==| Chapter 1  |==
The Little Bang Theory
  ==| Chapter 2  |==
The Tharsis Bulge of Mars
  ==| Chapter 3  |==
Mars Puts On A Little Weight
  ==| Chapter 4  |==
The Biggest Volcanoes
  ==| Chapter 5  |==
Where Astra Fragmented
  ==| Chapter 6  |==
Ancient Ring System of Mars
  ==| Chapter 7  |==
The Flood of Mars - Its Ice Age
  ==| Chapter 8  |==
Tilts of Mars and The Earth
  ==| Chapter 9  |==
The Energy Exchange
  ==| Chapter 10  |==
Angular Momentum Exchange
  ==| Chapter 11  |==
The First Nine Clues
  ==| Chapter 12  |==
Clues Ten, Eleven And Twelve
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CHAPTER 10
The Angular Momentum Exchange
 The battlefield was darkened by Ares. ...Hera, the goddess of the earth, “stepped upon the flaming car” and self-bidden, groaned upon their hinges the gates of heaven which the Hours had in their keeping, to whom are entrusted great heaven and Olympus.  She spoke to Zeus:

“Zeus, hast thou no indignation with Ares for these violent deeds, that he hat destroyed so great and so goodly a host of the Achaeans recklessly?  ...  Wilt thou in any wise be wroth with me if I smite Ares?”

And Zeus replied: “Nay, come now, rouse against him Athene ... who has ever been wont above others to bring sore pain upon him.”  So came the hour of battle.

Then Pallas Athene grasped lash and the reins, and against Ares first the speedily drave ... Athene put on the cap of Hades, to the end that the mighty Ares should not see her.

Ares, BANE OF MORTALS, was attacked by Pallas Athene, who sped the spear “mightily against the nethermost belly.”

The brazen Ares bellowed loud as nine thousand warriors or ten thousand cry in battle, when they join in the strife of the War-god.

Even as a black darkness appeareth from the clouds when after heat a blustering wind ariseth, even in such wise ... did brazen Ares appear, as he roared amid the clouds unto broad heaven.

In heaven he appealed to Zeus with bitter words of complaint against Athene: “With thee are we all at strife, for thou are father to the baneful maid, whose mind is ever set on deeds of lawlessness.  For all the other gods that are in Olympus are obedient unto thee ... but to her thou payest no heed ... for that this pestilent maiden is thine own child.”

And Zeus answered: “Most hateful to me art thou of all gods that hold Olympus, for ever is strife dear to thee and wars and fighting.

Homer [The Iliad]

The Background For The Trojan War

Homer, reported to be blind, nevertheless by conversing with his colleagues, he penned a profound and spectacular account of Ares-Hera catastrophism.  It was the year 864 B.C.E., a catastrophic year.  It was early autumn.

The Greek generals planned an assault on Troy, hoping that either Troy would be struck by celestial lightning, torching the citadel, and/or its walls of defense would be crumbled by killer quakes.  An assist by the destructive Ares had been predicted by the Greek star gazers and monthly prognosticators to the Greek military leaders.  They seem to have understood the 108-year cyclicism of Mars flybys, and the last October flyby was in October, 972 B.C.E.  An easy, quick conquest was anticipated.  (It wasn't either quick or easy as it turned out).

Interplanetary discharges of mega-volt lightning struck the Greek encampment and its iron armor instead.  The walls of Troy held firm.  This campaign for the opportunistic Greeks, bent on maritime expansion into the Euxine Sea region and the Ukraine, suddenly turned difficult, long and a drawn out endeavor.

In the mega-catastrophic year 701 B.C.E., the Greek reporter on the scene was Hesiod and the Hebrew prophet-reporter was Isaiah.  In the mega-catastrophic year 864 B.C.E., the Greek reporter was Homer, a blind writer.  The Hebrew prophets on the scene were Elijah and Obadiah.  Cosmic lightning hit at least one place in Northern Israel that day too.  It was a discharge that struck Mt. Carmel, where there were quarters of beef offered in a sacrifice; it resulted in a well-done barbecue.  See I Kings 18:38.

As was seen in Chapter 9, iron was excellent material for weaponry in normal years, but the Greeks had not yet learned that the employment of concentrations of iron armor was a hazardous deployment in catastrophic years.  Homer described the residual fires in the Greek encampment, burning long into the night after that catastrophic daytime conflagration on October 24, 864 B.C.E.

With its concentration of iron armor, the Greek camp was decimated by high voltage fire falling from the heavens, the same treatment they hoped would smite Troy, as it had done on past flyby occasions.  Such was the timing of the opening stage of the Trojan War.  Its timetable no doubt had been scheduled by the seers, the astrologers and the monthly prognosticators of Greece, who held seats close to kings and generals.  Advice from the monthly prognosticators aside, it was a Greek disaster, directly attributable to Ares, “the bane of mortals” (Homer).

