==| Chapter 1  |==
The Little Bang Theory
  ==| Chapter 2  |==
The Tharsis Bulge of Mars
  ==| Chapter 3  |==
Mars Puts On A Little Weight
  ==| Chapter 4  |==
The Biggest Volcanoes
  ==| Chapter 5  |==
Where Astra Fragmented
  ==| Chapter 6  |==
Ancient Ring System of Mars
  ==| Chapter 7  |==
The Flood of Mars - Its Ice Age
  ==| Chapter 8  |==
Tilts of Mars and The Earth
  ==| Chapter 9  |==
The Energy Exchange
  ==| Chapter 10  |==
Angular Momentum Exchange
  ==| Chapter 11  |==
The First Nine Clues
  ==| Chapter 12  |==
Clues Ten, Eleven And Twelve
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CHAPTER 8
The Twin Tilts of Mars and The Earth
 
MARCELLUS;
It faded on the crowing of the cock.
Some say, that ever 'gainst that season comes
Wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated,
The bird of dawning singeth all night long:
And then, they say, no spirit dare stir abroad;
The nights are wholesome; THEN NO PLANETS STRIKE,
No fairy takes, nor witch hat power to charm;
So hallow'd and so gracious is the time.

HORATIO;
So have I heard, and do in part believe it. 

Wm. Shakespeare. [n1]

As recently as Shakespeare's time in England, less than 400 years ago, apparently there still remained the tradition of ancient planetary catastrophes.  They even included details about the ancient appearance of a planet - and perhaps its two satellites - “leashed hounds, crouching at his heels.”  [Perhaps this is a reference to Phobos and Deimos.]

Another question is, “Where would Shakespeare get the idiom of “the port” of Mars?”  The American Heritage dictionary says that “port” is an archaic term for the cover of a porthole.  How would Shakespeare conceive that Mars was seen through some sort of a covered window, or porthole?

The Hamlet passage talks of the legend that when “no planets strike,” it was a wholesome time.  The converse is implied, that when planets do strike, it is not “a wholesome time.”  Horatio, Hamlet's friend, agrees with Marcellus, suggesting that he, too, was aware of ancient catastrophic legends, or traditions.


Introduction

The Earth's rate of rotation is very similar to that of Mars.  They are 98.2% alike.

Earth Rate of Rotation 1,436 Minutes
Mars Rate of Rotation l,477 Minutes
Similarity 98.2%
There are three pairs of twin spins in this Solar System, which was treated in Volume I, Chapter 4, entitled “The Acquisition of Planetary Spin Rates.”  This acquisition occurred during the primordial period when both the Earth and Mars orbited Little Brother, and were very distant from the Sun.  That was the era of the “First Orbit of Mars.”

The two spin axis tilts of Mars and the Earth also are very similar.  They are 97.7% alike.

Earth Spin Axis Tilt 23.44°
Mars Spin Axis Tilt 23.98°
Similarity 97.7%
These pairs of similarities have been known since the time of the famous astronomer, Frederick Wilhelm Herschel.  In 1781, the same year he discovered Uranus, Herschel discovered the axial tilt of Mars.  Herschel proceeded to compare the similarity of the Mars tilt to that of our planet.  He concluded that Mars had a climate much like our own.  In this bit of wistful thinking, Herschel became the forerunner of Percival Lowell.

Traditional astronomers have come up with an inadequate explanation as to why Mars has two tiny asteroid-like satellites.  There is a difference between having a bad explanation and having no explanation at all.  There has been no explanation at all for the twin spin rates of Mars and the Earth until that one was advanced in “The Recent Organization of the Solar System,” Volume I of this series.

Though the twin tilts of Mars and the Earth have been known for over 200 years, to date, traditional astronomers have given no reason at all for this condition, other than “Coincidence.”  “Coincidence” and “chance” have been somewhat acceptable as reasons; actually they are admissions of ignorance.  But ignorance is a fair response.  No reason at all is better than a bad reason.


The Earth As A Gyroscope

The properties of a gyroscope first were studied in the early 19th century in Germany by Bohnenberger and in England by Lang.  Gyros have properties that seem strange to people unfamiliar with their unique behavior.  For instance, if a ball at rest is pushed, it retreats from the force at an angle of 180°.

If it is a spinning ball, a gyro is pushed sideways, 90° to the torque, at right angles.  A torque applied to a gyro also will cause tiny change in its speed of rotation.  That change in spin rate is always minute, and however little, it is always an increase.  Thus, it requires a long series of many repeating torque’s to create a significant increase in spin of a gyro.

Foucault, a French physicist and a showman, demonstrated the famous Foucault Pendulum in Paris in the 1851.  It created a circus-like atmosphere, to the amazement and delight of the citizens of Paris.  Then a curiosity, modern society has since found numerous practical applications for gyroscopes.

Before understanding the cause of the twin tilts of these two spin axes, it is necessary to identify Mars and the Earth for what they actually are.  They are a just a pair of gyroscopes, orbiting at tens of thousands of miles per hour in space.  The smaller gyro has an equatorial diameter of 4,212 miles and a spin rate of 1477 minutes.  The larger gyro has an equatorial diameter of 7,927 miles, and rotates a bit faster, in 1436 minutes.

A gyroscope is an object that spins about an internal axis.  In industry, usually they are made of a metal such as steel.  But gyros also may be made of glass, wood or plastic.  A plastic top, spinning on a table, is a gyro, as is a merry-go-round at a carnival, a rotating wheel on a car or motorcycle or a bicycle, the armature of a motor, etc.  Even a spinning pair of dice are gyros.  These gyros all function within the Earth's field of gravity, which is always a significant force.

In the Solar System, in space, gyros function independent of the Earth's gravity, and do not necessarily have crusty surfaces.  Jupiter is a rapidly-spinning gyro composed of hot gases, a 87,000-mile diameter and a 590-minute spin rate.  Saturn is a gas gyro also, with a diameter of 71,500 miles and a spin rate 602 minutes.  Both of these gas gyros have no crusty, solid parts at all.  (Like Mars and the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter also have twin spin rates).


