His works were banned by the Vatican, and were poorly received by his fellow Lutherans.

However, thankfully, the Calvinists of Strasbourg and the German Palatinate, their printers and book sellers were more receptive, objective and open-minded.  From Strasbourg, Kepler's discoveries, including his Rudolphine Tables, were distributed to Geneva, Basel, Bern, Zurich, Tubingen, Amsterdam, Dordrecht, Utrecht, Edinburgh and Cambridge.  At Cambridge, with his three laws of planetary motion well received, Kepler became the mentor of Edmund Halley of cometary fame, and of Isaac Newton of Principia fame.

Chapter 9, Note # 2 In the 1950's, Immanuel Velikovsky studied various ancient calendars.  He concluded that the Earth formerly had a 360-day year, which meant a slightly smaller orbit, and the Moon had a 30-day orbit, which means that the Moon once had a slightly larger orbit.

His research showed that Mars had assaulted the Earth several times early in the 1st millennium B.C.E.  He discovered a 600-year false expansion in the accepted dating of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.  It was an expansion serving and harmonizing Egyptian history with other gradualist expansive dating schemes.

Velikovsky also had his shortcomings.  On the negative side, he had no bar charts, no graphs, no figures, no tables and just one map.

Velikovsky thought as a psychiatrist and as an ancient historian, and he was not given to mathematical, engineering or geographical analysis.  So his errors and inadequacies also were big.

Despite his substantial contributions, in the 1970's, Velikovsky was pilloried and smeared by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, astronomical department.  He was discredited among all branches of science.  His critics were out of balance; he should have been given credit for his correct insights.  But no, the scientists Donald Goldsmith, Carl Sagan, science writer Isaac Asimov, et al could not or would not "separate the baby from the bath water."

Now, in the late 1990's, your authors feel that human nature yet to improve.  Treatment of this model and associated material by scientific associations, controlled more by tradition and politics than by objectivity, is expected to be no better than the treatment given to Kepler 400 years ago, and no better than the treatment awarded to Velikovsky 25 years ago.

Chapter 9, Note # 3 Edwin R. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings.  1965, Grand Rapids, Wm. B. Eerdmans, p. 205.  This was a republication of an earlier edition by the Univ. of Chicago Press.

Chapter 9, Note # 4 Louis Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews.  1928, Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, Vol. VI. 362.  "On the first night of Passover as the "night of miracles", see note 76 on vol. I, p.  224. Pan Aherim 93 = Yalkut II, reads: When Rabshakah [the Assyrian commander in chief] heard the singing of the Hallel he counseled Sennacherib to withdraw from Jerusalem, as on this night - the first night of Passover - many miracles were wrought for Israel.  Sennacherib however did not accept the wise counsel given him.

Chapter 9, Note # 5 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision.  1952, New York, Doubleday, pp. 330-345.  He found ancient 360-day calendars among the ancient Hebrews, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Vedic Indians, Persians, Mayans, Pre-Incans of Peru, Chinese, Japanese and Arabians.  He found traditions of 9-day weeks, 40 per year among the ancient Romans, Celts, Lithuanians, Mongols and tribes of West Africa.

Chapter 9, Note # 6 According to Table XIII, the Earth's orbit radius expanded after the Final Waltz from 361.628345 new days to 365.256365 new days.  This is an increase in the Earth's period of 0.9932804%.  It is about 3.628020 days.

The difference between the old spin rate, approximately 360.0 old days, and 361.628345 new days, is 0.452318%.  0.452318 multiplied by the current spin rate, 23.9345 hours (1,436.07 minutes sidereal) is .64956 of a minute.  Thus it is estimated that the increase in the spin rate of the Earth, as Mars pivoted in it during the final Martian flyby, a unique outside flyby, was .65 of a minute, or 39 seconds per day.

Chapter 9, Note # 7 Immanuel Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 337.  "In his Isis and Osiris, Plutarch describes by means of allegory the change in the length of the year.  'Hermes playing at draughts with the moon, won from her the seventieth part of each of her periods of illumination, and from all the winnings he composed five days, and intercalated them as an addition to the 360 days.'

Chapter 9, Note # 8 David Talbott, "Servant of the Sun God."  Aeon II, 1, p. 37 ff.  Talbott brings a comprehensive summary of the Mars archetype in world mythology.

Chapter 9, Note # 9 Ev Cochrane, On Mars and Pestilence."  Aeon III, 4, p.  59 ff.  See also Aeon III, 3, p. 71 ff, Aeon II, 4 p.  49 ff and Aeon III, 6, p. 70 ff.