On March 20, 701 B.C.E., some 162+ years later, as was described in chapter 9, the Assyrian army, some 250,000 strong, prepared to attacked Jerusalem, expecting assistance from Nergal to visit killer quakes and/or celestial lightning on the Jewish citadel.  Once again the Assyrian arsenal of iron armor functioned as an attracting lightning rod.  The iron-abundant Assyrian encampment, like at the Greek encampment 162 years earlier, was struck instead by “fire falling from heaven”.  The nearby citadel was spared.


Introduction

The Mars flyby of the Earth, occurring in October, 864 B.C.E. was followed by another October case Mars flyby slightly over a century later.  Close Mars flybys occurred in 108 year cycles (to the day).  The next October flyby would be in 756 B.C.E.  The foundation for these dates will be laid in a later Volume, and occur in our essay entitled “The 108-Year Cyclicism of ancient Catastrophes”. [n1]

Mankind is fortunate to have this flyby of 756 B.C.E. described in Hebrew style by three prophets of fire and brimstone reputation.  Each was a reporting, or recording prophet.  They are Jonah of whale fame, Joel of fire and brimstone fame, and Amos of earthquake prediction fame.  The flyby of 756 B.C.E. caused great structural damage to the First Temple in Jerusalem, which is cited by Josephus. [n2]

This event in 756 B.C.E. is the beginning point of the three-stage shift of angular momentum in the next catastrophic scene, that of March in 701 B.C.E.  The 756 B.C.E. flyby was the last of the autumn (October) waltzes between Mars and the Earth.  Peace was to come to our planet and to Venus 54+ years later.

The energies exchanged, described earlier, involve measurements of the “semi-major axes” of the three orbits of Venus, the Earth and Mars.  As was mentioned, the SEMI-MAJOR axis of an orbit is half of the length of the long axis of the orbit.  It is measured from the center of the orbit to either the aphelion or the perihelion.  This line, the “major axis,” is also called the “x” axis.

In contrast to the “x” axis, there is a “y” axis AT 90° to the “x” axis.  Half of it, from the orbit center to one edge, is the SEMI-MINOR axis.  It is drawn at the center of an orbit, and perpendicular to the “x” axis.  It bisects the “x” axis.  The Minor Axis measures the maximum width of an orbit.

Both the “x” axis and the “y” axis intersect at the center of the orbit.  Only the “x” axis is relevant to measuring a planet's energy.  A measurement of angular momentum involves measurements of both axes, the semi-major and the semi-minor.  Angular momentum assessments concern both the semi-major and the semi-minor axes.

As was mentioned earlier, for an ellipse, the “x” axis measures its greatest length while the “y” axis measures its greatest width.  An eccentricity of .000000 makes an ellipse into a perfect circle, and the semi-major axis and the semi-minor axis are equal in length.  Today, Venus has an orbit eccentricity of only .006783 and its orbit is nearly a perfect circle.  Its modern perihelion is 67,237,928 miles from the Sun (the semi-major axis) and its semi-minor axis is only 1,546 miles shorter, at 67,236,382 miles.

Halley's Comet on the other hand illustrates an orbit of high eccentricity, almost .75.  Tables XII and XIII show that the eccentricity of the Martian orbit in the Catastrophic Era was close to .561.  In the modern age, the Martian eccentricity is only .093.

As it is with the conservation energy, so it is with the conservation of angular momentum.  Angular momentum may be exchanged with another planet during a close flyby.  But unlike energy, angular momentum constantly is being exchanged also at great distances.

Still, what one planet gains in angular momentum, that same amount the exchanging planet must lose.  Like energy, angular momentum neither appears nor disappears by magic, nor can it disappear (or appear) by the stroke of the pen of some wishful philosopher or hopeful space cadet.

The present problem, or issue, is how the Martian orbit changed from what it was in the Catastrophic Era to the modern age, or, how the orbit of Mars rounded out.  If energy exchanges were the only issue, there are thousands of theoretical solutions that would satisfy such an energy exchange.  Similarly, if angular momentum were the only issue, there are thousands of possible solutions.

Ideally, there is only one solution that will simultaneously satisfy both exchanges.  Assumptions are made about the Catastrophic Era orbits that can be assumed from ancient resonance’s but cannot be verified.  Therefore the solution in Tables XI, XII and XIII (chapters 9-10) are at best an approximate solution.  Table XIII may contain a more exact solution, but at the least it is very very close.  This solution is hard to popularize for the general reader; it is in the arena of celestial mechanics and orbital analysts for examination and assessment.

If a theory of past planet warfare could not be demonstrated mathematically how Mars shifted from its catastrophic era orbit to its modern orbit, it is a flawed and a speculative theory.