Torsion

Torsion is the process of applying two opposing forces to an object where the forces are not “in line.”  This 8th chapter involves a study of “torsion past” on the gyro Earth and on the gyro Mars.  When there was a flyby, the angle between the two planets was a moving angle, and the angle to one was the same angle to the other.  In a flyby scene, the gravity of Mars put a torque on the Earth, and at a similar angle, the gravity of the Earth put a torque on Mars.

THE BOMARC MISSILE.  On the Earth, so far, all but one gyro has been solid.  There is one exception to solid gyros of which we are aware.  It was the Bomarc Missile, a fluid-fueled projectile.  It was a projectile in flight, like a spinning bullet or a rotating artillery shell.  With respect to its explosive charge, its casing and its guidance system, the Bomarc missile functioned as a solid gyro.

But when spinning, it kept missing the target, badly.  It turned out that its liquid fuel did not function like normal, solid components of a gyro.  The molecules in fluid gyros function according to an entirely different set of principles than do the molecules in solid gyros.


Liquid Gyros: A New Field For Research

When a torque is put on a gyro, its response is to “precess.”  If it is a fluid, one effect is that its spin axis relocates on the gyro, as well as toward surrounding space.  This is not true of solid gyros.

An effect is that its spin axis shifts, not 180° away from a push, or torque, but rather, it shifts 90°, which is perpendicular to the push, or torque.  In the case of gyros rotating in the counter-clockwise mode, like Mars and the Earth, shifts of tilt were 90° to the right.  For clockwise spin, the shifts are 90° to the left.

In solid gyros, when they precess, the entire gyro shifts as a unit.  All molecules retain their pre-torque partner molecules, and all molecules shift in lock step.

It has been discovered that when fluid gyros precess, the molecules therein do not shift in lock step.  Rather, all molecules retain their original velocities, but they change places with other molecules.  Instead, fluid molecules relocate.

For instance, the motions of fluid molecules, when flowing in pipes around 90-degree ells, are instructive.  When flowing around a 90-degree turn, do some of the molecules increase in velocity and others decrease so as to make a smooth turn?  Do the molecules play “crack the whip” and some in making a turn go faster than others?  No, not at all.

In the case of water flowing around a turn in a pipe, all water molecules want to maintain their original, uniform velocities.  To do this, going around a 90-degree turn, EACH MOLECULE MUST SHIFT POSITION.  They spiral around the 90-degree turn, and in so doing, each molecule ends up surrounded by new molecules.  In this way, the laws of energy and momentum conservation are met.

But for solid gyros, all molecules maintain lock step with each other.  This is why the Bomarc missiles required a different set of equations for its liquid fuel.

Figure 17 illustrates the motion of molecules, flowing in a pipe, making a 90° turn.  Fluid gyros, and the motion of their molecules, essentially have yet to be studied, and especially in an environment independent of the Earth's gravity.

Figure 18 illustrates what is expected, from engineering principles, in flow patterns of magma inside a planet's crust.  For molecules of magma, whatever their individual velocities before the spin axis shift, those same velocities will be maintained both during and after the flyby event.

Molecules near the spin axis have low velocities.  Molecules in the Earth's magma just under the equator have high velocities.  For instance, molecules under the equatorial crust of the Earth rotate at velocities of 1,030 mph.  Other molecules within a mile of the spin axis rotate at velocities of .3 mph or less.  Liquid molecules inside Mars or the Earth display a wide variety of velocities.  Their velocity depends on the spin rate of the gyro and their distance from the spin axis.

In the case of the Earth or Mars, complexities ensue from the fact that bulges try to form in the liquid mantle, stressing the under side of the crust.  The bulges form quickly because the meat of the approach of Mars is only four hours or less long.  And the meat of its retreat is of similar duration.  (Mars advanced about 120,000 miles upon the Earth in a four hour span of time.)


Figure 17 - Molecules of a Fluid Twisting Through a Turn


 

Figure 18 - Molecules of Fluid Magma in Flyby Conditions


A bulge forms within the Earth, facing Mars; the bulge stresses the crust just above the bulge.  The “flat” formed directly opposite the bulge also stresses the crust.  Both the bulge and the flat moved at rapid rates due to two reasons, (1) to the rapid approach of Mars, and (2) to the Earth's internal spin rate.

That rate of bulge increase is eight fold for each halving of the distance between Mars and the Earth.  It is the tidal ratio, mass over distance CUBED.  Thus the pressure under the bulge on the Earth at 30,000 miles was 64 times (8 x 8) as great as that subcrustal pressure at 120,000 miles, only three hours earlier.

The bulge rapidly expanded facing Mars during the close approaches of Mars, but the bulge also relocated 30° of longitude per hour due to the Earth's spin.  Both bulge-moving functions occurred simultaneously.  Next, the bulge contracted just as rapidly as it expanded when Mars departed and the flyby was over.

The Earth is part fluid gyro, magma, and part solid gyro, the crust.  The crust is 0.006% of the total Earth mass.  The fluid magma and mantle are about 99.39%.  In addition the Earth mass is about 0.00002% water, its sloshing, uncapped, tide-traveling oceans. This is merely an introduction to the complexities involved on a planet like the Earth with a resisting, but flexible crust.  That crust was “tortured” - pressured with suddenness, rinsed from on top by oceans and flexed from underneath by fluid magma.

The elastic crust of the Earth has an elastic-plastic threshold.  When that threshold is exceeded by sudden pressures from subcrustal magma tides, the crust shears, or rifts, or tears, or up thrusts.  Hours later, it collapses back, only in part after the uplifts, shears, rifts and tears.

In short, the result was sudden crustal deformation.  The formation of mountain ranges tended to be in arcs, which followed a great circle.  Uplifts were followed by a partial collapse of both mountain uplifts and intermontane basins, under which magma had evacuated.  The behavior of the Earth's thin crust was a response to the need for sudden, temporary relief from equally sudden internal distresses deep under our planet's crust.

