Any idea that appears to challenge orthodoxy and is published is usually accompanied by copious responses from the names in the profession who are given an opportunity to quash any heretical conclusions which the article might suggest. Many subjects, no matter how interesting, are simply prohibited because they call into question long-standing beliefs.
Clue # 10 - The Ancient Preference For 360-Day Calendars
The tenth clue in this case is the ancient preference for 360-day calendars. It was not for 365 or 365.256-day calendars. And also there was a preference for 360-degree circles in the Middle East, the Near East and the Orient. After 701 B.C.E., only the Chinese changed their circle to 366°, the current count. They were, in a sense, more consistent than Western calendar makers and astronomers. But then, consistency has not been a necessity for mankind.
There are a minimum of fourteen ancient civilizations that used 360-day calendars in catastrophic times. Often they featured 30-day months, and twelve of them per year. For this to be accurate, the Earth's orbit would have to have been some 92,250,000 miles from the Sun, not the modern 92,959,000 miles.
There are more than fourteen ancient 360-day calendars; other researchers are welcome to expand this ancient day count per year. 360-day calendars have been found to have been useful in such ancient societies as Arabia, Assyria, Chaldea (Babylon), China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Greece, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico (the Mayans), Persia, Peru (the pre-Incas), and ancient Rome, for starters. [n2]
But gradualists assume, with excessive confidence, that the year has always contained 365.256 days since the dawn of time. They also assume that Mars has been only a small pinpoint of light in the heavens, never closer than 30,000,000 miles and never farther than away than 240,000,000 miles. This system of thought indicts ancient calendar makers as having not been able to count.
What is the chance that none of these ancient calendar makers could count to 360 correctly? Further, what is the chance that all of them couldn't count? Further yet, what is the chance that in their errors, they all made the same error? All gradualists and traditionalists in cosmology would have mankind to assume the following.
1. The ancient astronomers of China could not count. They had 24 fifteen-day periods based on a lunar calendar, from new moon to full moon, and from full moon to new moon. Neither did their ancient 360-day circle have any significance other than that it made the same error as did their calendar. The chance of this being true is estimated, conservatively at one in a hundred.
The English translations from the 11th century Soochow astronomical charts and the common Chinese names with English translations are given in the table below. The number of degrees in each tables (sic) does not add up to 360 because in the 4th century B.C. the Chinese astrologers suddenly changed the division of the circle from 360° to 365° 15 minutes. [n3]
2. The ancient Japanese calendar makers could not count any better than their Chinese counterparts. This chance again is remote.
3. The ancient calendar makers of Vedic India could not count days in the years, despite their very accurate system for counting the seconds in a day. Their smallest unit of time was .4 of a second, the vipalas. 60 vipalas, 24 seconds, was a pala. 60 palas made one ghatika, 24 minutes. 60 ghatikas made one day. 360 ghatikas originally made one year. Texts in the Veda know only of 360-day years. The chance ancient Brahmans could not count is also assessed at one in a hundred.
4. The ancient Persians could not count. In the Bundahis, an ancient sacred book, there were 180 days, not 182 or 183 days, from winter solstice to summer solstice. Later, after the 7th century B.C.E., they added five "gatha days." The chance that the ancient Persian calendar makers could not count is also assessed as remote.
5. 360 days made an old Babylonian year. What is the chance that ancient Babylonian/Chaldean calendar makers could not count the days in the year correctly? Their mathematicians understood irrational numbers like Pi (3.l4l6) and Phi (1.618) and square roots. In Volume III, it will be clear that at least one of their engineers (Noah) knew about pi, phi (.618) and its square (.382). Sumerian mathematicians couldn't count? They counted with a sexigesimal system. The chance that they could not count is beyond remote.
6. The ancient Assyrian year also consisted of 360 days, and a sarus was 3,600 days, ten years. Their lunar month also was thirty days, crescent to crescent. The chance that their calendar makers could not count is estimated at one a thousand.
7. The ancient Mayan year was a "tun," 360 days. They had five-day
periods, and 72 of them consisted of their year. They had better
calendars than the Europeans up into the 19th century. What is the
chance that Mayan calendar makers could not count? One in a thousand?
... Sylvanus G. Morley and Herbert J. Spinden, both studied this matter extensively and found themselves in disagreement over the epoch, and hence over the Gregorian conversion of the calendar. ... They did agree that the epoch and the date when the calculations first became effective are two different things, and that some drastic alterations in the counting system occurred between the 6th and 8th centuries B.C., ... [n4]
8. The ancient year of the pre-Incas in Peru was 30 days to a quilla, and twelve quillas to a year. What is the chance their calendar makers could not count? It is illogical.
9. The earliest Romans reckoned 360 days as a year, according to Plutarch in his "Life of Numa." Other sources agree. Could not the Romans mathematicians count up to 360? The chance they couldn't count is one in thousands.
10. The ancient Egyptians originally had a 360-day year in their Book of Sothis. They could construct pyramids and could approximately calculate the diameter of the Earth. The innocent assumption that they could not count is ridiculous.
This 360-day calendar, like so many others, was changed during the 8th century B.C. to one of 365 days. The extra five days were simply added to the end of the year. [n5]
11. The ancient Greeks also had a 360-day year until the time of Thales (640? - 586 B.C.E.). Thales was among the first to recompute the calendar at 365 days in the late 7th century B.C.E. Why did the Greeks make the same error a dozen other ancient societies made? The chance of the Greeks being unable to count to 360 (or 365) : one in billions.
12. The ancient Arabs had a 360 day year, and moreover, they erected 360 idols to "Hobal," cognate with the Chaldean Bel and the Phoenician Baal (Ares-Mars). It was one idol for each day. Why did the ancient Arabians make the same error that calendar makers in a dozen other societies also made?
13. The year of the Hebrews, up until the 7th century B.C.E., consisted of 360 days and twelve months each of 30 days. During or after the 7th century B.C.E., a five-day period was added to Adar, their twelfth month. Veadar was 5 days long.