Herein is the logic of the conversion of the orbit of Mars from its old orbit in the Catastrophic Era into its modern condition.  While the participation of the Sun, the Earth-Moon system and Mars seem, basic, in reality the participation of both of Venus and Jupiter also are essential.  (Any model involving only the Sun, the Earth-Moon system and Mars will inevitably fail).

This model as described in Tables XI, XII and XIII requires that on or about January 24, 701 B.C.E., plus or minus 1 day, this trio of planets (Mars, Venus and the Earth) were poised for battle.  Cosmic battle.  Energy exchanges.  Angular momentum exchanges.  Eccentricity changes.  Altered orbits.  First came the last Ares-Pallas Athene planetary polka.

The Venus versus Mars battle preceded an Earth versus Mars battle by some 56 days, plus or minus one.  Energy shifted in equal amounts; what energy and momentum Venus lost Mars gained in equal amounts.  Alterations of orbits occurred.  Spin axes precessed.  Crusts bulged due to heavy subcrustal tides.  Planetary magnetic field reunions were held, briefly, just for hours, somewhat like class reunions.

The action, when it came, was fast, ferocious, fierce, furious, and in year 701 B.C.E.  (It was final unless new planets are to be delivered to the Sun's planetary domain in some future catastrophic scene).  When it was all over, the modern era for the orbits of Venus, Mars and the Earth-Moon system had arrived.  And with it came Solar System gradualism, a system now only 2701 years old in 1997.

The orbit of Mars rounded out.  No more celestial waltzes with the Earth.  No more passionate polkas with Venus.  No more fast and furious flings.  No more precessing gyroscopes in the cosmos.  No more electrical-celestial trysts in space between clinging planetary magnetic fields.  (There is no more chaos in the foreseeable future).


The Angular Momentum Exchange

With the Energy Exchange, the total energy budgets for the four planets involved always had to balance at the beginning, at the end and at the finish of each of the four stages.  As it was in the energy exchange, so it also was with angular momentum budgets.

Energy shifts and momentum shifts also involve sudden tides in the oceans, crustal earthquakes, magma tides, elastic crustal bending, volcanic eruptions, planetary magnetic field reunions, spin axis shifts and changes in satellite orbits.  But all these eight conditions are insignificant if an analysis of energy and momentum budgets is carried to just six decimals, as is the case here.  To carry it farther to ten or twelve decimals and include these factors would be to present a false sense of extreme accuracy.

The equation for angular momentum for each planet is as follows:

2 pi x mass x sq. root (semi-major axis x [1 - ecc.2 ] )


Table XII - The Angular Momentum Exchange

January 24, 701 B.C.E.
Planet
Mass
1/2 “x” axis
Orbital Eccentricity
Angular Momentum
Old Venus     0.814988  0.726143  0.006000       4.363531
Old Earth     1.012303  0.993367  0.015000       6.338644
Old Mars     0.107447  1.576872  0.560966       0.701808
Old Jupiter 317.799873  5.202804  0.047829 4549.409178

Angular Momentum Total - January 24, 701 B.C.E.   4560.813161
 

AFTER THE FINAL FLING BETWEEN MARS AND VENUS
Approx. Jan. 25, 701 B.C.E.
Mars gained .008514 angular momentum units
Venus lost .008514 angular momentum units
 

End of February 701 B.C.E.

Planet
Mass
1/2 “x” axis
Orbital Eccentricity
Angular Momentum
New Venus     0.814988  0.723332  0.006783       4.355017
Old Earth     1.012303  0.993367  0.015000       6.336345
Interim Mars     0.107447  1.685225  0.585742       0.710322
Old Jupiter 317.799873  5.202804  0.047829 4549.409178

Angular Momentum Total - February 1, 701 B.C.E.   4560.813161
 

AFTER THE FINAL WALTZ BETWEEN MARS AND THE EARTH
March 20-21, 701 B.C.E.
The Earth-Moon system gained .020954 ang. mom. units
Mars lost .020954 ang. mom. units
 

End of March 701 B.C.E.

Planet
Mass
1/2 “x” axis
Orbital Eccentricity
Angular Momentum
New Venus     0.814988  0.723332  0.006783       4.355017
New Earth     1.012303  1.000000  0.016718       6.359598
Interim Mars     0.107447  1.523691  0.561858       0.689368
Old Jupiter 317.799873  5.202804  0.047829 4549.409178

Angular Momentum Total - 700 B.C.E.   4560.813161
 

THE FINAL SLOWER TWEAKING OF MARS BY JUPITER
March 22, 701 B.C.E. for the next 30 years or more
Mars gained .140331 angular momentum units
Jupiter lost .140331 angular momentum units
 
 

Planet
Mass
1/2 “x” axis
Orbital Eccentricity
Angular Momentum
New Venus     0.814988  0.723332  0.006783       4.355017
New Earth     1.012303  1.000000  0.016718       6.359598
Mars     0.107447  1.523692  0.093387       0.829699
Jupiter 317.799873  5.202804  0.048468 4549.268847

Angular Momentum Total - Modern Age     4560.813161
 

Tables XI and XII are both condensations of the orbital changes of the planets statistically.  Table XIII is an elaborate table, including 24 categories of data.