A solid gyro precesses by moving its plane of spin.  That is, in a solid gyro, the “North Pole” always remains in the same place on the spinning surface.  It is not so on a liquid gyro.  A liquid gyro precesses by the molecules moving so that the “North Pole” shifts to a different “place” within the liquid, and hence a different place on the thin external crust also.

The Earth is two gyros, one is solid one, the crust surrounding the liquid gyro.  The liquid aspect dominates the solid one, 99:1.  This means that not only does the tilt of the spin axis change relative to the ecliptic.  The equator and the two flat spots on the crust with zero rotational velocity (the North and South Poles) also relocate. [n2]

Yet another aspect is that the crust is mostly (72%) covered by oceans.  Salt water tides were not capped, and were not as easily constrained as were subcrustal tides.  The oceanic tides overflowed, creating vast, sudden layers of strata, usually on the continents where silts, sediments and rocks could be first entrained.

When the waters drained off, the sediments became strata, sometimes rich in marine fossils such as fossil silted in fishes.  And the strata often was rich in terrestrial fossils such as dinosaurs, trees in petrification, etc.

For individual molecules in the subcrustal region, under flyby conditions they began to surge around inside the crust.  The sudden, new bulges, and other molecules flowed across the two suddenly enhanced polar flat spots.  Meanwhile the bulges were changing location, on an east to west, due to the west-to-east rotation of the Earth.

For individual molecules, as they traveled around the bulges and away from the flat spots, molecule positions shifted in great catastrophic surges, while yet maintaining original velocity.  The crust was tortured both from within (surging magma tides) and from without (vast, sudden oceanic tidal swells.)

The crust under flyby conditions, especially under the closer flybys, came under great stresses, especially where it was thinnest and weakest.  As was just mentioned, the crust is elastic, but there is a threshold, or limit to its flex.  When that threshold was exceeded, mountain ranges were thrust up as the crust split.  Crustal deformation is just one of the responses of the crust to flyby torture.  It is merely a response to sudden internal distress.  Immense external oceanic tides occurred simultaneously.

Great bleedings occurred on the Earth's surface; geologists call them basaltic traps (but without understanding their origin.)  One such basaltic trap, the Deccan Trap, outflowed suddenly over 160,000 sq. miles of Central India.  At the same time, oceanic surges came into play.  In places, oceanic fish were fossilized in Central India, along with various terrestrial vegetation, as cool salt water, entrained silts and sediments, and hot magma all mixed.

For the Pacific Northwest, the Columbia Plateau is another basaltic trap, perhaps the third largest on our planet.  It is intermontane, and extends from the edges of British Columbia to the edges of Utah and Nevada.  Eastern Washington, Eastern Oregon and much of Southern Idaho were engulfed in this original basaltic outflow.  Lava outflowed up to 70 mph at the time.

Arizona is marked by many smaller “piles of basalt stone”, erupting through smaller rips in the crust.  Like crustal deformation and oceanic tides, basaltic traps were another mechanism to assist the Earth in badly needed relief of its sudden, internal distress.

Evidence indicates lava flows forming the Deccan and the Columbia Plateau flowed at velocities up to 70 mph as they bled out onto our planet's surface.  This is merely a reflection of suddenness and the intensity of the gravitational crisis during the crisis flyby hours.

In addition to the planetary gravitational crisis, there was a second crisis, one for the Earth's geomagnetic field.  The two planetary magnetic fields of Mars and the Earth briefly UNITED in space, Earth's north pole field and the Martian south pole field.

Hours later they were quickly torn apart, leaving both planets with “paleomagnetic” polarity reversals.  The geomagnetic north pole and the geomagnetic south pole of the Earth switched places within a matter of hours.  When a basaltic trap flowed, or a volcanic eruption was renewed, the magnetic polarity of that hour was recorded for posterity (us) in the cooling iron in the virgin lava flow.  When the next eruption occurred, that polarity reversal also was recorded for posterity (20th century geologists.)

This chapter merely touches on the edges of the complexities involving the Earth's responses to Mars flybys.  More important to this chapter is what happened to the Earth's and the Martian two spin axes, and how they attained their two twin tilts.  One is at 23.44° and the other is 23.98°.

The sum of the relocation of the molecules of magma produced the spin axis precession.  As each molecule was forced to find a new path, the average plane of spin changed.  The new Earth's spin axis was simply the center line about which the new average of the molecules of magma spun.  So, in an over all sense, it was rather simple in consequence, even if it was complex in its process.

The Earth and Mars suffered spin axis shifts in free (frictionless) space.  This is not like a top rotating on a table, suffering a sudden torque or two.  In our mundane world, in the environment of the Earth's gravity, the table top applies friction, slowing the rotating top.  In the Mars-Earth Wars, there was no table top to slow the process down, or to exert a drag.


Mixing Silanes, Carbides And Water

During Mars flybys, much blending occurred in the magma's chemistry due to sudden, volatile mixing of magma molecules.  Sometimes the blend in the mix was (a) silanes and (b) carbides in the presence of (c) water.  Carbides are compounds of carbon and another metal.  Silanes in the magma are silicon hydrides, complex compounds of silicon and hydrogen, of the general formula Sin H2 n+2.

When they mix, there is a chemical reaction, producing new compounds.  The silane's silicon abandons the hydrogen in favor of binding with oxygen.  That reaction produces (1) silica, (2) silicon dioxide, (3) more crust.  Water's oxygen ions also abandon hydrogen to bind with silicon, more silica yet.

The abandoned hydrogen ions wandered around, like new divorcees, along with some newly wandering carbon ions, that also were new divorcees.  As leftovers from previous marriages, they also considered uniting in the presence of (a) high pressures and (b) high temperatures.  They decided to go ahead and to unite in a second go around at pressures similar to a cracking plant.  It was simple.  Those left over ions remarried (polymerized) and became viable, virgin hydrocarbons, in pools, also known as petroleum pools.