What actually happened is that the 7th century B.C.E. was a time when calendar makers all over the world were kept busy trying to develop a new calendar that would serve well for a century or longer. Adding five days per year was a stop gap; it meant the new calendar was 23 or 24 days in error after a century. Fair, but not good enough.
There are three issues embedded in this discussion. The first is (a) that ancient calendar makers, mathematicians and star gazers from at least different societies all could not count. Neanderthals or less. The second issue is (b) they all made the same mistake. The third issue (c) is that some of those societies employed 360-degree circles as well.
In clues one to nine, it was calculated that if chance explains them all, it is one chance in two quintillion. Add three more zeros for thirteen 360-degree calendars, and that is conservative. Next, add another three zeros for their all making the same mistake, and that is restrained and discreet. Finally add three more zeros for their 360-degree circles. And that is restrained and temperate. Now, "coincidence" calculates at one possibility in 2 octillion. It is one chance in 2,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This calculation is discrete, restrained, moderate and reasonable.
Clue # 11 - The Missing Clue - Swift's Laputan Astronomers
In 1726, Jonathan Swift wrote the famous book, Gulliver's Travels. Swift was an Irishman, a Protestant who objected strenuously to the unfair treatment of the Catholic Irish by the English nobility in Ireland. Swift was also a satirist and a boisterous brother in London's John Bull Club. Swift enjoyed good jokes and satires, especially when they were about the hypocrisy of the proud, the powerful and the prosperous upper classes in the England of his day.
In Gulliver's Travels, there are at least three themes involving satires. In the person of Lemuel Gulliver, Swift was poking fun at English society. One is tales of the little people of Lilliput. Another is about the giant people of Brobignag. The third is about the astronomers of Laputa, an island off the coast of China. The astronomers on the pleasant island of Laputa in the early 18th century had superior telescopes to those inferior ones of the Europeans; thus they had a better knowledge of the cosmos.
For instance, the Laputan astronomers knew what astronomers of European didn't, namely, that little Mars had two tiny moons. (Swift was writing in London where among his friends were Isaac Newton, Edmund Halley and William Whiston, all renowned mathematicians, all competent astronomers and one or two were also members of the John Bull Club).
These two tiny moons were first viewed and discovered in the modern era in 1877 in a new telescope at the Naval Observatory in Washington D.C. by Asaph Hall. To the discoverer goes the privilege of naming them, a tradition in astronomy.
Accepting the advice of an Englishman, familiar with ancient Greek mythology, Hall gave the two new satellites of Mars the same names as did the ancient Greeks - Deimos and Phobos. This was a coincidence. In Greek, these words meant, and still mean "fear" and "panic," with different inflections of the verb, to fear, or to dread. In this way, the two unnamed moons of Mars which Hall discovered were given the same name as the ancient Greeks name for them, Deimos and Phobos, fear and panic.
Phobos, the inner one, irregular in shape, somewhat fragment-like, has three diameters, 12.5 miles x 14.25 x 17.5. The three diameters for Deimos, also fragment-shaped, are 6.25 miles x 7.5 x 10. These two tiny moons were well beyond the power of European telescopes and American telescopes until late in the l9th century.
Nevertheless, 151 years before Asaph Hall's discovery, Swift wrote about
two tiny moons that Mars had, as follows:
... they have likewise discovered two lesser Stars of Satellites, which revolve about Mars, whereof the innermost is distant from the Centre of the Primary Planet exactly three of his Diameters, and the outermost five; the former revolves in the Space of ten hours, and the latter in twenty-one and a half; so that the squares of their periodical times are very near in the same proportion with the cubes of their distance from the center of Mars, which evidently shews them to be governed by the same law of gravitation, that influences the other heavenly bodies. [n6]
Swift's satire of 270 years ago has provoked a variety of comments by the gradualist establishment. All are statements of amazed disbelief. One of them is that if the Laputans had good enough telescopes to discover Deimos and Phobos, why hadn't they also discovered Uranus? Why hadn't they discovered Neptune? And more satellites of Saturn? Uranus wasn't discovered by Herschel until 1781, with a homemade telescope. Neptune was discovered in 1846.
Table XIV - Laputan Measurements Versus Modern
Measurements - Orbits Of Phobos And Deimos
period - 10 hours
7 hours 39 min. [n7]
Table XIV gives the measurements of the orbits of Deimos and Phobos, according to Swift, as held by the Laputan astronomers, 150 years before their discovery. Table XIV also provides the modern measurements by astronomers of the 20th century.
Who in 1726, in England, with a knowledge of both Kepler's laws and Newton's laws on planetary motions, could have performed these calculations for Swift? Swift was a friend of Edmund Halley of comet fame, also of Isaac Newton of gravity fame, and of William Whiston, also a mathematician, astronomer, a friend of both and a catastrophist. Any one of this trio understood Keplerian celestial mechanics, the Newtonian laws, and could have assisted Swift in the calculations. Someone other than Swift had to couch the information in the language of mathematics.
RICHARDSON ON SWIFT'S SCENARIO. According to a mid 20th century
astronomer, Swift said and implied the following:
... the squares of their periodical times are very near the same proportion with the cubes of their distances. ... There is no escape from the conclusion that Swift must have had to calculate the period of the outer moon from the equation:
(Period of Moon) 2 = 53 / 3 X 102 = 12,500 / 27 = 462.97
which gives: period of moon = sq. rt. 462.97 = 21.5 hours, very closely. Swift was a well-educated man, such elementary arithmetic should have been easy for him, although his principal training had been in literature and history.
All this has been known and commented upon for nearly a century now. What seems to have been overlooked is that we can learn still more about Mars from the information Swift gave us about his moons. For when he specified the periods and distances of the moons he necessarily specified something else about Mars too. He specified its mass. [n8]
First of all, it is reasonable to disagree with Richardson on one point. This math was too difficult for Swift without help from someone knowledgeable in Keplerian and Newtonian thought.
