Fifth Edition  -  ©2003
   1.  Revelation, Reason, and Revolution
   2.  Preparing the Ground
   3.  Foundations for Darwin's Theory
   4.  Science and Geology
   5.  Charles Darwin, M.A.
   6.  The Species Question
   7.  The First Missing Link
   8.  From Mammal to Man
   9.  More Fossil Men
  10. Heads, Organs, and Embryos
  11. The Age of the Earth
  12. Old Earth, Young Earth
  13. From Revelation to Scientism
  14. The Road to Atheism
  15. New World Order
 Appendices Notes Bibliography Index


In the Minds of Men

Chapter One

Chapter 1, Note # 1 The account of Er is in Plato (1974 ed, 447) on line 614b in the universal Stephanus notation. The reader should be aware that the chapter headings and the italicized notes in the dialogues have been added by the commentator and, therefore, are to be regarded as opinions. The account of Er, for example, is found under the heading of "myth", but Plato does not regard it as such and specifically says, "It is not like Odysseus' tale to Alcinous" (p. 448).

Chapter 1, Note # 2 Bible resuscitations: 2 Kings 4:18-37; 2 Kings 13:20-21; Matthew 9:18-26; Luke 7:11-18; John 4:46-53; John 11:11-46; Acts 9:36-43; and Acts 20:9-12.

Chapter 1, Note # 3 Belief in the supernatural presents no problem to children, a fact well recognized by the adult population, which is seemingly dedicated to filling the child's mind with unlikely stories of tooth fairies, ghosts, and goblins. The unlikeliness of these stories is crucial. Taken as representing the supernatural, the stories have to lose all credibility, say, before high school, so that allusion to dimensions beyond the natural can be met then with the greatest skepticism. Nevertheless, people have an amazing resilience, and many still manage to retain a childlike curiosity for things beyond the natural world.

Chapter 1, Note # 4 In his biography of Socrates, A.E. Taylor (1975) says: "Socrates had heard a divine 'voice' since childhood and experience showed him that neglect of its warnings commonly led to unpleasant consequences" (p.45). "Convinced of the soul's immortality, Socrates believed he had a mission to preach to all men the single duty of 'tending the soul' and 'making it as good as possible' " (p. 146).

Chapter 1, Note # 5 Plato's phrase (p.420, line 592b) reflects his ideas of ideal forms in heaven and was expressed four hundred years later by the writer of Hebrews (9:23).

Chapter 1, Note # 6 The translator (Plato 1974 ed., 41) comments that the Republic is the temporal and only a shadow of the eternal. This same thought is found in 2 Corinthians 4:18.

Chapter 1, Note # 7 In his introduction to The Republic (1974 ed.) the translator agrees that "Plato was not a good nineteenth century liberal" (p. 51).

Chapter 1, Note # 8 The humanist Blackham (1976) writes, "The thinking of Plato and Aristotle proved congenial to the eventual triumphant Christian theologians established by the Roman State. The tradition established by Democritus and Protagoras was anathema to the Christians.... From the humanist point of view Plato is the enemy and Democritus ... is the champion" (p. 105). The book is dedicated to Democritus and Protagoras.

Chapter 1, Note # 9 Young (1974) shows that historians Lynn White and Arnold Toynbee have added the weight of scholarship to the accusation that the Christian church is responsible for today's pollution. Young comments that White's paper, presented to the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1966, may have been welcome to divert the blame for our ecological crises from science to the church, but shows that the claims are unfounded. Toynbee blames Judeo monotheism and Specifically Genesis 1:28 for the world's ills and suggests the remedy lies in reverting from the Weltanschauung of monotheism to the Weltanschauung of pantheism! Young points out that, in the first place, polytheism and pantheism are not the same thing.

Chapter 1, Note # 10 Constantine, when preparing his troops for the key battle for Rome at Milvian Bridge in A.D. 312, saw the cross of Jesus superimposed over the evening sun. A voice, such as the one heard by Socrates and by Saul on the road to Damascus spoke, saying, "In hoc signo vinces"--In this sign you will conquer. He went into battle with the sign, the cross, painted on the shields and won. The initial letters of the Latin have been contracted to IHS and are often found appended to the crucifix.

Chapter 1, Note # 11 Shotwell (1923) exposed Origen (A.D. 185-254) as an early liberal among the fathers of the Church: "Interpretation of the Scriptures by allegory is not, in Origen's eyes, an unwarranted liberty.... He not only denied the literal truth of much of Genesis and ... was a modern among the moderns--many a sermon upon the reconciliation of science and religion ... might be taken bodily from Origen" (p.292).

Chapter 1, Note # 12 Leonardo Bigollo Fibonacci was perhaps the greatest mathematician of the Middle Ages. His name is associated principally with the numerical sequence in which each succeeding term is the sum of the two immediately preceding. Born in 1179, he traveled to Algiers and from the Arabs learned the Hindu system of numerals from 1 to 9. He is credited with having introduced these to Europe, where calculations were still being made by the clumsy Roman numerals and Greek letters. The zero was, however, purely an Arab device and was introduced to Europe as part of the "Arabic" numeral system we use today.

Chapter 1, Note # 13 Thomas Aquinas wrote Summa Contra Gentiles, (1258-60) as a theological defense of Christian doctrine against the Jewish and Arab philosophers of the day. Aquinas wrote Summa theologica (1265-74) as a grand summary of all Christian doctrine. In it he claimed it was necessary to subject Christian wisdom to the discipline of "the Philosopher", by which he meant Aristotle. An English version of both works in summary form may be found in Magill (1963).

Chapter 1, Note # 14 Wyclif (or Wycliffe) followers, known as Wycliffites or Lollards--which may mean "mutterer" or "mumbler"--had by 1395 become an organized and well-supported group. They spread across Europe, and a revival began in Czechoslovakia under Jan Hus. Persecution was directed from Rome, and in England many Lollards were burned at the stake; Hus met the same death at Constance in 1415.

Chapter 1, Note # 15 Campanella (1963) gives eleven arguments for and against Galileo but finishes by refuting the idea that the earth moves around a stationary sun. He cites the following Scriptures that were seen to be violated by Galileo: Joshua 10:13; Judges 5:20; Psalm 93:1, Psalm 104:5; Ecclesiastes 1:4-6; and Isaiah 38:8.

Chapter 1, Note # 16 Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, written about 1300, consists of three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The latter-day Roman doctrine of Purgatory was fixed in the medieval mind by Dante's poetic and imaginative capture of Latin scriptural interpretation, and then secured visually in the Victorian mind by the Gustave Doré engravings made in the 1860s to illustrate a republished edition of Dante's work.

Chapter 1, Note # 17 The Dutch spectacle makers had invented the "spy-glass" in 1608 and by means of a "newsletter", Galileo then constructed several instruments of his own. He began observations in 1610 and studied the movement of sunspots and the moon and discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter. He reported these observations in The starry messenger (1611), which is today regarded as a classic piece of scientific reporting. Continuing his observations, Galileo published The assayer in 1623, in which he pointed out that the three comets that had caused so much controversy in 1618 had passed effortlessly through one "crystalline sphere" and into the next, so that it was evident that the "spheres" were purely imaginary. The hollow spheres had originally been conceived as a means of enabling the planets, but principally the fixed stars, to rotate in unison about a stationary earth. Even so, Galileo had only disproved the presence of the spheres but had offered no proof for his argument for heliocentricity. Interestingly, to this day, since there is no known stationary reference point in space, absolute motion cannot be determined. Thus Galileo's and subsequently our own view of the solar system is based less on fact and more on what seems most rational. The assayer expressed Galileo's more rational view in a very complete way. It was this aspect that came into conflict with the Church's theological view of the universe.

Chapter 1, Note # 18 Gutenberg's printing press was developed about 1460. By 1480 the process was becoming "commercial", and the first recorded biblical text to be printed was a Pentateuch in Hebrew at Bologna in 1482. By 1497 a small "porn" market had evolved in the printing trade, since it is on record that Savonarola introduced a feature to Florence's religious festival that year to collect and burn "souvenirs of regretted wickedness"--cards, dice, nude pictures, and spicy books such as the Decameron; Savonarola was burned at the stake for his efforts by a fanatical mob the following year.