PETROLEUM POOLS.  The primary result of this kind of mix is more silicon dioxide, which is silica, which is more crust, and a thicker crust.  The byproduct is the polymerization of hydrogen ions and carbon ions into hydrocarbons, which is done at temperatures similar to cracking plants.  The byproduct is hydrocarbons ... petroleum ... which gathered in pools. [n3]

Those chemical mixes resulted in “interesting” chemical reactions.  To modern industry, the byproduct is of more interest than is the primary product, plain old silica.  The byproducts gathered to form pools of petroleum at the upper side of the mantle.  At the present, neither oil company executives nor petroleum geologists have yet to understand the genesis of pools of petroleum (Hunt and his listeners excepted).

For petroleum geologists, an understanding of recent planetary catastrophism might result in drilling fewer dry holes, in increasing discovery of petroleum pools, and in producing surpluses, good for increasing corporate dividends.  Planetary catastrophism, Mars flybys, is (are) what created the high velocity mixing of the silanes, the carbides and water at the molecular level.

The Earth has a polar radius of 3,950 miles, of which an average of 10 to 12 miles is crust.  Approximately 99.4% of the Earth’s mass is hot magma and mantle, below the thin crust.  Such was the potential of chemical reactions in the mantle during Mars flybys in fluid gyros.  What happened to the Earth happened to Mars also.  Petroleum may well be pooled under the thick crust of Mars.

VENUS.  Venus has an even thinner crust than the Earth. By this same carbide-hydride-mix theory, and including Mars flybys, it is probable that Venus also experienced much internal mixing at the molecular level.  Hence it is probable that within and just below the crust of Venus also lie large pools of hydrocarbons, or petroleum.

Some of that petroleum apparently has found its way through its thin crust and to the surface of Venus, and then into its atmosphere.  Atmospheric pressure, from a thicker atmosphere, at the surface of Venus is 90 times what it is at the surface of the Earth.

On Venus, 97% of its thick atmosphere is carbon dioxide.  The Earth's thinner atmosphere is .00035 CO2.  These facts are supportive of the carbide-hydride mix theory for creating silica and hydrocarbons for Venus as well as for the Earth.  Hence it must be suspected that the thick carbon dioxide composition in the atmosphere of Venus is just one more of the many scars of Mars.  Petroleum pools on the Earth also are scars of Mars flybys.


Spin Axis Shift And The Final Flyby

Four aspects should be kept in mind to understand why the Mars gyro and the Earth gyro ended up with similar spin axis tilts.  They are:
 

1.  RECIPROCAL TORSION.  Mirror angles occurred between the two planets regardless of their velocities.

2.  REPEATED TORSION.  In Volume III, a foundation will be laid that Mars flybys occurred once every 54 years.  March Passovers were always followed by October case flybys.  In 5400 years, there were 100 flybys, and 100 instances of repeated torsion to reset the spin axis tilt.

3.  ALTERNATING TORSION.  Evidence points to the first original Mars flyby as being a March case.  Thus all odd-numbered flybys were March “Passovers” and all even-numbered flybys were October cases.  This model of planetary catastrophism specifies precisely this.  Alternating torque’s are essential to the maintenance of planet orbit resonance’s.

Mars is modeled as having been in 6:1 orbital resonance with Jupiter, in 1:2 resonance with the Earth, and in near 15:1 resonance with Saturn.  In addition, but of less consequence, Mars was in 1:24 orbital resonance with the Moon.  Yet another orbital resonance was Venus and the Earth in a virtual 8:5 orbit resonance 1:.626).

4.  SOFT, FLUID GYROSCOPES.  Fluid gyroscopes produce volatile spin axis shifts, much more so than do solid gyros.  The Earth, with 98.2% of its mass below the crust, is a fluid gyro.  The responses of fluid gyros to torque’s in space or on the Earth have yet to be studied by scientists.F4


There are various indications in ancient literature of ancient spin axis shifts, and the resulting changes.  This was the reason ancients constructed sun dials, sun spirals, sun caves, etc.  During some flybys, the shadow of the Sun at zenith (high noon) lengthened measurably, and the cardinal directions shifted.  During other flybys, the shadow of the Sun at zenith shortened measurably.  And once again, the cardinal directions shifted a few degrees.

The champion of the Hebrew cosmologists was the prophet Isaiah.  He described the Final Flyby in some detail.  Some aspects were crustal disturbances.  Some were electrical disturbances, including interplanetary discharges.  One involved a recorded spin axis shift.

Central to his description was a shift of the shadow of the Jerusalem obelisk.  No doubt records were kept of the shadow's length on the floor at zenith, at high noon.  Note in the following citation “by which degrees it was gone down.”  Isaiah 38:8b.

Isaiah had experienced an earlier shift as a child (in 756 B.C.E.).  In their national memory, it had been different; it involved a lengthening of the shadow.  This shift in 701 B.C.E. was different; it was a shortening of the shadow.  This is why Isaiah is quoted as having said “the shadow of the SUN “RETURNED” TEN DEGREES”.  Below, the spin axis shift aspect of Isaiah's account is cited.


The Shortened Shadow Of The Sun Dial Of Ahaz

And this shall be a sign unto thee from the Lord, that the Lord will do this thing that he hat spoken; behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the Sun dial of Ahaz, ten degrees backward.  So the Sun RETURNED ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down.  Isaiah 38:7-8


The Sun dial of Ahaz is somewhat deceptively entitled.  It probably was an Egyptian obelisk, a spire like the Washington Monument.  Probably, it was a part of the package of benefits for King Solomon when he accepted the Egyptian princess (with her retinue) as one of his wives, in the 960's B.C.E.

Egyptian engineers constructed and manufactured many obelisks in Egypt.  The higher end of the range was 100 to 115 feet, as is measured from still existing ones.  The shorter range was likely from 50 to 80 feet high.  We have no way of knowing whether the Jerusalem Obelisk (the sun dial) was in the high range, mid range or shorter range of their Egyptian productions.  It is assumed the obelisk had a height of 75 feet, a height in the mid range.