Figure 22 portrays the positions and the orbits of Venus and Mars on the eve of the Mars-Venus Polka in January, 701 B.C.E.  Figure 25 in chapter 11 describes the positions and the orbits of Mars and the Earth as they were poised for the Final Flyby.

The Mars-Venus Fling and the Mars-Earth Final Flyby were spasms of catastrophism (and crustal diastrophism).  Each came, occurred with violent developments and were over in 24 hours.  The last stage, the interaction between Mars and Jupiter was different.  It was a slow affair, at least 30 years long and was conducted across great distances.  It produced a radical change in the Martian eccentricity, as the orbit of Mars rounded out.


Figure 22 - Positions of Mars, Venus, and Earth on the Eve
of the Mars-Venus Polka, Approximately Jan 23, 701 B.C.E.


 

Figure 23 - Geometry and Distances of The Last Mars-Venus Flyby


This model needs to be expanded into greater detail for the expert in mathematics, physics and astronomy.  It contains 24 categories of data to enlarge the picture of these two spasms of catastrophism, plus the slower influence of Jupiter from afar.  This is how Mars departed from its ancient 6:1 resonance with Jupiter and acquired a radically. changed orbital eccentricity.


The Changes To Four Planetary Orbits

Formulas And Constants

AM=Angular Momentum
SMn=Semi-Minor
SMj=Semi-Major
AM=2PI*Mass*sqr(SMj*(1-e²))
energy=(2PI²*Mass)/SMj
SMj=f/(1-e)
e=(SMj-f)/SMj
f=SMj*(1-e)
Earth mass=5.9742 * 1024 Kg
1 mile=1.609344 Km
1 au=149597870 Km
Earth period now=365.256365 days
Period for a planet=square-root((SMj3*Earth's period2)/Earth's SMj3))


Table XIII - Detailed Changes In Planetary Orbits In The 8th
Century B.C.E. - 24 Categories of Astronomical Data of the Model

PERIOD
MASS
Semi Major
Axis
Semi Minor
Axis
PLANET Kg 1024 Earth base miles au miles au
PRE-Venus flyby
Venus 4.8689 0.814988 67,500,395 0.726156 67,499,180 0.726143
Earth-Moon 6.0477 1.012303 92,339,242 0.993367 92,328,853 0.993255
Mars 0.64191 0.107447 146,579,410 1.576872 121,344,158 1.305396
Jupiter 1898.6 317.799873 483,630,834 5.202804 483,077,339 5.196850
POST-Venus
PRE-Earth flyby
Venus 4.8689 0.814988 67,237,928 0.723332 67,236,382 0.723316
Earth-Moon 6.0477 1.012303 92,339,242 0.993367 92,328,853 0.993255
Mars 0.64191 0.107447 156,651,477 1.685225 126,965,676 1.365871
Jupiter 1898.6 317.799873 483,630,834 5.202804 483,077,339 5.196850
POST-Earth flyby
PRE-Modern
Venus 4.8689 0.814988 67,237,928 0.723332 67,236,382 0.723316
Earth-Moon 6.0477 1.012303 92,955,807 1.000000 92,942,817 0.999860
Mars 0.64191 0.107447 141,635,971 1.523691 117,166,093 1.260449
Jupiter 1898.6 317.799873 483,630,834 5.202804 483,077,339 5.196850
MODERN
Venus 4.8689 0.814988 67,237,928 0.723332 67,236,382 0.723316
Earth-Moon 6.0477 1.012303 92,955,807 1.000000 92,942,817 0.999860
Mars 0.64191 0.107447 141,635,973 1.523692 141,017,014 1.517033
Jupiter 1898.6 317.799873 483,630,834 5.202804 483,062,438 5.196689

 
 