Chapter 1, Note # 19 Hermes Trismegistus of ancient Egypt set out the philosophy that there is a harmony and correspondence among all different kinds of manifestations in the universe--the circling of the planets, the tides of the earth, the growth of vegetation, the lives of animals and people. Discovery of the periodicities in nature was said to indicate certain ratios found to be in harmony and believed to be under the divine control of a universal music. These ratios lead, for example, to a "sacred geometry" used by the Greek architects so that their temples would resonate with the life forms of the universe and thus enhance life. Some of the "dark practices" involved music based on the harmonies constructed from the "sacred ratios" in order to receive knowledge of the secrets of the universe.

Chapter 1, Note # 20 The classic work of Michelson and Morley to measure the speed of light was carried out in 1887. D.C. Miller repeated this work many times from 1902-26, confirming the work of 1887 and showing that this does not support Einstein's theory of relativity reported in 1905. Miller presented the results to the American Physical Society on December 1925, but from that day to this nothing has been done, and Polanyi (1955) points out that every standard textbook con-tinues the myth that the speed of light experiments confirm the theory of relativity.

Chapter 1, Note # 21 Webster (1924, 120) shows that Francis Bacon had an influence among the Rosicrucians and was associated with freemasonry. At that time, in the 1620s, both organizations were involved in some "dark practices" not approved of by the church, and, as head of the church and a strong Christian, James I would have had little choice but to terminate Bacon; bribery was possibly the lesser charge.

Chapter 1, Note # 22 Brown (1977) states "the famous Cogito ergo sum of Descartes was not a logical deduction that the person actually exists from the fact of thinking, since the premise of the argument already contained the conclusion. At its best it is an affirmation of personal existence but not strictly proof. The argument is really saying the same thing twice over in different words" (p. 488).

Chapter 1, Note # 23 The Greek Anaxagoras (about 500 B.C.) is said to be the originator of the doctrine of dualism, which holds that mind and matter exist as two distinct entities. Following its reintroduction by Descartes and an understanding of the laws of conservation of mass, of energy, and of momentum, the chief drawback of dualism is seen to be the problem of how a non-physical entity, the soul, which has no mass, can influence the body, which does have mass. Psychology has proposed a number of alternative theories such as radical behaviorism, logical behaviorism, and central-state identity, all of which totally rule out the existence of the soul or spirit within man.

Chapter 1, Note # 24 Details of Rousseau's sordid sex life including his exhibitionism are in Vol. 1 of his Confession, while the abandonment of his children at the Paris Foundling Hospital is mentioned in Vol. 2, pp. 74 and 89.

Chapter 1, Note # 25 The seven day week, so closely identified with the first chapter of Genesis, has always been a source of irritation to atheistic governments. The governments of France in 1793, of Russia in 1918, and that of Sri Lanka during the 1960s all unsuccessfully tried to change the seven day week.

Chapter Two

Chapter 2, Note # 1 In fairness to Alfonso, King of Castille, he made this remark after studying the earth-centered Ptolemaic solar system, which was later shown by Copernicus and Galileo to be fundamentally wrong.

Chapter 2, Note # 2 Eighth line of the preface to the poem "Milton".

Chapter 2, Note # 3 A mechanical device found in 1902 by marine archaeology at Antikythera, Greece, was discovered by gamma-ray techniques in 1973 to be a mechanism of unbelievable sophistication containing an epicyclic differential gear system. The mechanism was dated at 87 B.C. and, thus, the differential gear that we find in the back axle of the automobile today and which was believed to have been invented during the Industrial Revolution for textile machines was actually known to the Greeks eighteen centuries earlier.

Chapter 2, Note # 4 Remains of wet batteries were discovered in 1939, by Wilhelm Konig, near Baghdad. It is believed that the batteries were used for electroplating gold onto jewelry and were more than two thousand years old; rediscovery of this process was not made until the eighteenth century A.D.

Chapter 2, Note # 5 The extensive article by Wertime (1973) deals with the controversy regarding the beginnings of iron smelting from ores. Iron artifacts have been found which date as early as 2500 B.C. but this is disturbing for the usual textbook sequence of Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The author points out that the Black Sea coast is lined with self-fluxing sands containing 77 percent magnetite, which could permit smelting to be carried out at the unusually low temperature of 900°C.

Chapter 2, Note # 6 A 1967 investigation showed that a sophisticated casting technique had been employed which it was believed had been developed in the fourteenth century A.D. Although the horse had been dated at 470 B.C., because of the use of this casting technique, it was declared to be a fake. In 1973 another investigation, using a recently developed thermoluminescence technique for dating, showed without doubt that the horse was very ancient; it has since been reinstated as genuine. The Greek casting technique was evidently lost and only rediscovered in the fourteenth century. From Zimmerman et al. (1974).

Chapter 2, Note # 7 According to Raven (1942), John Ray had a distant though important influence on Charles Darwin. One of Ray's most significant works was The Wisdom of God manifested in the works of Creation published in 1691 and republished in at least ten editions. This work departed from the then traditional view of God held by the church in that although Ray gave great respect to design in nature and to a Designer, he could not accept the miraculous or the Genesis Flood (Raven p. 450). The theologian William Paley borrowed extensively from Ray's Wisdom of God and incorporated it into his Natural theology (1802), which Darwin read and enjoyed so much as a student at Cambridge (see Chapter Five). Raven concludes about Ray's Wisdom of God: "More than any other single book it initiated the true adventure of modern science, and is the ancestor of the Origin of Species or of L'Évolution Creatrice." (See Chapter Fourteen.)

Chapter 2, Note # 8 This is Osborn's (1929, 187) translation of the Latin from Linnaeus' Philosophia botanica, 1751. Other authors translate slightly differently although with the same meaning, e.g. Barber (1980, 52) and Himmelfarb (1968, 170).

Chapter 2, Note # 9 Himmelfarb (1968, 170) quotes Knut Hagberg's Carl Linnaeus (London: 1952, 197) who in turn quotes from Linnaeus' Dissertation on Perloris (1744) to show that Linnaeus conceded that it was "possible for new species to arise", and Himmelfarb adds that Linnaeus was held suspect by orthodox Christians for saying so.

Chapter 2, Note # 10 Linnean Society. This spelling in preference to Linnaean was officially adopted in 1802.

Chapter 2, Note # 11 Eulogy to Lamarck delivered to the French Academy in 1832 by Cuvier: "A system resting on such foundations may amuse the imaginations of a poet ... but it cannot for a moment bear the examination of anyone who has dissected the hand, the viscera, or even a feather" (p. 47).

Chapter 2, Note # 12 In a footnote Weismann (1891) mentions Jewish circumcision, then adds, "Among nations which practice circumcision as a ritual, children are sometimes born with a rudimentary prepuce [foreskin], however rather extensive statistical investigation has shown that this does not occur more frequently than in other nations in which circumcision is not performed" (1:447).

Chapter 2, Note # 13 Gorczynski and Steele (1981) were experimenting with mice and observed some apparently inherited reactions to certain drugs. The article aroused editorial comments such as "too soon for the rehabilitation of Lamarck" and "biological heresy". (See also Science 81 May issue.)

Chapter 2, Note # 14 Weismann (1891) describes the classic experiment started in 1887 with white mice, beginning with seven females and five males. A total of 901 mice were produced in five generations. All had their tails removed before breeding and all had been born with normal tails (1:444).

Chapter 2, Note # 15 Coleman (1964) says of Cuvier, "His system was, if anything, 'extinctive', eliminating by catastrophe, and not 'progressive', creating (through God) new and higher creatures as an aftermath of catastrophe. There had been a succession of discrete populations, each more or less complete, and each neatly perishing by the action of some remote catastrophe" (p. 51).

Chapter 2, Note # 16 Nordenskiold (1928) states: "The assertion that so often occurs in literature that, in his (Cuvier's) view, life had been created anew after each catastrophe is utterly incorrect; on the contrary he points out that isolated parts of the earth may have been spared on each occasion when it was laid waste, and that living creatures had propagated their species anew from these cases, which indeed he expressly applies to the human race" (p. 338).

Chapter Three

Chapter 3, Note # 1 French historian Halévy (1937-8) writing in the nineteenth century clearly saw that the presence of the Evangelical movement in England prevented a socialist revolution such as had occurred in France. "We shall explain by [the Evangelical revival] the extraordinary stability which English society was destined to enjoy throughout a period of revolution and crises; what we may truly term the miracle of modern England, anarchist but orderly, practical and businesslike, but religious, and even pietist" (p. 10). Halévy saw this as providential; left-wing historians have labelled this a conservative prop for an economically oppressive society.