At that time, in 1725 and 1726, astronomers did not know the diameter of Mars. Laputans disclosed the distance of Phobos and Deimos from Mars not in English miles but rather in Mars diameters. Astronomers in the early 1700's did not know the accurate value for the length of the astronomical unit, or how far the Earth is from the Sun. And they didn't know how far Mars was from the Sun. This unit of measurement in the satire suggests a very ancient sketch was involved, or a copy thereof from the Catastrophic Era.
This floats two questions. (1) Where did the sketch come from, and what was on it? (2) Who, then, did Swift's calculations for him? Swift was an Irishman, a satirist and a wit. A mathematician he was not.
London at the time had a population of perhaps 200,000. That is where the John Bull Club met, and among its members were Swift, Isaac Newton and Edmund Halley. The probability is that Swift's mathematician/astronomer was either Edmund Halley (1656-1741), Isaac Newton (1642-1727) or less likely, William Whiston (1667-1752). Flamsteed is also a possibility.
ISAAC ASIMOV ON SWIFT'S SCENARIO. What is the explanation of Swift's
satire? Is it really a great, flamboyant coincidence? Such
is the conclusion (guess) of Isaac Asimov, prolific writer on scientific
themes, recently deceased. He confidently writes:
This is an amazing coincidence. Of course, Swift might have reasoned as follows: It was known that the Earth had 1 moon, Jupiter 4 and Saturn 7 at the time he was writing his book. It was reasonable to suppose that Saturn might have an 8th moon hidden somewhere and, in that case, if Mars had 2 moons, there would be a nice list of numbers.
As one moved outward from the sun, beginning at Earth, the number of moons of each planet would be 1, 2, 4 and 8. Then, too, the moons of Mars would have been small and close to the planet, or even Europeans with their 'poor' telescopes would have discovered them.
So far, Swift's thinking can be followed. However, his guess that Phobos would rise in the west and set in the east because of its speed of revolution is uncanny, IT IS UNDOUBTEDLY THE LUCKIEST GUESS IN LITERATURE. (Our caps.) [n9]
Asimov was the one doing the guessing ... guessing that Swift had been guessing. The following may be an inkling as to Swift's source. It is known that in the late 1610's, the works of both Kepler and Galileo, along with Copernicus, were banned by the Vatican for Roman Catholic scholars.
THIS TEAM'S PERSPECTIVE ON SWIFT'S SCENARIO. It is also known that by the mid 1600's, Jesuit scholars were paying no attention to the Vatican's ban. Jesuit missionaries were active in the Far East, and specifically in Peking, the Chinese capitol.
Despite the Vatican ban, from their school Jesuits adopted and taught the Keplerian approach, Vatican bans or otherwise. They were trying to collaborate and integrate Western science and Chinese science. Many including Emperors Shun-chih and K'ang Hsi, were considering converting to some form of Christianity. Among their reasoning was that Western astronomy (i.e. Keplerian thought) was so much better than traditional Chinese astronomy.
The names of some of those Jesuit missionaries include Frs. Matteo Ricci, Johann Schreck, Adam Schall von Bell, Wenceslaus Kirwitzer, Paul Hsu, Ferdinand Verbiest, Jean de Fontaney and Jean-Francois Foucquet. Any of these, but especially Verbiest and Foucquet are candidates as the one who might have made a copy of an ancient sketch of Mars, with Deimos and Phobos, to Paris, their home base.
It is possible that in the astronomical archives of Peking in the 1670's and into the 1710's, there were copies still in extant of ancient star charts of Mars with Phobos and Deimos circling it. If so, they were copies of ancient Chinese star charts over 2,400 years old at that time.
If such sketches existed, very possibly one of the Jesuit missionaries seeing such a sketch of the ancient "Fire Star" would be puzzled by Mars with two tiny satellites. Perhaps a copy of the copied original sketch arrived in Europe by the early 18th century. Swift's close friend, a Catholic, Alexander Pope, had Jesuit contacts.
Jesuit archives of the early China missionaries need scrutinizing for pertinent information. If such a sketch was there, the Jesuit fathers in Peking would have been puzzled, and the Jesuit fathers in Paris, from where Verbeist and Fontaney came, would not have known what to make of such a sketch.
But if a copy of such a sketch fell into the hands of Swift, Newton or Whiston, perhaps at the John Bull Club, some interesting interpretations could have resulted, and laughs also. A scenario like this, it is suspected, is where Swift got his "inspiration" about the Laputan astronomers and their understanding of Mars with satellites.
To Swift, at the very least, such a sketch could provide the basis for an excellent satire on the "backwardness" of English academia. They weren't as intelligent as they thought they were. They needed to have some fun poked at them.
Charles McDowell has researched this subject, and he suspects that the transmission of a Mars-Deimos-Phobos sketch, or sketches, came from Peking via a Dr. Cunningham to Dr. Hans Sloane. Sloane gathered samples of thousands of new plants from newly explored lands, for his greenhouse and his herbarium. Sloane's personal collection of 50,000 books was purchased by parliament in 1753, and became the core of the British Museum. [n10]
McDowell thinks "Lemuel Gulliver" was a cryptic name for Sloan, Queen Anne's physician. "Lemuel" in Proverbs was a wise man, one close to publishers and to the royal family.
Deimos And Phobos In Ancient Literature
CHINA. In his doublespeak satire, Swift virtually announced to any baffled cryptographers that his source was China; and China meant the astronomical archives of Peking. Indications and suspicions have been voiced, but the hard evidence is still missing. It may exist in Sloane's collection in the British Museum.
GREECE. Hesiod's treatise, "The Shield of Herakles" (Hercules) is only 480 lines long. Panic alone is mentioned twice (lines 144 and 236). "Panic and Terror" are cited once (line 463), as is "Terror and Panic" (line 195). Interestingly for revolving satellites, "Onrush and Backrush" is his translation once (Line 154).