PERIOD
Perihelion
 
Aphelion
 
PLANET
miles
au
miles
au
PRE-Venus
flyby
Venus 67,095,393 0.721799 67,905,398 0.730513
Earth-Moon 90,954,153 0.978467 93,724,331 1.008268
Mars 64,353,387 0.692301 228,805,433 2.461443
Jupiter 460,499,288 4.953959 506,762,381 5.451648
POST-Venus
PRE-Earth flyby
Venus 66,781,880 0.718426 67,693,976 0.728238
Earth-Moon 90,954,153 0.978467 93,724,331 1.008268
Mars 64,894,175 0.698119 248,408,779 2.672332
Jupiter 460,499,288 4.953959 506,762,381 5.451648
POST-Earth flyby
PRE-Modern
Venus 66,781,880 0.718426 67,693,976 0.728238
Earth-Moon 91,401,818 0.983283 94,509,796 1.016718
Mars 62,056,734 0.667594 221,215,207 2.379789
Jupiter 460,499,288 4.953959 506,762,381 5.451648
MODERN
Venus 66,781,880 0.718426 67,693,976 0.728238
Earth-Moon 91,401,818 0.983283 94,509,796 1.016718
Mars 128,409,085 1.381399 154,862,861 1.665984
Jupiter 460,190,167 4.950634 507,071,502 5.454974

 
 
 
PERIOD
Eccentricity
PERIOD
PERIOD
RATIO
PLANET
 
Modern days
to Earth
to Jupiter
PRE-Venus
flyby
Venus 0.006000 226.017716 0.625000 0.052142
Earth-Moon 0.015000 361.628345 1.000000 0.083427
Mars 0.560966 723.256691 2.000000 0.166855
Jupiter 0.047829 4334.649423 11.986476 1.000000
POST-Venus
PRE-Earth flyby
Venus 0.006783 224.700734 0.621358 0.051838
Earth-Moon 0.015000 361.628345 1.000000 0.083427
Mars 0.585742 799.069854 2.209644 0.184345
Jupiter 0.047829 4334.649423 11.986476 1.000000
POST-Earth flyby
PRE-Modern
Venus 0.006783 224.700734 0.615186 0.051838
Earth-Moon 0.016718 365.256365 1.000000 0.084264
Mars 0.561858 686.978823 1.880813 0.158485
Jupiter 0.047829 4334.649423 11.867417 1.000000
MODERN
Venus 0.006783 224.700734 0.615186 0.051838
Earth-Moon 0.016718 365.256365 1.000000 0.084264
Mars 0.093387 686.978839 1.880813 0.158485
Jupiter 0.048468 4334.649423 11.867417 1.000000

 
 
 
PERIOD
Energy
Angular
Semi Major
Semi Minor
Perihelion
PLANET
 
Momentum
Change
Change
Change
PRE-Venus
flyby
Venus -22.153944 4.363531 262,467 262,799 313,513
Earth-Moon -20.115482 6.338644 -616,565 -613,963 -447,665
Mars -1.345017 0.701808 4,943,437 -19,672,856 -64,055,698
Jupiter -1205.718718 4549.409178 0 14,901 309,121
Total -1249.333160 4560.813161
POST-Venus
PRE-Earth flyby
Venus -22.240423 4.355017 -262,467 -262,799 -313,513
Earth-Moon -20.115482 6.338644 0 0 0
Mars 1.258537 0.710322 10,072,067 5,621,518 518 540,788
Jupiter -1205.718718 4549.409178 0 0 0
Total 1249.333160 4560.813161
POST-Earth flyby
PRE-Modern
Venus -22.240423 4.355017 0 0 0
Earth-Moon  -19.982058 6.359598 616,565 613,963 447,665
Mars -1.391961 0.689368 -15,015,507 -9,799,583 -2,837,441
Jupiter -1205.718718 4549.409178 0 0 0
Total 1249.333160 4560.813161
MODERN
Venus -22.240423 4.355017 0 0 0
Earth-Moon  -19.982058 6.359598 0 0 0
Mars 1.391961 0.829699 2 23,850,921 66,352,351
Jupiter -1205.718718 4549.268847 0 -14,901 -309,121
Total 1249.333160 4560.813161

 
 
 
PERIOD
Aphelion
Eccentricity
Period
Energy
AM
PLANET
Change
Change
Change
Change
Change
PRE-Venus
flyby
Venus 211,422 -0.000783 1.316982 0.086479 0.008514
Earth-Moon -785,465 -0.001717 -3.628020 -0.133424 -0.020954
Mars 73,942,572 0.467579 36.277851 0.046944 -0.127891
Jupiter -309,121 -0.000639 0.000000 0.000000 0.140331
Total 0.000000 0.000000
POST-Venus
PRE-Earth flyby
Venus -211,422 0.000783 -1.316982 -0.086479 -0.008514
Earth-Moon 0 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
Mars 19,603,346 0.024776 75.813163 0.086479 0.008514
Jupiter 0 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
Total 0.000000 0.000000
POST-Earth
flyby PRE-Modern
Venus 0 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
Earth-Moon 785,465 0.001717 3.628020 0.133424 0.020954
Mars -27,193,572 -0.023884 -112.091031 -0.133424 -0.020954
Jupiter 0 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
Total 0.000000 0.000000
MODERN
Venus 0 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
Earth-Moon 0 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
Mars -66,352,346 -0.468471 0.000016 0.000000 0.140331
Jupiter 309,121 0.000639 0.000000 0.000000 -0.140331
Total 0.000000 0.000000

 

VENUS.  Mars made an inside flyby of Venus at about 29,300 miles at its closest.  Venus yanked Mars outward; Mars yanked Venus inward.  The orbit of Venus shrunk; its semi-major axis was lessened by some 262,467 miles, or 0.389%.  Its period was reduced by 1.317 days, or 0.583%.  In its new orbit Venus began to receive 0.6% more solar radiation than formerly.  The hot planet became slightly hotter.