Chapter 3, Note # 2 Richie-Calder (1982) exposes just some of the connections between the French revolutionaries and the Lunar Society. Richard Edgeworth, a member of the Lunar Society, was on visiting terms with Rousseau, while Benjamin Franklin was a friend of Matthew Boulton of Birmingham and frequently visited Paris to meet his friends Voltaire and Rousseau. Voltaire lived for some years in exile in England (p. 142).

Chapter 3, Note # 3 Webster (1924) comments on J.G. Findel's History of Freemasonry (1866, 131): "Findel frankly admits that the New Atlantis contained unmistakable allusions to Freemasonry and that Bacon contributed to its final transformation" (p. 120). Webster pointed out that one of the earliest and most eminent precursors of Freemasonry is said to have been Francis Bacon, who is also recognized to have been a Rosicrucian; the Rosicrucian and Freemason orders were closely allied and may have had a common source.

Chapter 3, Note # 4 Letter from C. Darwin to J.D. Hooker, July 1860. Found in F. Darwin 1887, 2:324.

Chapter 3, Note # 5 In 1782 Joseph Priestley published An history of the corruptions of Christianity. By "corruptions" Priestley was referring to the New Testament miracles. Priestley's output of theological works from the Unitarian viewpoint was phenomenal, considering that at the same time he was a notable scientist. Schofield (1963) estimates that he published eleven volumes of religious history, fourteen volumes of polemical theology, seven volumes of sermons, as well as numerous tracts and Unitarian hymns. In his History of early opinions (1786), he tried to demonstrate that the earliest Christians had not held the view that Jesus was the eternal Son of God but that this had been introduced later. Priestley's disbelief in the Bible miracles was no doubt quite sincere, but he actively promoted his ideas and thus generated unbelief in others. The Bible-believing public was enraged, and when he showed his sympathies to the French socialist revolutionaries in 1791, they burned his house to the ground. He left England and died in America in 1804.

Chapter 3, Note # 6 This passage discovered by Himmelfarb (1968, 387) was penned by Darwin in October 1873 and reveals the completely irreligious nature of the man. Passages such as this have not been generally made available to the public and are part of a vast body of correspondence which, to this day, remains unpublished, confined to the archives of the Cambridge University Library.

Chapter 3, Note # 7 Although Zoönomia was placed on the Index in 1817, none of Charles Darwin's works, including The Descent of Man (1871), were ever placed on the Catholic Index. The Index librorum prohibitorum (Index of Forbidden Books) was initiated at the Council of Trent in 1557, revised under Benedict (1757) and Leo (1900), reevaluated at Vatican II, and abolished in 1966.

Chapter 3, Note # 8 According to Simpkins (1974) and most commentaries, Malthus received his inspiration from three sources: Godwin, W. 1793. An enquiry concerning political justice and its function on general virtue and happiness. London. Godwin, W. 1797. The enquirer: Reflections on education, manners and literature. Dublin-London. Condorcet, ed. 1795. Outlines of an historical view of the progress of the human mind. Translated from the French. London.

Chapter 3, Note # 9 Polanyi (1957) quotes extensively from Joseph Townsend 1786. Dissertation on the poor law. Beginning with a story of goats and dogs from Condorcet, which was at most apocryphal, Malthus had elevated it to the status of a scientific principle, later expressed by Herbert Spencer as "survival of the fittest", a principle that became the coincident inspiration for both Wallace and Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection.

Chapter 3, Note # 10 Playfair's work (1970) is the only biography of Hutton, but readers should be aware that Playfair was very sympathetic to Hutton's views and deals in a most cursory manner with such matters as the charge of atheism. Others were also sympathetic to Hutton's rather socialist views, including the Edinburgh Review, an organ of Edinburgh University.

Chapter 3, Note # 11 Lyell (1830-33) assumed that events in the past had taken place at the same rate as are observed today. He then argued that for the many small and necessarily disconnected unusual events (minor catastrophes) to have occurred all at the same time (thereby resulting in a single major catastrophe) would be a coincidence far beyond all chance of ever happening (1:80). This argument is pure sophistry since it is based on the assumption that uniformitarianism is true.

Chapter 3, Note # 12 A worldwide distribution of volcanic ash was reported by Kennett et al. (1975) from 320 deep-sea sections drilled during the Deep Sea Drilling Project. The results indicated that there has been a much higher rate of volcanism in the past than has previously been expected.

Chapter 3, Note # 13 Brian Sullivan of The Philadelphia Inquirer (2 January 1981) reported that at the 147th national meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held in Toronto, evolution was "voted-in" as a scientific law.

Chapter 3, Note # 14 In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker, Darwin referred to Lyell and Hooker's conspiracy as the "delicate arrangement". Brackman (1980, xi) took this as the title for his revealing book.

Chapter 3, Note # 15 Colp (1977) draws from several unpublished papers and letters of Charles Darwin at the university library, Cambridge, to show that during March and April 1851, while being treated by Dr. Gully at Malvern, Darwin consulted a clairvoyant. She told Darwin that "the mischief "was in his stomach and lungs and described to him "a most appalling picture of the horrors which she saw in his inside" (p. 44). Darwin had witnessed many forms of the occult during the journey of the Beagle. In the Indian Ocean, among the Cocos Islands, he had attended a black magic ritual which, however, he contemptuously described as a "foolish spectacle" (footnote in Brackman 1980, 279). Wallace had a disagreement with Darwin centered on this area of spiritism. Wallace was convinced that man had a soul or spirit; Darwin was evidently not at all convinced. The argument ran that since animals do not possess a soul, then at some point in the supposed ancestral lineage of man, the belief in the soul required God to have given it. Wallace, for all his irreligion, considered this to have been necessary. Darwin was opposed and thus by implication denied the existence of the human soul.

Chapter 3, Note # 16 Brackman (1980) has quoted this now famous moment of revelation from Wallace's The wonderful century, written in 1898. However, there seem to be a number of versions: Bronowski (1973, 306) has another version but no reference, while Himmelfarb (1968, 246) quotes from Wallace's My life (1905, 1:362) with a third version. Each version contains the expression, "suddenly flashed upon me the idea". Brackman (1980) makes the interesting observation that at the time of his revelation Wallace had malarial fever which leaves the victim temporarily "high" (p. 198).

Chapter 3, Note # 17 This line appears in Tennyson's (1974) In memoriam A.H.H. (Canto 56): "Man...who trusted God was love indeed/ and love Creation's final law--/ Tho' nature, red in tooth and claw,/ with ravine, shriek'd against his creed" (p. 105).

Chapter Four

Chapter 4, Note # 1 In his letter to Mantel, 29 October 1841. Lyell states the purpose of his first visit to Niagara: "As I shall send a paper on the proofs of their [Niagara Falls] recession to the Geological Society, I will not dwell on them now" (in K. Lyell 1881, 2:58).

Chapter 4, Note # 2 In his letter to Horner 13 June 1842. During his second visit to Niagara, Lyell says: "I have found some additional evidence of value to my mind, in favour of recession of the Falls" (in K. Lyell 1881, 2:60).

Chapter 4, Note # 3 In the tenth edition of his Principles, Lyell (1867) states: "But after the most careful enquiries which I was able to make during my visit to the spot in 1841-2, I came to the conclusion that the average of one foot a year would be a much more probable conjecture. In that case it would have required 35,000 years for the retreat of the Fall" (1:361).

Chapter 4, Note # 4 The biased nature of Lyell's estimate is entirely lost from view in Bailey's (1962, 149) biography.

Chapter 4, Note # 5 In the Royal Ontario Museum Publication, Tovell (1979, 16) gives a summary of the published rates of recession of Niagara Falls from 1842 to 1927. The average value is 4 feet (1.2 m) per year. Discounting four very low values, the average becomes 5 feet (1.5 m) per year. Footnote to the table indicates that the falls have now been "stabilized" and recession in recent years is reduced to 1 foot (0.3 m) per year.

Chapter 4, Note # 6 Ronov (1959) states: "The quantity of carbonate sediments [limestone] deposited in a given post pre-Cambrian epoch was directly proportional to the intensity of volcanism and to the area of distribution of inland seas" (p. 497).

Chapter 4, Note # 7 Both papers report surveys by depth sounder and piston cores in the tropical Pacific revealed a layer of white ash evidently laid down rapidly and believed to be volcanic in origin. The layer is correlated with white ash in other locations and is believed to have been caused by worldwide volcanism.