"Fast-footed horses" (lines 95-97) is a translation used once, as is "horses on either side" (line 346, of Ares) once. "Feet of the horses" occurs once (line 63). "Running horses" occurs in Line 62. "Straining horses" occurs in line 65. "Fluttering-maned horses" occurs in line 372. [n11]
The inner steed, Phobos, has a period of 7.65 hours, and thus traverses 180° from one side of Mars to the other, a half orbit in only 3.8 hours. It rises on the western horizon of Mars, and was portrayed in that manner by Gulliver/Swift's story.
Deimos has an orbit in 1.26 days, also quite fast, and rises in the East, like most satellites. (Mars, like most planets, rotates from west to east). "Both horses" is translated once (line 346). This puts the count for the steeds pulling the chariot of Ares at two, no more and no less. The count for references to celestial stallions, either Deimos, Phobos or to both, is 20 to 23 times in 480 lines.
"Ares" is mentioned by name 13 times and archetypes of Mars are repeatedly mentioned, names like Gorgon, Typhon, "Shaker of the Earth," "War God," "Manslaughtering Ares," "Grim-faced Ares," Perseus, "Powerful son of Zeus," "Lord of Battles," and "Ares the Destructive." "Deathmist" is Lattimore's translation in line 264, and may refer to Mars with its cometary tail in that age, their "Fleece of Aries."
Zeus is mentioned repeatedly, as is Pallas Athene (including her gray eyes). "Apollo," a borrowed word from Phoenicia, for "Baal," is used once, and Aphrodite also appears once. In general, it is a description of planetary conflicts. Many think it was of one conflict between Ares and Hera, but this model suggests it was two conflicts. The first was between Pallas Athene and Ares; the second between Hera and Ares.
ISRAEL. Were the Bible organized chronologically, the first book listed would be the Book of Job. Some of its more intriguing discussions are on ancient cosmology:
Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus WITH HIS SONS?
Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth? Job 38:32-33
ARCTURUS. The English word translated "Arcturus" is from Latin, and probably is Greek in origin. In Hebrew, the word translated "Arcturus" is 'ayish or 'ash, which seems to be the old Hebrew word for the red planet, Mars. When the adjective 'mah (the great, the mighty) is added to 'ayish, it becomes 'mah 'ayish, "the great Mars," or "the mighty Mars."
MAZZAROTH. In Hebrew, "retet" and "retheth" are words for terror, trembling. "Mizrach" means "from the east," or from the direction of sunrise. Thus "mazza-retheth", or Mazzaroth, meant "the terror from the east," that is, from where the Sun rises, the celestial east in space. (Since the Earth rotates from west to east, all planets and stars rise in the east.)
"Arcturus," in Hebrew, 'ayish, is almost certainly a planet, not a constellation. Constellations do not have sons or satellites, and distant stars do not have binary partners that were visible to the naked eye.
The number of "sons" or satellites of 'ayish is not cited in the Book of Job, but "two" is an excellent guess. Elsewhere in an obscure Talmudic passage, the count of two is cited for the sons of Arcturus. The Hebrew word "aur" is cognate with the earlier Sanskrit word for Mars, "ayish".
If it is granted that Swift was privy to a copy of an ancient Chinese sketch of Mars and its two moons, there becomes three ancient places as sources for the two moons of Mars, not one (Greek sources). One source might be in a pictographic language, the "Fire Star," the Chinese source. The second is a Greek source; Greek is an Indo-European language that eventually was alphabetized. The third source is a source from the ancient Semitic family of languages, the 38th chapter of the Book of Job.
It is the suspicion of the authors that "Arcturus and his sons" as a translation was just an ancient translator's guess. A better rendition would be "Mars and its two satellites," or alternately, "Ares and its two steeds."
If and when the missing clue surfaces, a suspected sketch of Mars, it will make three ancient sources from three ancient languages for the orbiting Deimos and Phobos. It will also create "panic and terror" in gradualism's cosmology.
Earlier, the chance of "coincidence" was calculated at one possibility in two decillion. The chance that some form of an ancient Chinese sketch will turn up is much better. A search should be put on in archives of Peking, Paris, the Vatican, monasteries of Belgium and Germany and the British Museum, London, with attention given to the papers of Edmund Halley, Isaac Newton, Alexander Pope, Dr. Hans Sloane and Jonathan Swift.
If such a search is successful, Marsographers and planetary catastrophists should not be surprised.
Clue # 12 -Literary Scars Of Mars In The English Language
369 Words in English Derived from the Red Planet
(80% Relate to "Bad Action" or "Bad Experiences")
Individuals carry both physical and psychological scars. So do societies. Physical scars are the more obvious, and heal faster. It is the psychological scars that, often, are deeper and slower to heal.
So it has been with ancient scars on mankind from the ancient Mars-Earth Wars. Mankind has been afflicted with episode after episode of ancient catastrophism - all close flybys by Mars. The scars remain in our calendar (March). They remain in the theme of holidays (Halloween and Passover). The scars also remain words derived from the planet Mars in the modern English language. The large majority of those words can be characterized as "bad action" words.
Fifteen of the physical scars of Mars have been discussed, and include:
The fragmentation of Astra on the Roche Limit of Mars.
The evidence that Mars put on 1.5% more weight.
The resulting genesis of the asteroids.
The sudden genesis of the former Martian ring system.
The numerous pitlets on both Deimos and Phobos.
The numerous pitlets also on tiny Gaspra.
The crater distribution on Mars, 93% on one side.
The rim where the Martian hemisphere of craters ends.
The genesis of its two bulges, Tharsis and Elysium.
The birth of its giant rift system, Valles Marineris.
The birth and infancy of the giant volcanoes of Mars.
The dry river beds on Mars (but without any canals).
The cause of twin spin axis tilts - Mars and the Earth.