It was entitled “the sun dial of Ahaz” because around its base were calibrations according to the current path of the Sun's shadow.  Recalibrations were needed on the ground, where the shadow was measured, after every spin axis shift.  One had occurred In October, 756 B.C.E.  Another more severe one occurred in 864 B.C.E. Apparently there was a recalibration of the base after each flyby.  The last one was done during the reign of Ahaz, thus “Ahaz' sun dial.”  It was essentially a recalibration by Ahaz' mathematicians.

In the account of Isaiah, the shift was reported, and translated into English as “10°” and in the direction of a shortening of the shadow, at zenith, at high noon.  The phrase “10°” occurs only one other place in the Bible, in the Psalms.

The Jews lost their Hebrew language while in the Babylonian Captivity.  Probably, they exchanged their ancient standard of measures for the more widespread, more modern Chaldean standard of measures.  So, after they returned, two or three generations later, the precise meaning of the ancient Hebrew standards of measure had been lost.

So, nobody knows how far “ten degrees” was.  It was ten of something.  The Hebrew word translated “ten degrees” as “ma'alah”.  Its definition from Strong's Concordance is:
 

4609 ma'alah, elevation, i.e. the act of journey to a higher place, ... step, a climactic progression ...  things that come up (high) degree, deal, go up, stair, step, story.

4608 ma'aleh, elevation, activity or platform, ascent, before, chiefest, cliff, that goeth up, going up, hill, mounting up, stairs. [n4]


“Ma'alah” is derived from “ma'alah” (4608) and that from “alah” (5927.)  The context of these words is measuring in the vertical direction.  Surveyors (then and now) measure in the vertical direction by first measuring accurately in the horizontal direction.  Then the angle is measured precisely (trigonometry).  Thus, in a sense, “degrees” as a translation into English is somewhat on target; degrees do relate to angles.

The studied conclusion of this staff is first, that the height of the obelisk, or sun dial of Ahaz, (or Solomon), whatever its height may have been, was between 8.5 and 8.6 times greater than the distance the shadow shortened.

Second, the Hebrews used five kinds of cubits.  If the “short cubit” was used here as their standard of measure, a “degree” was 10.7 inches, or three palms.  Ten short cubits were 107 inches, or 8.92 feet.  See Figure 19.


Figure 19 - The Shift of the Shadow of the
Sun Dial of  Ahaz March 21, 701 B.C.E.


The obelisk was approximately 8.55 times as high as the shadow shortened.  8.92 feet x 8.55 = 76.3 feet.  It is suspected that the obelisk of “Solomon's Egyptian queen” was 76 feet high, +/- 2 feet.

Next it is then concluded that the distance of shortening of the shadow was 8.92 feet, or 107 inches, also 10 short cubits, which also was 20 tophechs or 30 palms.  (70,000,00 palms approximated one polar radius).  See Figure 19.  But first, other shifts in direction of many ancient foundations of Mediterranean temples merits a review.


The Orientation Of 30 Foundations Of Ancient
Temples Of The Mediterranean Region

The data from Isaiah about a shift in the shadow of the Jerusalem Sun Dial is of literary quality.  It also has some scientific quality.  Isaiah was an eye witness.  But there is another source of data, which is of modern scientific quality.

Dr. Rafael Kazmann, engineering professor, now retired, at LSU has made an analysis of other studies of orientations of foundations of 30 temples in the Mediterranean region.  One of his sources, Dr. Asher Kaufman, discovered the foundations of the First Temple and the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

The first foundation of the First Temple was designed about 965 B.C.E.  A study was made of the foundation of the First Temple, Solomon's Temple, in Jerusalem and it is found to be oriented 6° north of the true east according to the cardinal directions of the modern our age.

Kaufman also found, and measured the orientation of the Second Temple, Herod's Temple, designed in the early part of the first century B.C.E.  The foundation of the Second Temple matched precisely modern cardinal directions.
 

After many years of field work, Kaufman, a member of the physics faculty of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem whose hobby was archaeology, finally established the location of the first (Solomon's) and the second (Herod's) temples and calculated the orientation of each.  Both temples were built on the same spot, one set of foundations overlying the other with the same location for the holy of holies.  In response to a letter of inquiry, he stated that the first temple was oriented 6° North of East and the second temple was oriented exactly East-West.  He estimated his error of measurement to be about 0.2°, more or less. [n5]


Kazmann also cited the conclusion of G. E. Wright, who excavated Shechem.
 

It is clear now that the Israelite structure's exterior walls had simply followed the outline of what remained of the Late Bronze Age temple 2.  Yet the first and most inexplicable fact about temple 2 is that the axis shifted.  Whereas temple 1 was oriented 28° South of East, temple 2 was oriented 33° South of east....  Why the axis was shifted 5° farther south is an unsolved mystery....  A rather striking parallel to the structures unearthed at Shechem is found in level VII of Alalakh in Northern Syria dating from the Seventeenth or early Sixteenth Century. [n6]


What has happened to the cardinal directions in the Near East during the first millennium B.C.E.?  Before giving our conclusion, it is appropriate to cite the 30 temple foundations which Kazmann listed in the Mediterranean region, two of which were in Asian Minor.


Table X - The Orientation Of Ancient Mediterranean Region Temples [n6]