Chapter 4, Note # 8 HMS Challenger, a corvette of 2,306 tons, was fitted out with laboratories and a scientific team. In three and a half years, from 1873-76, it traveled 69,000 miles taking samples from the ocean bottom around the world. For a delightful summary of this massive work see Schlee (1971).

Chapter 4, Note # 9 Pettersson (1950, 44) reports the thickest ocean bottom sediment found was thirteen thousand feet in the Atlantic.

Chapter 4, Note # 10 Brues (1951) presents a series of photographs of insects trapped in gum from pine trees, which are thus perfectly preserved. Alleged to be thirty to ninety million years old, the insects appear to be identical to those found today.

Chapter 4, Note # 11 Andrews (1926) makes the following statements: "These eggs were in a great deposit full of dinosaur skeletons" (p. 229). "Most interesting of all was the fact that in two eggs that had been broken in half we could plainly detect the delicate bone of the embryonic dinosaurs" (p.231).

Chapter 4, Note # 12 Miller (1841) points out that in Britain over an area of ten thousand square miles fish remains are found bearing "unequivocally the marks of violent death. The figures are contorted, contracted, curved; the tail in many instances is bent around the head; the spines stick out; the fins are spread to the full, as in fish that die in convulsions" (p. 232).

Chapter 4, Note # 13 George C. Page museum information sheet: "Specimens have thus far been found of some 3,000 individual wolves. The remains of approximately 2,500 saber-tooths [tigers] rank second" (p.4).

Chapter 4, Note # 14 The discovery in 1914 of a human skeleton of modern appearance among Pleistocene animals at six to ten feet below the surface sparked heated controversy. Boule and Vallois (1957, 478) cite professor Merriam's explanation, which relies more on imagination than fact, to totally discount the evidence.

Chapter 4, Note # 15 The discovery by Irving (1973) of the jawbone of a teenage child among Pleistocene animals in North America caused a dilemma. A variety of radiocarbon test dates taken from associated pieces of wood were available. However, the investigators were uncertain whether to choose the ages of about 40,000 years to satisfy the geologists, or choose the ages about 10,000 years to satisfy the archaeologists, who surmise that man arrived in North America relatively recently. An age of 27,000 years was selected. Interestingly, in the footnote to reference 5 it is noted that repeat radiocarbon tests were carried out but, "when it became apparent that the radioactivity was equivalent to a date of about 4,000 years, the counting was stopped" (see Chapter Twelve). The discovery in text and picture for general public consumption was reported in National Geographic 1979, 156 (September): 330-363.

Chapter 4, Note # 16 Laverdiere (1950) describes the most recent whale discovery in 1947 at between 275 and 300 feet (84-92 m) above sea level. This paper is a convenient summary of seventeen other fossil whales previously reported and found in the hills surrounding the St. Lawrence River valley. Hills in Vermont (U.S.) rise to 500 feet above sea level, and a whale fossil was discovered there in 1907.

Chapter 4, Note # 17 Hallam (1963) gives five examples to show what he believes to be cyclic changes in Jurassic sedimentation caused by cyclic rising and falling of sea level. No mechanism is given, and the explanation does not explain ancient sedimentations and beaches tilted from the horizontal. This paper is only one of many that require multiple vertical movements over vast lengths of time. A typical presentation of the rising and falling of continents and sea levels is found in Dunbar 1960, 395.

Chapter 4, Note # 18 Doumanai and Long (1962) write, "The most striking testimony to the richness of this [fossil] record are the numerous coal beds as much as 13 feet thick.... Large petrified tree trunks as much as 24 feet long and 2 feet in diameter...are embedded in the sandstone. Coal measures... have been known in Antarctica since 1901" (p. 175).

Chapter 4, Note # 19 In the discussion to this lengthy and detailed presentation by Whitley (1910), Sir Henry Howarth said that many of the facts were to be found in his book The mammoth and the flood (1887). Howarth's book is today a rarity and Whitley's paper is likely to be more readily available; both speak of many thousands of buried mammoths.

Chapter 4, Note # 20 Farrand (1961) presents a typical Lyellian argument to explain the frozen mammoths, saying that those found were victims of tundra life, i.e. fell into a bog, and thus no catastrophe is admitted. The author downplays the number of mammoth specimens found claiming only "about 39". In his letter reply to Farrand (1961), Lippman (1962) reports: "Lydekker reports in the Smithsonian Reports for 1899, that about 20,000 pairs of tusks in perfect condition were exported for the ivory trade in the few decades preceding 1899. 'Buried ivory' was apparently a world-trade even in Aristotle's time" (p. 361).

Chapter 4, Note # 21 Early in 1859 Darwin bought a billiard table for himself (Colp 1977, 65).

Chapter 4, Note # 22 The massive and highly documented work of Dillow (1981) provides more details than will be found in the older works and should be more readily available.

Chapter 4, Note # 23 Hertz (1904) soberly describes the erect genital: "In the afternoon we succeeded in exposing ... the protruded male genital, 86centimeters long above and 105 centimeters long below; 10 centimeters above the urinary meatus; the diameter of the flattened-out penis is 19 centimeters" (p. 623). See also Digby 1926, 132.

Chapter 4, Note # 24 Gow (1972) took ice core samples from nine Antarctic glaciers; cores were 7,100 feet long. He found more than two thousand individual volcanic ash falls interbedded with the ice, which suggests to some that volcanic eruptions brought about the Ice Age. On the other hand, this does not preclude the possibility that the proximity of a comet caused simultaneous volcanic activity.

Chapter 4, Note # 25 Sears reports that more than 1,300 meteorites have been found in Antarctica. This is very unusual, since the world's museums only boast of 2,000 collected throughout the rest of the world, their occurrence being quite rare. There may be meteorites at the sea bottom of the Arctic. This would indicate that the source of the ice was extraterrestrial as was the source of the meteorites. (See Chapter Twelve.)

Chapter 4, Note # 26 A series of ocean-bottom core samples described by Hough (1950) showed that ice was absent from Antarctica's Ross Sea six thousand years ago and only extended to its present limit four thousand years ago.

Chapter 4, Note # 27 The famous Heart Mountain thrust fault in Wyoming has perplexed geologists for years. According to fossil dating, "old" rock 1,500-1,800 feet thick and thirty by sixty miles is situated on top of "younger rock". It is argued that the "old" rock was uplifted and pushed across the "new" rock, but Pierce (1957) admits this orthodox explanation is fantastic and is at a loss to provide an alternative explanation.

Chapter 4, Note # 28 Corliss (1978) has fully documented more than four hundred articles from orthodox scientific journals, published in English since about 1850 to the most recent, relating to discoveries of ancient man either as actual skeletons or artifacts found in geologically unexpected places. At 786 pages this is a massive confrontation to today's geological and anthropological sciences.

Chapter 4, Note # 29 The petrified human skull was found in the coal deposit at the Freiberg (East Germany) mine. Following the opening of East Germany to the West in 1990, this skull was located and examined and found to be simply a carving of a human head using coal as the medium; it is not believed to have been a deliberate hoax.

Chapter 4, Note # 30 O'Rourke (1976) concludes: "The charge of circular reasoning in stratigraphy can be handled in several ways. It can be ignored, as not the proper concern of the public. It can be denied, by calling down the Law of Evolution. Fossils date rocks, not vice-versa, and that's that. It can be admitted, as a common practice ... or it can be avoided by pragmatic reasoning" (p. 54. Emphasis in original.)

Chapter 4, Note # 31 Students sometimes have held before them the example of pitch at room temperature. Although very brittle under a rapidly applied load (struck with a hammer), it will bend easily even under its own weight over a period of several days. This analogy is seldom found in print, however, as it is quite false: pitch is an amorphous solid whereas rock has a crystalline structure.

Chapter 4, Note # 32 Ellis (1995) gives details of a number of "fossil" creatures found to be living, such as the Paleozoic Coelacanth in 1938 and the Miocene Okapi (giraffid) in 1901.

Chapter 4, Note # 33 Apart from brief mention in newspapers during late July 1977, this article by Koster (1977) was the only full and objective published report in the English-speaking press. (See also Chapter Fifteen.)

Chapter 4, Note # 34 Alvarez and others (1980) propose an extraterrestrial cause for dinosaur extinction. Commented on in Science News, 1979, 115:356.

Chapter 4, Note # 35 Vertebrate paleontologist Roland Bird (1939) of the American Museum of Natural History describes dinosaur and human-like tracks at the Paluxy River.