The genesis of the ancient icy cometary tail of Mars.
The psychological scars of the ancient Mars-Earth Wars also have caused very deep memories with long-lasting roots imprinted on our language. The following is a list of 369 words in modern English, which are derived from a variety of ancient words for Mars and its satellites, Phobos and Deimos.
Note that most of these words listed below usually connote some kind of a "bad action" or a connection with a bad experience. Many come from Latin. Many come from Greek via Latin and French. Some of the words have Germanic, Greek, Hebrew, Phoenician or Vedic origins.
Catastrophic Words In English Derived From The
Words Ares, Astra, Bel, Indra, Mars, Tyr, Etc.
FROM GERMANIC NORTHERN EUROPE (Via North Italy). Tyr, the Scandinavian deity of battle = Mars. In Anglo-Saxon, Ti, Tiig, genitive, Tiwes, whence, 1. Tuesday - Mars' day, following the Sun's day and the Moon's day. In old Norse, Mars was tivar, Lithuanian, devas, old Latin, dius. 2. Deity, Deism. 3. Deify. 4. Trauma. 5. Trepidation. 6. Tempest. 7. Tremor. 8. Trouble. 9. Turmoil. 10. Turbulent, Turbulence. 11. Tumult. 12. Turbid. 13. Turbine. 14. Trouble. 15. Tumble. 16. Trundle. 17. Trumpet. 18. Tremble. 19. Torch. 20. Temblor. 21. Terror.
One of the two Roman days set aside for fearing and venerating Mars was on March 21. Its name was their "tubulustrium," an anniversary day remembering with horror some of the past cosmic holocausts. "Tubulustrium" in Latin was from Etruscan roots, and is cognate with the words listed above.
From Chaldea, Phoenicia And Carthage And On To Rome
During the youth of the Roman Republic, Roman traders exchanged merchandise, money, letters of credit, words and phrases with Carthaginian merchants. Carthaginian and Phoenician ships traveled great distances across the Mediterranean Sea, across the Indian Ocean and apparently to a limited extent, also across the Atlantic Ocean.
Then came Rome's two Punic Wars with Carthage, long, dragged out affairs, culminating in the demolition of Carthage. Carthage had been a colony of Phoenicia. Phoenician was Carthage's language. There was ample time and occasion for Phoenician loan words to be borrowed into Latin. The Phoenician word for Mars, "Baal," was one of those loan words.
BAAL = Mars. FROM CARTHAGE. In Latin, "bellum" was the word for war. Bellona was the Roman goddess of war. 22. Bellicose. 23. Belligerent, Belligerence. 24. Ante-bellum. 25. Hannibal and his father Hasdrubal, both Carthaginian generals during the Punic Wars; both fought Rome and both were named after Mars.
FROM PHOENICIA. 26. Jezebel and various Phoenician place names, such as 27. Baalbek, etc.
FROM CHALDEA, where BEL = MARS. 28. Belshazzar, 29. Babel.
In Greece, "Apollo" was a Hellenized loan word from the Phoenician "Baal" (Mars.) It was Hellenized with the softening of the "b" to a "p" plus additions of a prefix of "a" and a suffix of "o". From Greek, 29. Apollo, as in the Apollo space program. 30. Apollos, an early Christian leader of prominence, and perhaps "apologetics."
FROM GREECE - TYPHON, via Persia and to China, tai fung, a great wind. 31. Typhoon. "Typhon" was a name for the type of cosmic storm, moving from east to west as the Earth rotated in a marine setting. It described Typhon's journey above and across the Mediterranean Sea during Mars flybys from the east (the Levant) to the west (Sicily.)
Apollodorus described Typhon vividly. Typhon was a son of Hera but was without a father. He was a grisly monster with 100 dragons heads, cast into Tartarus by Zeus. He was the father of the savage Cerberus, the horrible Hydra, and the catatonic Chimaera and of dangerous winds. Typhon is related both to the Chinese t'ai fung, a great wind, and the Arabic tufan, also a great, tempestuous wind.
FROM GREECE. ARES = Mars (from Sanskrit "ayush.") Attributes: a celestial warrior with a spear, many flashes of cosmic lightning and a burning torch. The hurling of his torch or celestial spear was the signal for the commencement of celestial warfare. Many of these words come to English directly from Latin, and others via Latin and French.
32. Aryan (Arian). 33. Ardor. 34. Arm. 35. Armada. 36. Armor. 37. Armistice. 38. Army. The second Roman fear day was October 24, their "Armilustrium." It is cognate with the above words. 39. Areopagite, originally court of astrologers, seers, star gazers and monthly prognosticators who met in Athens on Mars hill, near the Acropolis to prognosticate. Later, early in the modern era, the Areopagites became Athenian philosophers and judges.
40. Arrant (errant), a wandering vagrant of notorious character. 41. Arrogant, arrogance. 42. Arrow. 43. Arsenal. 44. Arson. 45. Arsenic. 46. Artillery. 47. Argonaut. 49. Armature. 50. Error, related to errant, arrant.
FROM DEIMOS, A SATELLITE OF MARS. From Deimos, the smaller, outer satellite. Deimos is a Greek word for terror. 51. Demon, demonic. 52. Demented, dementia.
FROM PHOBOS, the inner of the two ancient steeds of Ares. In Greek "phobos", like Deimos, was another of Greek words for various aspects of panic, fear and terror. 53. Phobia. 54 - 309. Roget's International Thesaurus lists 256 different kinds of phobias including kleptophobia, the fear of stealing, hydrophobia, the fear of water, Anglophobia, fear of the English and cometophobia, the fear of comets.
Mars was a comet as ices effervesced off the surface of its Eastern Hemisphere during the Catastrophic Era. With the rounding out of the orbit of Mars, nevertheless, a fear of comets continued, even into the medieval age. Cometophobia began to end with the coming of Kepler, Galileo, the telescope, Halley of comet fame and Newton.