The amount of energy that Venus lost and Mars gained during its last Mars polka was .086479 energy units.  The amount of energy the Earth gained during its last Mars waltz was .133424 energy units, or 154.285% as much as Venus lost.  If the closest distance during the last Mars-Earth waltz was 27,000 miles, it calculates that the closest distance of the last Mars-Venus polka was approximately 29,300 miles.

The new period for Venus became 224.7 days, down from its ancient 226.017716 days.  Its year shortened by 0.583%.

JUPITER.  Jupiter's distance from the Sun, its semi-major axis did not change. Its eccentricity, or oblateness, increased from .047829 to .048468.  This is a increase of 1.336%, or one part in 74.85.

Jupiter is 2,957 times as massive as little Mars.  When Mars rounded out, 100.191% of its decrease in eccentricity (rounding out) was caused by Jupiter, 5.108% was caused by the Earth and -5.299% was caused by Venus.  Mars left its former 6:1 resonance with Jupiter.  This change, and Jupiter's huge remote mass, is what caused Jove's energy to remain unchanged.

MARS.  During these three cosmic scenes, the length of the semi-major axis of little Mars decreased, but only by 4,943,437 miles, or 3.37%.  However, Venus caused its x-axis to increase by 6.87%.  But the Earth decreased the red planet's distance from the Sun by an immense 10.24%. This is one reflection of the passionate, energetic nature of the final Mars-Earth waltz.

During this three-act drama, the period of Mars was decreased from 723+ days to 686.98, a decrease of over 36 days.  With the changes in eccentricity, the new Mars never comes closer to the Earth than 25.6 million miles.

In the old catastrophic scenario, on this occasion Mars came within an estimated 27,000 miles of the Earth, planet center to center.  Some, possibly 5% of the ancient flybys were even closer (but they were of the opposite or inside geometry).  The Noah's Flood Flyby, - 2484 was such an occasion; the Long Day of Joshua Flyby, - 1404, was another.

THE EARTH.  The Earth's last waltz with Mars was close and passionate.  Their planetary magnetic fields united in space for ten or fifteen hours, while their gravitys “fought” each other's.  Then, after a brief magnetic tryst in space, that briefly unified field was ripped apart, for the last time.

In the Catastrophic Era, Mars flybys charged and recharged the Earth's geomagnetic field, which decayed slowly between flybys.  But after the last flyby, the Earth's geomagnetic field strength has began to decay at a rate of a half life every 1,350 years, with no recharging.

The Earth's average distance to the Sun, its semi-major axis, was increased by 616,000+ miles, or 0.668% In the new era, the Earth receives almost 1.5% less solar radiation, and it has become slightly colder.

The Earth's spin axis decreased an estimated 0.452% from 1442 minutes to 1436 minutes (sidereal).  The Earth's period increased from 360 old days to 365.256 new days.  About 30.97% of the increase in day count per year (5.256 days) was due to spin rate increase.  And 69.03% was from orbital expansion.

Thus it was that after this last waltz, dozens of ancient 360-day calendars in various civilizations all simultaneously became unsatisfactory and obsolete.  A historical analysis reports that all ancient calendar reorganizations followed the year 701 B.C.E. by various lapses of time.

As was mentioned earlier, the ancients had an approximate 360-day year, but it wasn't exact.  It was a measure of rotations in the Earth's old year --- the Earth's old spin rate --- versus the Earth's old orbit.  The ancient Egyptians had two calendars.  One was the 360-day per year calendar.  The other, more precise and apparently technically better, was their Venus calendar.

Tables XI, XI and XIII incorporate this information, and provide enough information to calculate the loss of period, of energy and of angular momentum for old Venus in its last Mars-Venus Polka.  Compared to the Earth's old year, 1.000, the period of the old Venus orbit was .62500, or exactly five-eighths of the Earth's period.  The current comparison is Venus at .61519 of the Earth's period.

THE MOON.  Ancient civilizations on at least four continents had the lunar period at 30 days.  The modern sidereal period is 29.53 days.  This means that when Mars passed between the Earth and the Moon (for the first time in 701 B.C.E.), the red planet was some eight times closer to the Earth than to the Moon (at its closest distance).