Chapter 4, Note # 36 Roland Bird (1954) describes removal of the dinosaur tracks from the Paluxy riverbed and installation at the American Museum of Natural History.

Chapter 4, Note # 37 Paluxy River. June 1982. More than one hundred people representing the press and school teachers were invited as witnesses while TV cameras recorded the removal of tons of rock from the Paluxy riverbed following a trail of existing dinosaur tracks. The excavation revealed thirty-six fresh dinosaur prints together with twelve human-like footprints and a human-like handprint. Any possibility of fraud under these conditions was completely ruled out.

Chapter 4, Note # 38 Human-like tracks appear in limestone of the Carboniferous era -- that is, long before the appearance of mammals! They have been found from Virginia and Pennsylvania through Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and into the Rocky Mountains. Ingalls (1940) points out that they cannot all be carvings and even if they were made by an ancestor of man then modern geology is completely wrong.

Chapter 4, Note # 39 Derek Ager (1973) spends more than one hundred pages giving evidence that refutes Lyellian geology yet he cannot accept special Creation and the Noachian Flood. The result is an interesting attempt to be honest to science on the one hand while being loyal to the creed of evolution on the other.

Chapter 4, Note # 40 Cowen's (1975) book is an attempt to be honest to science but loyal to evolution. Such books as this and Ager's (1973) must eventually bring about the realization that there is something fundamentally wrong with Lyellian geology.

Chapter 4, Note # 41 Here Lyell (1845, 2:155) describes the fossil trees at South Joggins, Nova Scotia.

Chapter Five

Chapter 5, Note # 1 Francis Darwin's (1887) The life and letters of Charles Darwin contained the autobiography of Charles Darwin, but until the publication of Lady Barlow's restored version in 1958, it was not generally known just how much of Darwin's irreligious nature had been edited out of the 1887 version.

Chapter 5, Note # 2 Brackman (1980, 32) provides details of Leonard G. Wilson's discovery of seven of Lyell's notebooks at Kinnordy House, Kirriemuir, Scotland, in 1961. It is clear that within forty-eight hours of receiving Wallace's Sarawak Law in 1856, Lyell began to keep his own "transmutation notebook".

Chapter 5, Note # 3 The context of Darwin's note given in Barlow (1958, 30) that his father was a Freemason is in reference to the blood rites of initiation to that organization. There is no evidence that Charles Darwin had followed his grandfather Erasmus or his father Robert into Freemasonry.

Chapter 5, Note # 4 Expanded to four volumes in the third edition in 1801, Erasmus Darwin's Zoönomia was a massive work, which Darwin admitted in his Autobiography was full of speculation.

Chapter 5, Note # 5 Charles Darwin had this biography translated from German into English by W.S. Dallas. He wrote a very lengthy introduction and, in a footnote (p. 61), mentions that his grandfather Erasmus had two illegitimate daughters.

Chapter 5, Note # 6 The footnote in Barlow (1958, 22) is Francis Darwin's note that both Charles and his brother Erasmus were christened and intended to belong to the Church of England.

Chapter 5, Note # 7 Henrietta Litchfield (1915) wrote: "Kitty Wedgwood ... died in 1823. Dr. Darwin used to say that she was the only woman he ever knew who thought for herself in matters of religion" (1:164). This has clearly been edited by either Emma (or her daughter Henrietta), because Himmelfarb (1968:11) points out that the original letter, held at Cambridge, states, "Dr. Darwin used to say that ... so clear-sighted a woman could not be a believer."

Chapter 5, Note # 8 Cambridge University Calendar for 1824 specifies that the ordinary B.A. course embraced three fields: (a) Natural Philosophy including Euclid's Elements, the principles of Algebra, plane and sphere trigonometry, mechanics, hydrostatics, optics, astronomy, and Newton's Principia (calculus); (b) Theology and Moral Philosophy covered by Beausobre's Introduction, Doddridge's and Paley's Evidences, Butler's Analogy, Paley's Moral Philosophy, Locke's Essay, Duncan's Logic, and the Greek New Testament; (c) Belles Lettres covered by "the most celebrated Greek and Latin classics". The Bible, as such, was not included. Darwin received the M.A., as was customary, two years after receiving the B.A.

Chapter 5, Note # 9 As an eighteenth century theologian, Paley did not have to face such problems as trying to reconcile Genesis with geology, which was the major concern in the nineteenth century. However, T.H. Huxley was able to claim that he "proleptically accepted the modern doctrine of evolution" (F. Darwin 1887, 2:202). Here Huxley was referring to a paragraph in Paley's Natural theology (1972 ,314). Although the central theme of Paley's work is acknowledgment of an intelligent designing author, careful reading shows that he was inclined towards a liberal view in which having once created life God then retired to let matters develop by chance processes.

Chapter 5, Note # 10 Keynes (1933) recognized Paley's merits when he classed him with Locke, Hume, Adam Smith, Bentham, Darwin, and Mill as belonging to a tradition of humane science "marked by a most noble lucidity, by a prosaic sanity free from sentiment or metaphysic, and by an immense disinterestedness and public spirit" (p. 120).

Chapter 5, Note # 11 The well-referenced account by Eiseley (1959) of developments of evolutionary biology before 1859 reproduces in full the papers of Edward Blyth published in 1835 and 1837. See also H.M. Vickers 1911. Nature 85:510.

Chapter 5, Note # 12 Galton's (1869) thesis is summed up in his statement, "to give the more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable ... the word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea" (p.24).

Chapter 5, Note # 13 The conspiracy to obtain priority for Darwin is fully outlined following p. 58 of Brackman (1980). Central to Brackman's thesis is the Darwin to Gray Letter of 5 September 1857. However, having got this far, he then misses the point. So far, all the published versions of this letter are of Darwin's edited copy and contain item six, which deals with the vital divergence principle, but the question is, Did the copy received by Gray contain this item? Gray's correspondence for this period was also missing, and the published version is again taken from Darwin's edited version.

Chapter 5, Note # 14 Gray's widow, Jane (1939), partially reproduced a letter from Darwin to Gray of 5 September 1857, but it is from Darwin's edited version and not the original received by Asa Gray. The abstract states, "enclosed six principles of Natural selection, in another handwriting" (p. 10).

Chapter 5, Note # 15 Sarton's (1930) article contains facsimile copies of:

1.) Darwin's unpublished sketch of 1839, copied in 1844.
2.) Abstract of Darwin to Gray letter of 5 September 1857 (edited version).
3.) Wallace's Ternate paper of February 1858.

Chapter 5, Note # 16 Published the year he died, Keith (1955) had evidently revealed a little too much of Darwin for the time, and his book Darwin revalued never appeared on publishers' lists; it is something of a rarity today. The information on Darwin's finances appear in the chapter "The man of business" (p.231).

Chapter 5, Note # 17 Charles Darwin's influence on psychology is expressed by Zusne (1975): "To psychology, his books The Origin of Species (1859), The Descent of Man (1871) are of particular importance. They spell out the basic assumption underlying psychology, namely that man is on a continuum with the rest of the animal world, and that, since animals can be studied by the scientific method, so can man.... The evolutionary viewpoint concerning the development of both structure and function, including the mental processes, is now the accepted and pervasive point of view in psychology" (p. 112).

Chapter 5, Note # 18 Darwin (1965) describes sneering defiance in man and the uncovering of the canine teeth on p. 247 ff.

Chapter 5, Note # 19 Bell (1844) actually calls the Levator labii proprius that uncover the canine teeth in man the "muscles of snarling" (p. 131). However, as acknowledged by Darwin, Bell believed that they had been specially created for the sake of expression.

Chapter 5, Note # 20 One of the most recent articles on this theme appeared under the title "Darwin went home to the Bible" in the tabloid The National Educator (Fullerton, Calif.) for July 1975. This article in turn sparked off a number of religious tracts distributed by well-meaning but misled individuals.

Chapter 5, Note # 21 Lady Hope: Recent correspondence has revealed that Elizabeth Reid Stapleton-Cotton married Adm. Sir James Hope. Although she remarried after his death, she preferred to be known as Lady Hope until her death. However, there is no evidence that she ever visited Darwin, and none of this changes the evidence of the Darwin correspondence.

Chapter 5, Note # 22 A footnote in Barlow (1958, 93) consists of a letter from Darwin's widow, Emma, to his son, Francis, dated 1885 and refers to a passage in his autobiography in which he equates the child's belief in God with the monkey's instinctive fear and hatred of a snake. Emma requested that this passage be removed to "avoid giving pain to your father's religious friends". Only time will tell how many other irreligious statements of this sort made by Darwin remain in the Cambridge University Library Archives.