One significant well-known, historical example of cometophobia was the appearance of Halley's Comet in 11 B.C., the Bethlehem Star. It coincided with the birth of Christ. The shepherds saw the star and succumbed to cometophobia.
Also consumed with cometophobia, the Magi journeyed from Babylon to Jerusalem, and Bethlehem, in search of perhaps a new king and a new dynasty, perhaps the promised Messiah. In Jerusalem, cleverly, King Herod asked the Magi to report back to him whatever information they found. (They didn't.)
The Roman puppet "king", Herod, enraged and afflicted with cometophobia, had all of the male babies under two years of age in and around Bethlehem slaughtered to ensure the death of the rumored child of the heavenly sign.
If the population of Bethlehem and environs was 10,000, and if the average length of life was 50, that would have been a slaughter of some 200 male babies. This royal rampage, too, was a result of the prevailing cometophobia that afflicted King Herod. Cometophobia was a psychological scar of Mars.
The next appearance of Halley's Comet was in December, 69 AD It was held to mean the coming of a new dynasty. As a result of a certain astrologer's advice, Nero slaughtered numerous potential rivals in Rome who he or the astrologer deemed to be a threat to the line of Caesar.
Comet appearances in Rome also were considered to herald the coming of a new dynasty, bad news for the old dynasty. Paul, an early Christian leader, already incarcerated in the Mamertine prison, was among those that Nero slaughtered. Nero and his court magician, like King Herod, were afflicted with cometophobia.
In Jerusalem in December of 69 AD, astrologer types also saw this appearance of Halley's Comet. Their interpretation also was that it was a sign of an upending of the Caesars and Roman rule. It was the ideal time to rebel from Rome; even the signs in the heavens were favorable.
With this interpretation, evident from the heavens, astrologers badly advised the leaders of the rebel party. It was a sign from heaven to the zealots of the upcoming fall of the Roman Empire. The zealots were the party of that era, in the name of patriotism, planning a violent revolution against Rome. They guessed, wrongly, that it was a good time to capitalize on the troubles of Rome.
Thus it was that the rebel zealot leaders were persuaded by "a sign from heaven" to publicly rebel against Rome; the populace either agreed or were intimidated. The upshot was a ruinous rebellion, at least as devastating and sad as was our Civil War. The astrologers and the zealot leaders, in 69 AD in Jerusalem, also became victims of cometophobia, and it was a sad turning point in Jewish history. In all three cases, in Bethlehem, in Rome and in Jerusalem, massacres resulted from a widespread cometophobia.
HORUS was the Egyptian Mars. It is cognate with the Greek Ares and the Hebrew mah 'awr. Greece also borrowed loan words from Egypt and vice versa. 311. Horror, horrid, horrible. 312. Hours and 313. Horoscopes.
The ancient Hebrew word for Mars seems to have been something like "'owr" or "'uwr", with the prefix "'mah." Thus '"mah 'owr." Thus it was that the Egyptian word and the Hebrew word for Mars were similar, which is not surprising, since early on, Israel spent many years in Egyptian servitude. Egyptian was the first language of Moses. These words were cognate with the Sanskrit "ayush," the Greek Ares, and the planet Mars.
"Mars" apparently was a Latin slur of the Greek "Magna Ares," the great Mars. Mars was the nominative case, martis was the genitive form. 314. The month of March, one of the two months that featured Mars flybys. 315. To Mar. 316. Marauder. 317. Martial. 318. To March. 319. Murrain, a cosmic pestilence.
Mars flybys brought to the Italian peninsula widespread damage, death, terror and destruction. The Latin word and deity of death is "mors" (genitive mortis) and this word is related to (and cognate with) the genitive form of Mars (martis.) 320. Morose. 321. Mortal. 322. Immortal. 323. Morbid. 324. Moratorium. 325. Morgue. 326. Mortgage. 327. Mortify. 328. Mortician. 329. Murder. 330. Murmur. 331. Morsel. 332. Mourn.
The Latin word for a star, either a moving planet or a fixed star, was "astrum," (masculine) and "astra" (feminine.) The Latin "astra" was cognate with the Phoenician planetary deity, Astarte (Venus.) Apparently "Astarte-Astra" became Phoenician loan word to the Romans, like "Baal-Apollo" was to the Greeks.
333. Asterisk. 334. Asteroid. 335. Astonish. 336. Astound. 337. Astral. 338. Astrolabe. 339. Astrology. 340. Astronomy. 341. Star. 342. Astrophysics. 343. Catastrophe, catastrophist (a planet approaching, throwing down bolides and/or bolts of electricity from above). 344. Disaster. 345. Diastrophism. 346. Disarray.
In Indic, INDRA = Mars. 347. India, the land of Indra, 1,600,000 sq. miles, 3% of the land area of the Earth. 348. Indians. The populace inhabiting old India, including citizens of Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, exceeds one billion. This is 22% of the world's population.
349. The East Indies. 350. Indonesia. These geographical words also are cognate with Indra, the Vedic Mars, Indra. Indonesians number another 200 million, named after the Vedic Mars.
351. American Indians, the name given to the native race inhabiting the Western Hemisphere. This race was misnamed by Christopher Columbus, because to his dying day he thought he had discovered a route to the East Indies. Columbus' name stuck. American Indians comprise some 150 million, or 3% of the world's population. As a group, "Indians" from India, Indonesia and American Indians total over 25% of the world's population.
The Roman word for the planet "Venus," as it so happens, is derived from the Indic "Vishnu." Why the Romans adopted a loan word for one planet from India, and another loan word for another two planets from Greece is a good question. Vishnu probably was an Indic loan word to the Trojans, and from there to the Etruscans, before Rome was founded, circa 750 B.C.E. At any rate, there was no law saying that the Romans had to be consistent with their sources for loan words.