PLACE
DEITY
ORIENTATION 1
EST. DATE
GREECE
Tegea Minerva 1 D 23’30” S of E 1650 B.C.E.
Rhamnus Themis 1 D 29’46” S of E 1092
Rhamnus Nemesis 1 D 24’50” S of E 787
Athens Minerva 9 D 05’ S of E 2020
Athens Nike Aptersos 5 D 43’17” S of E 1130
Athens Esculapius 5 D 33’00” N of E ?
Olympia Juno 3 D 16’02” N of E 1445
Olympia Jupiter 7 D 22’14” N of E 790
Corfu Kadarki 4 D 39’35” S of E 875
Lycosura Despoina 2 D 11’14” S o E 650
Megalopolis Jupiter Sot. 9 D 42’28” S of E 605
Thebes Cabeiron 6 D 27’ 45” S of E 1160
Mycenae Unknown 6 D 40’ 20” N of E ?
 ITALY
Croton Juno Lacina 2 D 34' N of E ?
Metapontum Unknown 6 D 57' S of E ?
Paestum Neptune 3 D 09' S of E ?
SICILY
Girgentl Juno Lacinia 6 D N of E 690
Hercules 0 D N of E 470
Castor 4 D 00' N of E 400
Selinus Unknown 4 D 52' S of E 795?
Unknown 5 D 35’ S of E ?
Unknown 5 D 40' S of E ?
Unknown 6 D 18' S of E ?
Unknown 6 D 40' S of E ?
Unknown 7 D 21' S of E ?
Syracuse Minerva (?) 0 D 42' N of E ?
Diana (?) 1 D 45' S of E ?
Olyumpeicium 7 D 26' S of E ?
ASIA MINOR
Ephesus Diana 5 D 21' 05” S of E 715
Jerusalem Jehovah (God) 6 D N of E 925

From the data concerning the shift in orientation during the Flyby of 701 B.C.E., it was concluded that Jerusalem shifted south about 4°, or about 275 miles.  Or, a new equator shifted northward toward Jerusalem in that same amount.  And the North Pole shifted some 275 miles toward Alaska, the Yukon, British Columbia and Seattle, putting them into somewhat more northerly climates.  Europe and Asia Minor shifted southward also 4°.

When temples were built, it was customary that the foundation be aligned with the cardinal directions as of the time of design.  The foundation of the First Temple (Solomon's) was designed about 965 B.C.E. and was built during the ensuing fifteen years.  Raphael Kazmann quotes Kaufman who discovered the foundation of the First Temple.  It is offset 6° from true east of the modern era.

From data to be presented in Volume III, it is known that there were five flybys in the era 965 B.C.E. to the Final Flyby of 701 B.C.E.  There were two March case flybys in 809 B.C.E. and in 9l7 B.C.E.  Both seem to have been light, and their effect would have been to pull Jerusalem northerly.

There were October flybys in 864 B.C.E., coinciding with the Trojan War, and in 756 B.C.E., coinciding with the prophetic careers of Jonah, Joel and Amos.  Josephus recorded some of the damage done to the First Temple structurally during the flyby of 756 B.C.E.
 

... in the mean time, a great earthquake shook the ground, and a rent was made in the temple, and the bright rays of the sun shone through it, and fell upon the king's face, ... [n7]

And before the city, at a place called Eroge, half the mountain broke off from the rest on the west, and rolled itself four furlongs, and stood still at the east mountain, till the roads, as well as the king's gardens, were spoiled by the obstruction. [n8]


The catastrophe of October, 756 B.C.E. seems to have been middling in intensity.  The flyby of October 864 B.C.E., coinciding with the Trojan War, was a megacatastrophe, as was the Final Flyby of March 701 B.C.E.  A megacatastrophe is one in which the two planets were within 30,000 miles of each other at perigee.

This analysis is that the flybys of 864 B.C.E., 756 B.C.E., and 701 B.C.E. shifted the North Pole away from Asia Minor and Europe, and toward Alaska and the Yukon.  Israel shifted closer to the equator, and its latitude lowered.  On the other hand, the flybys of March 809 B.C.E. and 917 B.C.E. shifted the North Pole toward Asia Minor and Europe, and away from Alaska and Canada.

The data from Kazmann and Kaufman indicate Jerusalem shifted southward 6°, or 410 miles as a consequence of the combination of all of the last five flybys.  If the 701 B.C.E. event shifted Jerusalem south by 4°, then the combination of the other four shifted Jerusalem south by another 2°, totaling 6°.

On the basis of Kazmann's data, the conclusion here is that the latitude of Jerusalem slipped south by a total of 6° between 965 B.C.E. and 701 B.C.E.  During this time span there were five Mars flybys, three of the March case and two of the October case.

If this interpretation of Kazmann's data is correct, the latitude of Jerusalem shifted southward by some 400 miles.  Simultaneously the North Pole (spin axis) shifted some 400 miles in the Arctic Basin.  If so, the North Pole net shift was away from Scandinavia and toward Alaska, the Yukon, British Columbia (and Seattle.)  As Jerusalem shifted southward 6°, or 410 miles, Seattle, Vancouver, Anchorage, Fairbanks and Point Barrow shifted northward a similar distance and their climates became cooler.

BETWEEN 1450 B.C.E. AND 965 B.C.E.  There was a spread of other catastrophes between the time of Moses (1450 B.C.E.) and the building of Solomon's Temple.  They occurred in October of 972 B.C.E., 1080 B.C.E., 1188 B.C.E., 1296 B.C.E. and the famous Long Day of Joshua, 1404 B.C.E.  Others occurred in March of 1025 B.C.E., 1133, B.C.E., 1241 B.C.E., 1349 B.C.E. and of course the Exodus Catastrophe, 1445 B.C.

In the 1400's B.C.E., Moses described, from his Egyptian vantage point, that the land of Israel was a land of “milk and honey.”  But he had never been there so far as is known, although Moses was well read.  Today, San Diego has a latitude of 32° 30 minutes, much like the latitude and the climate of coastal Israel in this era.

Perhaps in 1450 B.C.E., Jerusalem had a latitude of 43 to 45°, like in this age, Eugene and Salem, Oregon, in the verdant Willamette Valley.  In the Willamette Valley today, westerly wind systems bring an abundance of rain in the winter and spring.  In Western Oregon, there is an abundance of green grass, of cattle, of milk, of flowers, bees and of honey.

But it is not so in arid, sunny Southern California.  It is suspected that the description by Moses of the land of Israel, and its abundance of milk and honey, was a literal description for his age, and not figurative one, AS IS USUALLY ASSUMED.

Today, Israel is far too south and far too dry for an abundance of dairy cattle and springtime grass and flowers.  Moses' description of a verdant land of Israel seems to be one more indication of spin axis shifts during the Catastrophic Era.  Snows reported in Arabia in the Book of Job suggest Arabia also formerly was farther north.