In so doing, not only did Mars pull the Earth out some 616,000 miles.  The red planet also pulled the Moon inward.  The inward change is estimated at 2,350 miles, or about 1% in distance from an old semi-major axis of 24l,200 miles Now it is 238,850 miles.


On Scientific Discoveries

The problem of solving simultaneously energy and angular momentum exchanges simultaneously has consumed more than some five years.  It has involved numerous conversations involving Ronald R. Hatch, Michael T. Lute, Samuel R. Windsor and Donald W. Patten.  The conclusions are only as good as are the assumptions that have been made.  .

It is shown that the orbit of Venus was in 8:5 resonance with the Earth, when it served for long term Egyptian calendars.  In this case, since the Earth was in 2:1 resonance with Mars, in 5:8 orbital resonance with Venus, in 12:1 resonance with Jupiter, and as it happens, in 85:1 resonance with Uranus.

The ancients, including author of the Book of Job, discussed an ancient harmony of the spheres in the heavens.  Perhaps this work in Chapters 9 and 10 has explained what that ancient harmony was.

Many times in the history of science, there have been feelings of elation in making scientific discoveries after a long, grueling and eventually successful search.  It was so with scientists in the past, such as Johannes Kepler, Louis Pasteur, Claude Bernard, D. F. Frazer-Harris, James Clerk-Maxwell and many others.  With respect to the work of R.E.D. Clark of England, the words of Kepler, Pasteur, Bernard, Frazer-Harris and R. E. D. Clark are cited.
 

The intense pleasure I have received from this discovery can never be told in words.  - Johannes Kepler [n3]

When you have at last arrived at certainty, your joy is one of the greatest than can ever be felt by a human soul.  - Louis Pasteur

The joy of discovery is certainly the loveliest that the mind of man can ever feel.  - Claude Bernard

The joy of scientific discovery is one of the most exalted human emotions.  - D. F. Frazer-Harris

We have asked questions both about the beginnings of science and about the way we think.  Let us now consider scientific ideas as they take shape in the minds of discoverers.  First, let us discuss some case histories of “hunches” - flashes of creative intuition which bring new ideas into our world.  - R. E. D.  Clark [n4]

Conclusion

Understanding energy shifts is one essential in comprehending the increase of the Earth's orbit from an ancient 360 days to the modern 365.256 days.  It is also an essential in understanding the shift down in the orbit of Mars from 720 old days to 686.98 modern days.  Additionally, it is of some interest to comprehend the shift down in the Moon's orbit from the ancient 30 days to 29.53 modern days.  .

Understanding especially ANGULAR MOMENTUM shifts are essential in comprehending the rounding out of the Martian orbit.  The Earth helped marginally, but Jupiter's influence was by far the dominant factor.  The rounding out of the Martian orbit is what ended the catastrophic era.  It happened at the time of the vernal equinox of 701 B.C.E., the night of March 20-21, the final celestial Passover. (Annual religious Passovers have occurred in Judaism annually ever since the time of Moses, when the Hebrews fled and achieved freedom from Egyptian bondage on a Passover night.).

Tables XI and XII are condensations, and in brief illustrate statistically what happened to the orbits of Venus, the Earth, Mars and Jupiter at the end of the Catastrophic Era.  Table XIII provides a wider range of information, 24 categories rich in details.  This table is addressed to experts in the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Story 34 concerns the aging of the Solar System.  As it was in the case of the asteroids, so it has been with the planets Mars, the Earth and Jupiter.  When orbiting planets are in orbit resonances, IT IS A SIGN OF THE YOUTHFULNESS OF THAT SYSTEM.

In experiencing catastrophes and their perturbations, planets, like asteroids, have shifted increasingly away from ancient resonances.  Order has decreased.  The shift into non-resonant orbits is AN INDICATION OF AGING HAVING OCCURRED, AND IT IS INDICATIVE OF A RECENTLY FORMED SOLAR SYSTEM.  The Solar System thus has passed from infancy into childhood.  Note the many levels of evidence cited in “The Recent Organization of the Solar System”. [n5]

The number of Mars-Venus flybys is unknown, but the surface of Venus does have a battered physical geography.  That battered geography of its crust is not a topic in this volume.  It might be that Venus experienced as many Mars-Venus Wars as did the Earth.  It might be that they were, on average, equally severe.  The consensus among geologists is that there seems to have been 170 paleomagnetic polarity reversals - 170 Mars flybys.

Story 35 is that the orbit of Mars converted from one of high eccentricity, ONE OF .561, to a radically changed to orbit, one moderately low in eccentricity, one that rounded out to .093.  This occurred while energy diminished only 3.49% in the process.