352. THE INDO-ARYAN RACE, Part I. The Brahmins of India are Indo-Aryans and they claim that their civilization is the oldest of all civilizations, - even older than Sumerian civilization. There is a line of logic indicating that this may be true; ancient Sumer may have indeed been a branch of a more widespread paleo-Indic civilization, or perhaps it was vice versa. In the West, Sumer has been considered the most ancient of the literate societies.
The "Indic" part of "Indo-Aryan" is from Vedic sources, Indra-Mars. The "Aryan" part of is from Greek and perhaps Hittite sources, Ares-Mars, which is related to the Sanskrit "ayush". Due to these circumstances, this hyphenated name, "the Indo-Aryan race" is the linguistic equivalent of "the Mars-Mars race." These words are also scars of Mars.
Add the India Indians, the Indonesian East Indians, the American Indians and the Indo-Europeans and the total population of these races is some 60% of the world population. Even a greater percentage of the world population speak one or more of the Indo-European family of languages. This is because English has become the world language of business and science.
353. The Indian Ocean. This ocean, named after the Vedic Mars, contains 25% of all the water on the surface of the planet Earth. By coincidence this proportion is similar to the per cent of the world's population that are from the sub-continent of India and Indonesians.
354. The East Indies, a geographical term for a collection of islands.
355. The West Indies, another geographical term.
356. Indiana, a state and a county in Pennsylvania.
357. Indianapolis, the capitol of Indiana.
358. Indian River, a county on the Atlantic coast of Florida. In addition there are such towns as:
359. Indianola, in Washington, Nebraska and Mississippi
Indian Harbour, Labrador
Indian Head, Saskatchewan
Indian Hills, Colorado.
Indian Lake, Michigan.
Indian Springs, in California and Virginia
Indian Trail, North Carolina
Indian Village, New York
FROM NORTH CAROLINA. 360. Mars Hill, a village in North Carolina named after 361. Mars Hill, a hill in Athens prominent in the Book of Acts. This was where the Areopagites, seers and monthly prognosticators of Ares, once counseled citizens of the city of Venus (Athens) regarding past and future catastrophes and of their celestial schedules.
ANCIENT CHINESE. Ancient Chinese writing, a pictographic language, is understood today only with difficulty. The modern Chinese character for the planet Mars means "the Fire Star." The ancient character for the fire star meant the same thing.
According to our advisor on the Chinese language, the ancient Chinese word for Mars contains two characters, each character of which has a top part and a bottom part (like fractions). The bottom part of the first character seems to mean "intent" or "purpose." The top half he could not understand. Of the second character, the top half means "fire" and the bottom part again he could not understand.
Yet he confirmed to us what the Chinese language signifies, namely that Mars was indeed a fire star with some kind of a purpose, perhaps also a schedule. This ancient pictograph for Mars is thought to antedate 2000 B.C.E.
362. Leviathan, a large and dangerous dragon. This was the name of a great ancient monster of the celestial deep, which was Mars by another name. For people of the Near East, Leviathan came from the celestial deep, not from the Indian Ocean. Leviathan is cognate with Lotan, an ancient Greek term for a cosmic dragon.
363. Behemoth (behemaut.) The terrible Behemoth was another horrible dragon of the great celestial deep that sometimes devastated the Near East region of the Earth, or even the entire planet's surface. It could be that Behemoth made its awful, occasional appearances and noises in the Hebrew month of Nisan, roughly March, while Leviathan made its even more devastating appearances in the other catastrophic month, October.
Consult the Book of Job, chapters 38 and 39. Teammate, Rehab and Asp were other Hebrew names for a dragon of the great celestial deep, and are probably from Chaldea.
FROM HEBREW. 364. Cherub. An angel, a messenger of
the Lord of hosts. The following description of a "cherub," is hardly
a lovable tot; it occurs both in Psalm 18 and II Samuel 22. The following
is a citation from the King James Bible.
Then the earth shook and trembled; the foundations also of the hills moved and were shaken, because he was wroth.
There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth devoured: coals were kindled by it.
He bowed the heavens also, and came down; and darkness was under his feet.
And he rode upon a CHERUB AND DID FLY, yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind.
He made darkness his secret place; his pavilion round about him were dart waters and thick clouds of the skies.
At the brightness that was before him his thick clouds passed, hail stones and coals of fire.
The Lord also thundered in the heavens, and the Highest gave his voice; hail stones and coals of fire.
Yea, he sent out his arrows, and scattered them; and he shot out lightning, and discomfited them.
Then the channels of waters were seen, and the foundations of the world were discovered at thy rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils. Psalm 18:7-15. (See II Samuel 22:8-16, a duplicate passage.)
In the widely regarded Strong's Concordance, an interesting comment is made.
3742. ..... keruwb, "ker-oob." of uncertain der. a cherub or an IMAGINARY figure.
Strong was mistaken; a keruwb was not an imaginary figure. Its crust was solid, rock solid; it had a mass 11% of the Earth' mass, and it had a cometary tail that extended tens of millions of miles. 365. Cherubim. 366. Sennacherib. (In Assyrian, "Sin" was the Moon, thus Sennacherib was named after the Moon plus the dragon Mars).
367. Iran, Iranian. Like Ares, Iran is cognate with, the Sanskrit word for Mars, which is "ayush", or "arush." As was mentioned previously. the English word Aryan (Arian) is derived from this Sanskrit word for Mars. Iran is just another form of "Aryan." In 1931 the ancient name of Persia was changed officially to Iran. This indicates correctly that the ancient peoples who settled Iran were primarily Aryans, not Semites. Aryan (Iran) at that ancient time was the land of devotees to, and followers of Ares.
The early post-flood settlers of northern Persia, for the most part, were the Medes, one of the earliest of the Indo-Aryan peoples. "Medes" and Medea are both cognate with Madai, a grandson of Utnapishtim (Noah.)