Chapter Six

Chapter 6, Note # 1 The four separate origins of man are depicted monumentally in Frederick Hart's "The Creation" unveiled on October 1982 at Washington Cathedral (Episcopalian). The sculpture is eighteen feet tall and twenty-four feet wide and conveys the instant when humankind emerged from a swirl of dust or smoke. This is at complete variance with the biblical description of the creation of Adam and yet still appeals to the miraculous.

Chapter 6, Note # 2 The work of observation (not breeding experiments) was conducted in 1939 and first reported by David Lack in 1947. A summary by Lack may be found in Scientific American, 1953, 88 (April): 67.

Chapter 6, Note # 3 Darwin's (1845) only mention of the finches was as follows: "Seeing this gradation and diversity of structures in one small, intimately related group of birds one might really fancy, that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different ends" (p. 380).

Chapter 6, Note # 4 Darwin confessed to the absence of transition fossils in the Origin (1859): "Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory. The explanation lies, as I believe, in the extreme imperfection of the geological record" (p. 280).

Chapter 6, Note # 5 Paleontologist Kitts (1974) makes the confession: "Despite the bright promise that paleontology provides a means of 'seeing' evolution, it has presented some nasty difficulties for evolutionists, the most notorious of which is the presence of 'gaps' in the fossil record. Evolution requires intermediate forms between species and paleontology does not provide them" (p. 467).

Chapter 6, Note # 6 Typical of the many theories put forward to explain the extinction of the dinosaur, Russell (1982) suggests that a huge meteorite changed the earth's climate 63 million years ago.

Chapter 6, Note # 7 In his Sarawak law (1855), Wallace cites the case of the "scaly flapper of the penguin". Found in Brackman (1980, 325).

Chapter 6, Note # 8 From this review of literature on reptile to mammal jawbone transition (Manley 1972), the reader may gain some insight into the monumental amount of effort expended on this hypothetical notion.

Chapter 6, Note # 9 In Darwin's copy of Vestiges of creation was pinned a slip of paper with the memorandum: "Never use the word(s) higher and lower" (found in F. Darwin and A.C. Seward 1903, 1:114).

Chapter 6, Note # 10 Mayr (1972) explains Darwin's memorandum to himself on the basis of chance variation which can sometimes result in what can be interpreted as progress. The reader should be aware that this is simply playing with words, because without progress there would be no evolution.

Chapter 6, Note # 11 "Die Mutationstheorie" of Hugo de Vries was not accepted by European or English biologists of the day. Hugo de Vries introduced it to America in 1904 in a lecture at the University of California. Prof. MacDougal of the Carnegie Institution then became the apostle of the new gospel of mutation and evangelized the notion. By 1914 it was being taught in U.S. schools and colleges, and, despite refutation by Jeffrey (1914) in the U.S. and Bateson in England, the idea that mutation is responsible for one species to diverge to become another is still taught as dogma today.

Chapter 6, Note # 12 Nobel Prize winner Szent-Gyoryi (1977) acknowledges that the Second Law of Thermodynamics is a great obstacle to synthetic evolution and he proposes "syntropy" or negative entropy to explain evolution from the simple to the complex.

Chapter 6, Note # 13 Interestingly, Gould (1977b) refused the author permission to quote his statements in full from this revealing article.

Chapter 6, Note # 14 Often misquoted, Darwin's letter to Asa Gray of 3 April 1860 is found in the following context: "It is curious that I remember well times when the thought of the eye made me cold all over but I have got over this stage of the complaint, and now small trifling particulars of structure often make me uncomfortable. The sight of a feather in a peacock's tail whenever I gaze at it, makes me sick" (F. Darwin 1887, 2:296).

Chapter 6, Note # 15 Spencer introduced his phrase "survival of the fittest" in his Principles of Biology (1865): "It cannot but happen ... that those will survive whose functions happen to be most nearly in equilibrium with the modified aggregate of external forces.... This survival of the fittest implies multiplication of the fittest" (1:164).

Chapter 6, Note # 16 Darwin (1872) acknowledged Herbert Spencer as the father of the phrase "survival of the fittest": "I have called this principle ... by the term Natural Selection.... But the expression often used by Mr. Herbert Spencer of the Survival of the Fittest is more accurate, and is sometimes equally convenient" (p.49).

Chapter 6, Note # 17 Everett (1978) has assembled a collection of reproductions from such painting masters as John Gould, showing forty-two types of bird of paradise. The full-page color pictures of these brilliantly colored birds with their unique breast fan and spiral-tipped tail decorations stand in mute defiance of any attempt to explain their origin by evolutionary concepts.

Chapter Seven

Chapter 7, Note # 1 Haeckel (1879) gives the first phylogenetic chart of the "Pedigree of Man" depicted as an actual tree in 2:189. See also Wendt 1972, 78.

Chapter 7, Note # 2 James A. Jensen's discovery of Paleopteryx thomsoni, the world's oldest bird dated at 140 million years, was announced in The New York Times 15 November 1981:39. See also Science News 24 September 1977, 112:198.

Chapter 7, Note # 3 A wonderful confession by Gould and Eldredge (1977) states: "Smooth intermediates between Baupläne are almost impossible to construct, even in thought experiments; there is certainly no evidence for them in the fossil record (curious mosaics like Archaeopteryx do not count)", p. 147.

Chapter 7, Note # 4 The "organized element" reproduced as a drawing on p. 88 of Pfeiffer's (1964) volume in the Time-Life Science Library series was taken from the photograph on p. 45 of Mason (1963). Mason had explained that this supposed elemental life-form found in the Orgueil meteorite resembles nothing more than an hexagonal crystal of troilite or iron sulphide. Further details may be found in Mason's book Meteorites. 1962. New York: John Wiley, p.95.

Chapter 7, Note # 5 Referring to a 1961 report by B.S. Nagy et al., Mason (1963) reports: "These authors found similar spectra to those of the hydrocarbons in butter and in recent terrestrial sediments" (p. 45).

Chapter 7, Note # 6 Typically, the press reported to the public only the most newsworthy aspects of the meteorite controversy and headline: "Space life on earth: bacteria-like cells from meteorites". In Science Newsletter, 1961, 79 (15 April): 227, and in Science Digest, 1961, 49 (June): 13. All these claims are now discounted, but it is hardly newsworthy now to correct the false impression left in the public mind. See also Scientific American 208 (March 1963): 43.

Chapter 7, Note # 7 Bolsche (1906), a thoroughgoing Haeckelean, glossed over, omitted, and even denied the seamier aspects of Haeckel's life. The biography makes no mention of Haeckel's five-year love affair.

Chapter 7, Note # 8 In his letter to F. von Altenhausen, 22 February 1898, Haeckel explains how he began as a Christian but after studying evolution became a freethinker and pantheist (p.28; see note 10).

Chapter 7, Note # 9 Plate 1 of Gasman (1971) has been reproduced from Klemm's (1968) Der Ketzer' and shows a Berlin lecture hall complete with a huge backdrop of charts and skeletons for Haeckel's Sunday evening public lecture.

Chapter 7, Note # 10 Haeckel's mistress is given as Franziska von Altenhausen, but this was simply to conceal her real identity, which was Frida von Uslar-Gleichen. In Werner (1930).

Chapter 7, Note # 11 Haeckel (1868) occupied seventy-three pages of a prestigious scientific journal with pure speculation, including more than thirty figures of his imaginary Monera. Pages 104-7 show the Protamoeba primitivia, which he claimed reproduced itself by a process of fission. All these elementary life particles were entirely nonexistent.

Chapter 7, Note # 12 T.H. Huxley (1868): "I propose to confer upon this new 'Moner' the generic name of Bathybius, and to call it after the eminent Professor of Zoology in the University of Jena, B. haeckelii" (p.210). An illustration is given in plate 4.

Chapter 7, Note # 13 Haeckel's most popular work, The history of creation (1876), reproduced in both German and English for more than half a century, was built on the supposition that the Monera existed and led in the final chapters to the evolution of man.

Chapter 7, Note # 14 The moment of truth for Bathybius haeckelii was reported by Murray (1875-76): "Mr. Buchanan [the chemist] determined that the flocculent matter was simply the amorphous sulphate of lime precipitated by spirit from the sea-water" (p.530).