Table X provides data on the orientation of the foundations of thirty ancient Mediterranean Region temples.  Wright's three temples at Shechem 11, Shechem 2 and Alalakh in Northern Syria tell a similar story.  Why were the location of the spin axis, and the cardinal directions not settled?

The reason is that the Earth experienced a long series of Mars flybys.  Each flyby did something to the spin axis.  October flybys produced opposite changes compared to March flybys.  All in all, this situation left ancient engineers and architects a bit confused.  What would be the next appropriate orientation for the structures they designed? Upon what could they depend?  The only settled thing was the positions of the fixed stars, their constellations and the 30-degree sectors therein, in short, the ancient zodiac.

The Biblical accounts of catastrophism, interleaved with chronicles, supports alternating torque’s for the spin axis of both Mars and the Earth.  Kazmann's list of the orientation of the foundations of ancient, Mediterranean region temples suggest the same thing.  The spin axis was not secure in that era of Mars-Earth Wars.


Ancient Traditions Of Catastrophism
Of The Indians Of North America

There is yet another category of research, although research in depth has not been undertaken.  That category is the fabric of stories of ancient times that is preserved in Indian traditions of tribes from across North America.

The Innuit (Alaskan Eskimos) have an account when once a living was easily made by their distant ancestors.  Then the earth quaked.  Volcanoes erupted.  And the path of the Sun in the sky suddenly went low.  A cold, harsh climate insured that a living became difficult to achieve.

There is an organization, AISES, the American Indian Society for Engineering and Science (Boulder, Colo.), which addresses the need for American Indian elders to preserve their various ancient traditions from all over the North American continent, from Alaska to Mexico, and from Labrador to California.

Indian elders have found it difficult to preserve their ancient traditions, and in many cases their ancient language, and pass them on to later generations.  Then comes the reservation’s anthropologists with no concept of ancient catastrophism, and no respect for Indian traditions.  They end up competing with, rather than supporting the Indian elders.  Thus, on the reservations, young, elitist, white intellectuals have created needless friction between the palefaces and Indian elders, trying to maintain ancient traditions and lore.

Based on data presented in the 1995 AISES convention, Boulder, Colo., it is clear that numerous Indian tribes have heritages of ancient, catastrophic times when the path of the Sun in the sky changed, when they lived longer, and when they fought larger animals.

PREDICTION VIII.  It is predicted that when research is completed among the Indian tribes of North America, and collated, no less than thirty different Indian tribes will be found with stories of ancient catastrophic ages, interrupted by catastrophes featuring a change in the Sun's path across the sky.

This all includes sudden climatic changes and sudden latitude shifts.  In Volume III, data is cited suggesting that during the closest of all of the Mars flybys, the North Pole shifted 3,000 miles from the North Pacific to the Arctic Basin.  Particularly rich will be data in the form of ancient traditions of the Innuit (Alaskan Eskimos), the Mayans, the Hopi, the Algonquins and the Sioux.


Figure 20 - Alternating Torque’s of Spin Axis Mars and Earth


 

Figure 21 - Twin Tilts and Twin (Alternating)
Torque’s of Spin Axis Mars and Earth


The ancient Indian traditions span 5,000 years and go back to what the Greeks called “the golden age.”  Our data concerning thirty foundations of ancient Mediterranean temples in this chapter spans only the last 750 years of the Catastrophic Era.


The Third Orbit Of Mars And Alternating Torque’s

The preceding Figures 20 and 21 illustrate what happened to the Earth's spin axis in a long series of Mars flybys. Figure 23 in chapter 9, illustrates what happened to the Earth's orbit during only the Final Flyby.

It is concluded that on this occasion, the Earth's final waltz with Mars, Jerusalem shifted south by about 4° of latitude.  There is 68 miles to a degree of latitude.  Jerusalem shifted closer to a new equator, and farther from the North Pole, by about 275 miles.

When gyroscopes receive repeated torques on one side, the most restful angle for the gyro's spin axis is 90° to the torque’s, perpendicular.  The LEAST RESTFUL ANGLE is neither 0° nor 180°.  The LEAST RESTFUL ANGLE for gyros happens to be 45°.

Mars and the Earth experienced alternating torques on the opposite sides of their orbits.  They were in March and October in 54-year intervals.  See Figure 21.  UNDER ALTERNATING TORQUE CONDITIONS, THE MOST RESTFUL COMPROMISE IS 22.5°.

The Earth's spin axis tilt leans at 23.44° to the orbit plane.  The spin axis tilt of Mars is a very similar, tilting at 23.98°.  They are “twin tilts.”  Both tilts are within l.5° of the ideal compromise of 22.5° for alternating torques.  This pair of twin tilts for gyros is logical under, and only under alternating torque conditions.

The twin tilts of Mars and the Earth have been known for 200 years, since the era of Herschel.  Never has an explanation for their similar spin axis tilts been made in the literature of astronomy to our knowledge.  This is the first explanation for this phenomena in the history of astronomy.  Many have wondered why the Earth's tilt is 23.5°, but answers have not been forthcoming, until now.

In the gradualist paradigm, an explanation of this twin phenomenon is impossible.  In the planetary catastrophist paradigm, the explanation of “alternating torques” addresses all of the data.  This explanation is logical, it is consistent with the data, it is consistent with engineering principles, and it is consistent with celestial mechanics.

THE DURATION OF THE MODERN ORBITS FOR MARS, VENUS AND THE EARTH.  As of March 20, l995, the modern era is 2,699 years old.  The count is as follows.  (a) From 701 B.C.E. to 1 B.C.E. = 700 years.  (b) Add four years which medieval monks overlooked, when sequencing the years of history.  This error is at the root of the humorous anachronism that Christ was born in the year 4 B.C.  (c) Add 1,995 for from 1 AD to 1996.  700 + 4 + 1995 = 2699.