It cannot be proved, but it is probable that in the events of -701, the orbits of Venus and the Earth each experienced a modest or minute increase in orbit eccentricity.  Clearly, Venus experienced a decrease in orbit size whereas the Earth, experiencing an energetic outside flyby by Mars, acquired a somewhat enlarged orbit.

How many scars of Mars is needed to establish it as the cosmic felon that destroyed Astra ... and assaulted Venus and the Earth.  The red planet has one badly battered, cratered up hemisphere, and one remarkably serene hemisphere with few (only 7%) of the Martian craters.

However, the Serene Hemisphere of Mars has one massive rift system, two huge bulges and several enormous volcanoes.  Its badly bombarded cratered hemisphere contain 93% of all of its craters.  Its ancient orbit indicates it went out to where the asteroids now roam, and that it was the felon causing the death by fragmentation of a former planet.  Only 5,000 fragments (asteroids) remain.  The poxed Deimos and Phobos are two of them.

The poxed asteroid Gaspra, speckled with craterlets, is also a scar of Mars, and possibly was part of its former ring system.  The craterlets on Deimos and Phobos also are scars of Mars.  So are its dry river beds and its ancient cometary tail, two more scars of Mars, one scar being physical, one literary in nature.

The twin spin axis tilts of Mars and the Earth also are scars of the Mars-Earth Wars.  Thus, there are scars of Mars from within the crust of Mars, its spin axis shifts and its bulges.  The scars of Mars are on its surface, its craters, its rifts, its volcanoes.  And scars are seen beyond its surface, craterlets on the surfaces of its two tiny satellites.  The physical geography of Mars and its satellites is fascinating (to say the least).  And instructive.

Story 36 in our skyscraper of catastrophic cosmology is that calculations now have been made SHOWING HOW AND WHEN MARS SHIFTED INTO ITS MODERN ORBIT.  It was not achieved billions of years ago, not millions of years past, not even hundreds of thousands of year ago.  It was achieved 2,700 years ago.  All gradualists please take note.

Some astronomers have supposed that it is impossible to reconcile energy shifts and simultaneous angular momentum shifts to move the Earth from a 360-day to a 365+-day orbit and Mars from a 720-day orbit to one of 687 days.  Included is a shift in eccentricity from .561 to .093.  Three such skeptics have assumed, mistakenly, they were facing a three-body problem (Earth, Mars and Sun).  In fact, they were facing a five-body issue, the Sun, Venus, the Earth-Moon system, Mars and Jupiter.

The energy totals agree at the beginning and at the end, plus at the end of each stage.  So do the angular momentum totals.  Mars went out into the asteroid belt to destroy the former planet Astra.  The red planet came inside the orbit of Venus and tortured that planet occasionally.  The perplexing problem is solved, but it mandates a paradigm shift in thinking.

Simultaneously, this model describes (a) the rounding out of the ancient orbit of Mars, (b) the slight shortening of the Moon's period, and (c) the increase of the Earth's period from about 360 old days to 365.256365 modern days.

HOMER.  Reportedly a blind bard, yet Homer understood something about Ares assaults and some aspects of planetary catastrophism, some 2,850 years ago.  He described Ares assault scenes early on in The Iliad.  That writing and one other, the Odyssey, has made Homer famous across the centuries, and even across three millenniums.

If blind old Homer could, in part, understand Ares assaults and planetary catastrophism, then with all of their modern resources, there is no reason late 20th century astronomers and geologists cannot understand this also.  This is despite the fact that they themselves, as young students, were victims of 150 years of mistaken anticlerical gradualist dogmas.

The challenge is for 21st century scholardom to rise out of this 18th and 19th century stupor, and from its 20th century cosmological malaise.

Story 37 is the Barringer Crater which is in Northern Arizona, diameter 4,150 feet, depth 570 feet.  It apparently was a result of a Mars asteroid hitting Northern Arizona.  It was in an era of which the Hopi Indians still retain memory of the occasion.  This Arizona asteroid accident likely had been part of the former ring system of Mars, companions of Deimos and Phobos.

The fall of an asteroidal body and the creation of the Barringer Crater is in Hopi ancient traditions and stories.  The ancient Hopi were the mysterious Anasazi.  Indians have a long memory, and this is an illustration.  The Barringer Crater is also one of the Scars of Mars.  Ironically, this particular scar from Mars is located only 45 miles distant from the Percival Lowell observatory at Flagstaff.  Lowell was the most famous advocate of the 20th century “men on Mars”.

The reader now is 74% of the way to an integrated system, or paradigm of ancient history with ancient geological upheavals and astronomical upheavals..

As it is with the view at the Space Needle Restaurant in Seattle, or climbing Mount Rainier, so it is with this model.  As elevation increases, the more spectacular and majestic the celestial scenery becomes.
 
 

End of Chapter 10  -  Angular Momentum Exchange


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