Chapter 7, Note # 15 Buchanan (1875, 604) gives the complete analytical procedure. The amorphous sulphate of lime was actually a clear, jelly-like substance, and suspended within this mass were small discoidal shapes; these were later found to be the exoskeletons of minute sea creatures.

Chapter 7, Note # 16 Rupke (1971, 178) cites the French paper by A. deLapparent in Revue des questions scientifiques III, 1878, pt. 1, p. 67, and gives an English translation of critical comments.

Chapter 7, Note # 17 Concerning the X club, Bibby (1972,3) shows that the X club aimed at making worldwide disciples. Bibby (p. 58) lists the nine members as: Busk, Frankland, Hirst, Hooker, Huxley, Lub-bock, Spencer, Spottiswoode, and Tyndall.

Chapter 7, Note # 18 Haeckel was still stoutly defending his Bathybius in 1877, two years after it had been exposed as gypsum by Buchanan (1875). Pictures of Bathybius continued to appear in Haeckel's popular History of Creation (1876) until the final edition in 1923.

Chapter 7, Note # 19 Footnote 13 of Hoyt (1976, 338) shows that Lowell's evolutionary thinking came from Ernst Haeckel's (1906) Last words on evolution (London), a copy of which, autographed to Lowell from Haeckel, was found in Lowell's library.

Chapter 7, Note # 20 Pickering (1896, 113) points out that Schiaparelli wrote in Italian, which was little understood by English-speaking people, but the French astronomer Flammarion translated it into French, and Pickering's paper comments on the version in L'Astronomie 1882, 1:217.

Chapter 7, Note # 21 Serviss (1901) gives an English translation of the French version of Schiaparelli's paper on the Martian "canali", which appeared in L'Astronomie, 1882, 1:217.

Chapter 7, Note # 22 The Wellsian theme of life on other planets was carried forward by Edgar Rice Burroughs, who began a series of science fiction novels in 1912 and was joined later by a host of other writers. The television and film media have more recently exploited this theme, while its popularity is undoubtedly due to fulfilling Haeckel's need to provide an explanation for the origin of life without appeal to the miraculous.

Chapter 7, Note # 23 Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to leave our solar system, in 1972. The Sagans and Drake (1972) first point out the high probability of there being intelligent life in the universe, then describe the message carried on the Pioneer to would-be extraterrestrial discoverers. Carl Sagan is carrying Percival Lowell's banner today.

Chapter 7, Note # 24 Barnard's star has been observed to have an irregularity which, it is speculated, may be due to a "dark companion", that is, a planet. However, it would have to be an immense planet, and there is no direct evidence that it exists.

Chapter 7, Note # 25 The authors Crick and Orgel (1973) acknowledge that the Swedish scientist Svente Arrhenius had first proposed the idea of panspermia in his book Worlds in the making in 1908. However, it was not then generally accepted because science was too ignorant of the complexity of the "simple" cell, and Darwinism demanded spontaneous generation of life on earth. Crick has since published the panspermia proposal in his Life itself: Its origin and nature. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981. See also Time (New York), 1973, 102 (10 September): 53.

Chapter 7, Note # 26 Clark (1968, 144 and 283) describes the Oparin-Haldane connection and their Communist sympathies.

Chapter 7, Note # 27 Emile Borel (1962) was one of the world's foremost experts on mathematical probability. In chapter three he explores those circumstances in which remote theoretical probability becomes a practical impossibility, and he attaches numerical values to these transitions: "Probabilities which are negligible on the Cosmic Scale. A phenomenon with a probability of 10-50 will therefore never occur, or at least never be observed" (p.28). This probability value may be expressed as one chance in one followed by fifty zeroes.

Chapter 7, Note # 28 In his abstract, Yockey (1977) says: "Geological evidence for the 'warm little period' is missing." He concludes that, "belief in currently accepted scenarios of spontaneous biogenesis is based on faith, contrary to conventional wisdom" (p. 377).

Chapter 7, Note # 29 Dr. Murray Eden (1967) of M.I.T.: "Without such a biological and deterministic mechanism the process of recombination would almost always lead to nonsense" (p.9). Eden is saying that without intelligent design, random combinations of biological elements could not produce complex organisms. On p. 110 Eden emphasizes that the Darwinian notion of random chance must be reduced to a non-crucial role in any evolutionary model.

Chapter 7, Note # 30 Salisbury (1969) points out the contradiction in modern biology that if life really depends on each gene being as unique as it appears to be, then it is too unique to come into being by chance mutations. In other words, there will be nothing for natural selection to act on.

Chapter Eight

Chapter 8, Note # 1 In this edition of Hesiod (1948), lines 106-201, entitled by the editors "The five ages of man", trace the gradual increase of evil through successive stages in the decline of man (p. 104).

Chapter 8, Note # 2 The text of West (1978) is in Greek but the extensive English commentary is well worth reading. The commentary on the Pandora story (lines 47-105) is on p. 165 while the commentary on the Gold, Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and Iron ages, where the life span of man decreases as moral integrity breaks down and life becomes harder (lines 106-201) is on p. 172. The editor entitles this section "The myth of ages", but Hesiod relates the episode historically.

Chapter 8, Note # 3 Paraphrase of Plato's (1933 ed.) The Statesman (p. 23): It is said that there was once an earthborn race that the Deity himself tended and watched over. They had fruit in abundance from many different trees, not grown by tilling, but given spontaneously by the earth. They lived, too, for the most part naked -- the temperament of the seasons not being painful to them. Theirs were soft beds of grass, springing up without grudging from the soil. The men of that time were ten thousand fold happier than those of the present.

Written about 370 B.C., this is remarkably similar to the first four chapters of Genesis. The Fall of Man from the Age of Innocence is described on p. 24.

Chapter 8, Note # 4 Unlike the Greek and Roman works, Paradise Lost is mainly concerned with theological aspects such as the Fall of Satan and eternal punishment for the unredeemed. Nevertheless, the overall theme is of the Fall of Man. A modern edition of Milton's Paradise Lost is by Eberhart (1969).

Chapter 8, Note # 5 Ellegard (1958, 303) relates the discussions held at the British Association meetings of 1867 and 1869, in which the one camp, led by the Duke of Argyll and including A.R. Wallace, proposed that early man was civilized morally in spite of material backwardness. The opposing Darwinian camp was led by Sir John Lubbock, a member of the X club (see Bibby 1972). The reader should be aware that Ellegard's publication was funded by a humanist foundation and is thereby antithetical to the orthodox Christian position.

Chapter 8, Note # 6 Boule and Vallois (1957, 201, 213, and 241) give all the details pertinent to the La Chapelle-aux-Saints fossil and Boule's reconstruction of Neanderthal man.

Chapter 8, Note # 7 Brace (1979, 21) states that the earlier view of Neanderthal man by Boule was incorrect.

Chapter 8, Note # 8 Buettner-Janusch (1973) clearly states "...all Neanderthals are best considered representatives of an allopatric, allochronic species -- Homo sapiens" (p. 253); on p. 259 he explains that there is as great a variation in Neanderthal skulls as in modern man.

Chapter 8, Note # 9 The 1908 date of the discovery of a Neanderthal skeleton beside armor is not particularly early and it was well authenticated, but it is evidence that does not support the current evolutionary ideas of the Neanderthal man and so never appears in modern textbooks.

Chapter 8, Note # 10 The skull and body proportions of the living Neanderthal individual were carefully measured and reported by a responsible anatomist, who further reports that the Tay Tay people of the Philippine Islands also display distinctive Neanderthaloid features.

Chapter 8, Note # 11 Whitney (1880) had been faithfully reporting his work in the American Journal of Science for almost twenty years prior to this date; however, this thirty-page report on the human remains gives some idea of the controversy surrounding the issue and explains why such an important discovery as the Calaveras skull was reported in the relative obscurity of the Memorandum of the Museum of Harvard College.

Chapter 8, Note # 12 Keen (1977) repeats the explanation offered by the religious press in 1876 that the Calaveras skull was a hoax, but characteristically fails to mention its mineralization indicating great age or the stone bowls and dozens of other human artifacts found in the same strata.

Chapter 8, Note # 13 Professor Thom (1971) has shown by actual measurements at the numerous sites that the builders of these megalithic observatories at least four thousand years ago were extremely well accomplished in the astronomical and mathematical arts.