This time span of 2,699 years is compared with the time span gradualist astronomers cite for the Earth being in its present 365.256-day orbit, at its present tilt.  Four billion years?  4.6 billion years???  11 billion years of gradualism?  The span of time since the Earth's orbit last shifted is .000000675 of four billion years.  One of these two paradigms is a mistake, and a bad mistake it is.  .000000675 is also a reasonable assessment as to how close the theory of gradualism is to the theory of planetary catastrophism.  Not close.

Every traditional astronomer believes that Mars has never been closer than 30,000,000 miles to the Earth.  When Volume III is completed, The Flood of Noah, this planetary catastrophic analysis will be that Mars has never been closer to the Earth than 14,500 miles (planet center to center.)

JAMES CLERK-MAXWELL.  It is appropriate to end this chapter with the same words that James Clerk-Maxwell read one evening, 130 years ago.  Clerk-Maxwell had been wondering for years what kind of an organization atoms might possess.  He was deeply puzzled.  That evening he read Job chapter 38.

Just hours later, as he slept and as his sub-conscious took over, he had an inspired dream that the structure of the atom, which nobody understood, resembled the structure of a Solar System.  The Sun was a nucleus; electrons were the planets.  With that dream coupled with Clerk-Maxwell's reputation and his expertise in physics, science was prepared to take another leap forward.  Here are the words Clerk-Maxwell read that evening.
 

The Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said, Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge?
Gird up now thy loins like a man; for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me.
Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.
Who hat laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hat stretched the line upon it?
Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened?  or who laid the corner stone thereof;
WHEN THE MORNING STARS SANG TOGETHER, AND ALL THE SONS OF GOD SHOUTED FOR JOY.   Job 38:l-7


Conclusion

The purpose of Chapter 8 is to lay the basis for understanding the old orbits of Mars and the Earth, in the Catastrophic Era.  This model portrays a long series of alternating torques, Mars-Earth skirmishes, some of which were all out wars.

With gyroscopes, the perpendicular angle to the torque, or series of torques, is the most restful angle.  The most chaotic angle is 45° (not 90°.)  With alternating torques, the most restful angle is a compromise, 22.5°.

Mars suffered two heavy flybys in the year 701 B.C.E. The foundation for this statement is in Chapters 9 to 11.  One was in January, 701 B.C.E., the Last Polka of Mars and Venus.  It was followed some 55 or 56 days later by the Last Waltz of Mars and the Earth.

Considering this catastrophic close to the Catastrophic Era, Mars has done exceptionally well.  Despite the last Polka and the Last Waltz, it still has a spin axis tilt of 23.98°.  This is still close to the most restful compromise, the 22.5° angle.

The Earth's spin axis has done even better; after the last furious flyby in 701 B.C.E., its axis is 23.44°.  It is within 1° of the most restful ideal angle.

Story 20 is HOW THE EARTH AND MARS CAME TO HAVE TWIN TILTS.  Both tilts approximate the most restful angle for gyros with alternating torques.  The only model that explains the twin tilts of the spin axes of Mars and the Earth is the model in this chapter of this book.  In the past 200 years of astronomy since the tilt of Mars was first ascertained, to our knowledge no other explanation for the twin tilt phenomenon has ever been offered.

Planets, which rotate in space, respond like gyros to external torques.  Mars, Venus and the Earth are fluid gyros, with thin solid crusts.  But mostly, these gyros are composed of fluids.  The molecules of fluid gyros respond very differently than do the molecules of solid gyros.  Soft, fluid gyros have yet to be made projects of scientific research.

Story 21 is that changes in the spin axes of both Mars and the Earth after ancient flybys merely reflect THE NEW AVERAGE PLANE OF THE MOTION OF THEIR MOLECULES.

Story 22 is that magmas mixed broadly under the Earth's crust in flyby scenes.  If the materials were silanes, carbides and water, the results were (1) MORE SILICA, OR CRUST, AND (2) THE BYPRODUCT, MORE POOLS OF PETROLEUM.

The silicon and oxygen ions teamed up, the first team, leaving the carbon and hydrogen ions as the second team.  They polymerized under conditions of high temperatures and pressures, and formed hydrocarbons, which pooled.  The petroleum generally pooled at the top of the mantle.

Much petroleum still exists; it is not caused by dinosaurs dying or vegetation rotting.  It was a chemical reaction in the mixing magma during Mars flybys.  Much is there; it is just rather difficult to get at for modern industry.  The Earth is not running out of petroleum; it is just running out of known petroleum pools that are readily accessible for pumping.

An alcove on story 22 is that the carbon in the atmosphere of Venus likely has a similar origin as does the petroleum on our planet.  It too was formed by the mixing of silanes, water and carbides.

Story 23 is that the Final Flyby caused A LATITUDE SLIPPAGE, SOUTHWARD FOR JERUSALEM, OF APPROXIMATELY 4°.  This conclusion is based on Isaiah's account.

Story 24 is that the composite spin axis shifts and North Pole relocations OF LATITUDE FOR THE PERIOD 965 B.C.E. THROUGH 701 B.C.E., WAS SIX°, A NET SLIPPAGE SOUTH FOR JERUSALEM.  The latitude of the holy city shifted from 38° to its present 3l° 45 minutes.  This is based, in part, on the 6-degree offset of due east for the foundation of the First Temple (Solomon's) compared to modern cardinal directions.

In comparison, the orientation of the foundation of the Second Temple, (Herod's) agrees with modern cardinal directions.  It was laid in the first century B.C.E., in the modern era, and on top of the earlier temple foundation.

Story 25 is that THE SHADOW OF THE SUN DIAL OF AHAZ BECAME SHORTER BY ABOUT 105 INCHES OR 8.75 FEET in Isaiah's account, Isaiah chapter 38.  This shadow shift was the equivalent of 4° of latitude for Jerusalem on this occasion.  The direction for Jerusalem was a shift southward.

With story 25, the reader is 60% of the way to the penthouse of planetary catastrophism.

Ancient literatures and architectures indicate an abundance of ancient spin axis shifts.  The score now has become ancient writing catastrophists 3, modern 20th century gradualists, 0.
 
 

End of Chapter 8  -  Tilts of Mars and The Earth


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