368. Arch, from Greek meaning "chief, great, principal." 369. Arc.
Until a sketch of an ancient Chinese star chart surfaces, or a copy thereof, it is premature to consider as hard evidence Swift's Laputan astronomers and their knowledge of Mars, its diameter and its two satellites. But there is ample circumstantial evidence, however, to suspect such a sketch existed and still might be found.
Story 46 is about the ancient 360-day year in over a dozen ancient calendars. The gradualists assume a 365+ day year has been installed since the beginning of time, and the calendar makers in this dozen plus of ancient societies all were mistaken. Moreover, they all made the same error. These ancient calendars are evidence of the ancient 360-day orbit of the Earth-Moon system.
Story 47 is that there are at least 369 words in English that are derived from various ancient words for the planet Mars. Some 10% of them are geographical place names. Well over 75% are "bad action" words, derived from catastrophic or cataclysmic themes. Enlil, Ares, Bel, Baal, Indra, Mars, Phobos, Typhon, Deimos, Horus, Cherub, Behemoth and Leviathan all have provided roots for words used in modern English.
There are concepts in the heavens such as the Greek "fleece of Aries," and the "aegis" of Venus. There is the "fluttering wings of the terrible angel of the Lord," the pestilence, fire, brimstone, the killer quakes, terrible thunder. To the ancients, such themes were scary, and they applied to scenarios, repeating century after century.
Definitely these words were "bad action words", from catastrophic experiences. The derivation of the English word "cherub," a toddler with a sweet disposition, is misleading. "Cherub" also came into English, via Hebrew, from catastrophic scenarios 3,000 and 4,000 years ago.
Sometimes, experts in academia make condescending remarks about how primitive were the ancients of the Catastrophic Era, and how fearful and superstitious they were. This implies those modern experts, knowing no cosmology other than gradualism, suppose they know more about ancient astronomical conditions than did the ancients themselves. 41. Arrogance.
If one chooses to doubt the menu - the conclusions and the dogmas of ancient gradualism, as your authors do, he or she then becomes skeptical of the traditional skeptics. But what is the word for that? Advocate of a paradigm shift? Believer? Catastrophic cosmologist? Iconoclast? Marsographer? New fashioned? Old fashioned? Planetary catastrophist? Student of ancient cosmology? Super skeptic? Perhaps as in mathematics and geomagnetism, the double negative becomes the positive.
With story 47, the reader is 90% of the way to the penthouse of catastrophic cosmology. There are only seven more flights of stairs to climb. These will be found in Volume III, "The Flood of Noah." It will be an analysis of the closest of all of the Mars flybys. The suspected distance, planet center to center, 15,000 miles! The suspected date, October 24, 2484 B.C.E., a day on which the Ark was ready, but just barely.
For the Mars-Earth relationship, with Mars less dense than the Earth, the Earth's Roche limit is about 10,500 miles, and perhaps as far out as 11,000 miles. If Mars came within 15,000 miles of the Earth's center, it was 4,000 miles from its Roche Limit, less than one Mars diameter. On this closest of occasions, unlike Astra, Mars survived, just barely. Also, the Sumerian Utnapishtim, who is the Hebrew Noah, and his wife also survived, also just barely. It was no pleasant weekend cruise.
Volume II And Its Place In The Series
Volume I addresses the evidence of a recent flare up, or nova of the Sun and recent delivery of the planets to the Sun, and the Sun's capture of them. "Recent" is used in the astronomical sense, not the historical sense.
Volume II, agreeing with Homer, indicts Mars as the "bane of mortals". It addresses both the evidence and the clues that Mars was indeed the "bane of mortals" on the Earth, the bane of Astra and the bane of diastrophism for the crust of Venus as well. It discusses how, and to some extent when, Mars and other planets were delivered to the Sun.
Chapter 7 addresses the Flood of Mars, and the genesis of the short term icy comets of the Solar System.
Chapter 8 addresses the twin tilt phenomenon between Mars and the Earth.
Chapters 9-10 address how the catastrophic era orbit of Mars rounded out, and was converted into its modern low eccentricity orbit. Also addressed was how the Moon shifted from a 30-day orbit to one of 29.53 days, and how the Earth shifted from a 360-day orbit to one of 365.256 days.
Chapters 11 and 12 provide an abundance of psychological clues, more than twelve, that as a package support the model and also indict gradualism.
Volume III, targeted for 1997 or 1998, is designed to analyze the closest ever of all of the Mars flybys. It was late in the year (October 24) of 2484 B.C.E. It addresses where Noah's Ark was built, and why. Also addressed are such topics as the ark's size, dimensions and shape, its construction site requirements, how far was it relocated geographically, in which direction according to modern coordinates, and where it finally was moored.
Are there geological relics in India that are parallel to the Ark's journey into Central Asia? It will address the route the floating Ark took, and how fast it moved.
Also to be addressed will be how deep the flood waters were, the peak velocities of those titanic tides and their source. Genesis cites that source as "the great fountains of the deep." The modern geographical word for that source is the Indian Ocean.
Volume III also will involve an analysis of the ancient periodic cyclicism of Mars flybys, 108 years, March case to March case, and 108 years, October case to October case, to the day and almost to the hour. The primary evidence is from the chronologies of the Old Testament, where chronologies are intermixed with accounts of catastrophic scenes. Material by Josephus and Talmudic material add to the scenario. In all ancient literature, only in the Old Testament and related Hebrew writings are catastrophes interleaved with chronicles.
Secondary evidence also will be cited from architectures, literatures and traditions from a dozen non-Hebrew sources from at least four continents. Those continents will be Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. Those societies will include the Mayans, the Vedic Indians, the ancient settlers of Cambodia, the Tibetans, Germanic sources (540 gates to Valhalla), Roman sources, pre-Inca sources perhaps, Japanese sources, etc.
Volume IV, if time allows, will address the Mars-Earth Wars from perspective
of the Earth's physical geography, and the damage our planet has endured.
The damage to the surface of Venus also may be a topic, as will the Earth's
geomagnetic field, and the electrical aspects of Mars-Earth flybys.