Chapter 9, Note # 10 Hesiod, The Shield of Herakles.  Translated by Richard Lattimore.  1959, Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Press, p. 199-200, lines 141-150.

Chapter 9, Note # 11 Hesiod, op. cit., p. 210-211.  Lines 318-326.

Chapter 9, Note # 12 Ginzberg, op. cit.  Vol. 4, p. 267-268.

Chapter 9, Note # 13 Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. 4, p. 269.

Chapter 9, Note # 14 Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. 6, p. 363.

Chapter 9, Note # 15 Patten & Windsor, two essays.  "The Origin and Decay of the Earth's Geomagnetic Field" (published by Catastrophism and Ancient History), and "Clashing Magnetic Fields" (published by Aeon).  Both are available at Pacific Meridian Publishing. Co.

Chapter 9, Note # 16 Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. 6, p. 363.

Chapter 10 - Endnotes

Chapter 10, Note # 1 Donald W. Patten, The 108-Year Cyclicism of Ancient Catastrophes.  1990, Seattle, Pacific Meridian Publ..F2 Robert E. D. Clark, Science & Christianity, a Partnership.  1972, republished 1994, Seattle, Pacific Meridian Publishing. Co., l994, p. 53.

Chapter 10, Note # 2 Robert E. D. Clark, Science & Christianity, a Partnership.  1972, republished 1994, Seattle, Pacific Meridian Publishing. Co., l994, p. 53.

Chapter 10, Note # 3 op. cit., p. 41.

Chapter 10, Note # 4 Robert E. D. Clark, Science & Christianity, a Partnership.  1972, republished 1994, Seattle, Pacific Meridian Publishing. Co., l994.

Chapter 10, Note # 5 Donald W. Patten and Samuel R. Windsor, The Recent Organization of the Solar System.  1996, Seattle, Pacific Meridian.

Chapter 11 - Endnotes

Chapter 11, Note # 1 Hesiod, The Shield of Herakles, translated by Richmond Lattimore.  1959, Ann Arbor, Univ. of Mich. Press.  Lines 444-456.

Chapter 11, Note # 2 Neil F. Michelsen, The American Heliocentric Ephemeris. San Diego, ACS Publications, 1981, p.  designation - March-April 1995.

Chapter 11, Note # 3 Richard L. Thompson, Vedic Cosmography and Astronomy.1990, Los Angeles, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, p.91.  The point we would like to make here is that the Bhgagavatam, with its 360-day year, may seem naive, but there is actually considerable sophistication behind its calculations.  ... SB 5.22.15 states that Jupiter travels through one sign of the zodiac in one Paritatsara.  The names Samvatsara, Parivatsara, Idavatsara, Anuvatsars, and Vatsara all refer to a year of 360 days.

Chapter 11, Note # 4 Bowditch, The Nautical Almanac for the Year 1991.  Washington, U. S. Govt. Printing Office, pp. 10 - 250, even pages.  Hamal's longitude is listed on 120 pages.

Chapter 11, Note # 5  2,699 years / 71.67° = 37.65° of luni-solar precession since the Final Mars Flyby (and no planetary precession).

Chapter 12 - Endnotes

Chapter 12, Note # 1 Vine DeLoria Jr. Red Earth, White Lies.  1995, New York, Scribner, p. 43.  De Loria is a Sioux Indian, a leader of AISES, the American Indian Society for Engineering and Science, and a faculty member of the history dept., Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

Chapter 12, Note # 2 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision.  1950, New York, Doubleday, pp. 330-342.

Chapter 12, Note # 3 Frank Parise, ed., The Book of Calendars.  1982, New York, Facts on File, p. 216.

Chapter 12, Note # 4 Parisi, op. cit., p. 269.

Chapter 12, Note # 5 Parisi, op. cit., p. 128.

Chapter 12, Note # 6 Jonathan Swift, Gulliver's Travels.  New York, 1958, Random House, p. 134.

Chapter 12, Note # 7 Robert S. Richardson, Mars.  1964, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., p. 93.  In specifying the distance of Phobos from Mars, Swift also was specifying that to a Martian, Phobos it would rise in the west and set in the east, which Phobos (and only Phobos) does.

Chapter 12, Note # 8 Isaac Asimov, The Kingdom of the Sun, 1960, London, Abelard-Schuman, p. 128-129.

Chapter 12, Note # 9 Charles McDowell, "Catastrophism and Puritan Thought," Symposium on Creation VI.  1977, Seattle, Pacific Meridian, p. 57-60.

Chapter 12, Note # 10 Hesiod, op. cit., various lines.

Chapter 12, Note # 11 Roget's International Thesaurus, Fourth edition.  New York, Harper Collins, 1977, p. 89l.10 to 891.17.