Chapter 8, Note # 14 The "mother and daughter" picture found on page 151 of Cro-Magnon man is acknowledged to have been taken from Art in the ice-age by H-G. Bandi and J. Maringer, New York: Praeger 1953:131. Bandi and Maringer in turn acknowledge their source of this picture simply as "after Breuil" and describe it as having been found in a cave at Minateda, Spain. Breuil, a well-respected authority on ancient man, published Les roches peintes de Minateda in Paris in 1920.

Chapter 8, Note # 15 Keith (1911) has provided a summary and comments on the Selenka-Trinil expedition reported in German in 1911; no English translation is available.

Chapter 8, Note # 16 In his introduction to the centennial edition of the Origin, Professor Thompson (1958) said: "The success of Darwinism was accompanied by a decline in scientific integrity." Thompson then mentions as examples the reckless statements of Haeckel; the shifting, devious, and histrionic arguments of T.H. Huxley; the Piltdown fraud; and Dubois' Pithecanthropus, p.xxi.

Chapter 8, Note # 17 Much of the information on Piltdown man has been taken from Reader (1981).

Chapter 8, Note # 18 Gould (1979) makes out a very convincing case for Teilhard de Chardin's being the culprit. Bowden (1977) had earlier drawn the same conclusion.

Chapter 8, Note # 19 Although discovered in 1921, the Rhodesian man caused some difficulties in interpretation and was not reported by the British Museum until 1928.

Chapter 8, Note # 20 Far from the present reckoning of 30,000-40,000 years, Klein (1973) points out that from the associated fauna and radiometric dating it should be closer to 125,000 years.

Chapter 8, Note # 21 It can most charitably be said of Osborn that he was deceived himself before he deceived others. Nevertheless, the reader should be aware that deception was a natural outcome of his particular worldview. He had strong Marxist leanings and an atheistic outlook evident from the preface to his The Origin and evolution of life: "In truth, from the period of the earliest stages of Greek thought man has been eager to discover some natural cause of evolution, and to abandon the idea of supernatural intervention in the order of nature" (Osborn 1918, ix).

Chapter 8, Note # 22 An article in Science 122 (1 July 1955):23 comments that although the Scopes trial was instigated by the American Civil Liberties Union, when it came time to pay for the defense, this had to be raised by an appeal to the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The same article quotes from The New York Herald Tribune, which pointed out that the issue in the Scopes trial was "the right to think versus the right of State to make laws prohibiting discussion". Exactly that situation exists today! Davidheiser (1971) corrects the false view of the trial imposed upon the public by the popular press and the movie "Inherit the Wind" by presenting the facts according to the stenographic record. Scopes (1967, 60) confessed in his autobiography that the trial was an arranged affair in which he had agreed to say that he had taught evolution although he wasn't sure that he ever had! This confession, made forty-two years after the trial, completely negates the popular image of Scopes as a crusader of the truth.

Chapter 8, Note # 23 The living peccary was named Catagonus ameghino but was admitted to be of the same species as the extinct Pleistocene peccary Catagonus wagneri.

Chapter Nine

Chapter 9, Note # 1 T.H. Huxley (1901): "No one is more strongly convinced ... etc" (7:153). Interestingly, this passage has been omitted from the Huxley essay reprinted in the Encyclopaedia Britannica's Gateway to the Great Books (1963, 8:204).

Chapter 9, Note # 2 Ralph von Koenigswald (1956, 63) describes how he found the fossil teeth in a Peking drugstore, but it is not necessary to go to China to contribute to the heady science of paleoanthropology. At the time of writing, the author found "Dragon's teeth" (ask for Loong nhar) in a downtown Toronto Chinese herbal center where the going price was five dollars an ounce. The Chinese use the fossil teeth ground to powder with herbs in a medicinal decoction as a cure for insomnia.

Chapter 9, Note # 3 As is so often the case, Hood (1964, 33) records that a single book read during Black's early manhood set the goal for his life.

Chapter 9, Note # 4 Teilhard de Chardin's (1965) first impression of the Peking man skull: "Viewed from the back ... the Sinanthropus skull has a roughly triangular shape like that of the simians [apes] rather than an ovoid one like that of present day men. Zoologically Sinanthroepus deserves a species to himself" (p. 65). First published in Revue des questions scientifiques (Louvain, Belgium) 98 (20 July 1930).

Chapter 9, Note # 5 Weidenreich (1943) gives a description of all the fossil finds at Chou K'ou Tien to 1943. There were said to be fourteen skulls, but other authorities speak of sixteen or even forty.

Chapter 9, Note # 6 Teilhard de Chardin's (1965) previous view (note 4 above) that Sinanthropus was an ape is now abandoned, and, far from disagreeing with Black's estimate of 964 cubic centimeters, he is now prepared to accept 1,200 and assign the creature to the status of "hominian". First published in Etudes (Paris) 92 (5 July 937).

Chapter 9, Note # 7 For the first lime in a modern and semi-popular article, these Chinese authors admit to the existence of an ash heap six meters deep (1983, 93).

Chapter 9, Note # 8 Dunbar (1960,447) begins by saying that about forty individuals were recovered, when in fact Weidenreich (1943) had only reported fourteen.

Chapter 9, Note # 9 Weidenreich (1938) refuted Dubois' (1935) confession that the Java man skullcap was that of a large ape. To this day Java man remains in museums and textbooks as part of the canon of faith.

Chapter 9, Note # 10 The first section of Breuil's (1932) paper describes the fire at Chou K'ou Tien.

Chapter 9, Note # 11 Bowden (1977, 93) shows how Breuil's paper in L'Anthropologie (March 1932) was not mentioned in the formal report by Black and Teilhard of May 1933.

Chapter 9, Note # 12 Boule and Vallois (1957) play down the extent of the fire by their statement, "Sinanthropus kindled fire and did so frequently" (p. 144).

Chapter 9, Note # 13 Referring to Dart's claim that the Taung is in the Lineage of Man, Keith (1925a) flatly said "The claim is preposterous" (p. 11).

Chapter 9, Note # 14 Reader (1981) quotes newspaper headlines of the day: "Missing Link 5,000,000 years old"; "Missing-link that could speak"; "Birth of Mankind"; etc. (p. 89).

Chapter 9, Note # 15 Reader (1981, 157) discovered that the 600,000 years claimed at first for Zinjanthropus was a guess made by G. Mortelmans, a science writer. I am indebted to John Reader for many such details included in his book.

Chapter 9, Note # 16 This work for Leakey et al. (1961) introduced the potassium-argon radiometric dating method to paleoanthropology.

Chapter 9, Note # 17 This paper by Leakey et al. (1968) contains a table summary of the ages for each of the Olduvai Gorge beds.

Chapter 9, Note # 18 Reck reported his find in a German scientific paper in 1914. Bowden (1977) gives the reference (actually, footnote 135 in Bowden's notation and not 136) and a summary in English.

Chapter 9, Note # 19 Authors Straus and Hunt (1962) say that until all the contradictory dates and the existence and duration of the geological unconformities are resolved, the dates are of doubtful value in formulating hypotheses about the rates of evolution of man and his culture.

Chapter 9, Note # 20 For further articles on Zinjanthropus see National Geographic,1961, 120 (October): 564, 590.

Chapter 9, Note # 21 Homo habilis. Various ages are reported according to the rock samples submitted for radiometric analysis, but the consensus is that since these remains were found in the same stratigraphic level as the Zinjanthropus, they must be the same age, that is, about 1.7 million years. See Leakey et al., 1968.

Chapter 9, Note # 22 Homo habilis -- handyman -- is announced in this paper by Leakey et al. (1964).

Chapter 9, Note # 23 Payne (1965, 215) says Homo habilis is the same age as Zinjanthropus boisie. See also Time magazine 110 (7 November 1977): 36.

Chapter 9, Note # 24 Louis Leakey (1961) describes a "rich living floor" twenty feet higher than the level of his Zinjanthropus discovery, but still in bed I.

Chapter 9, Note # 25 Fitch and Miller (1970) reported an age of 2.6 million plus or minus 260,000 years.

Chapter 9, Note # 26 Richard Leakey (1971) declares his belief that two distinct hominids, the Australopithecus and the Homo habilis, lived at the same time in East Africa. The Australopithecus became extinct and the Homo habilis went on to become man.

Chapter 9, Note # 27 The age of "Lucy" is given as 3.0-3.4 million years by Johanson and Edey (1981, 187). Bowden (1977, 185) notes that there are considerable discrepancies in the ages obtained for "Lucy". Given a choice of figures, there would be a natural tendency to select the larger number and thus claim the distinction of having discovered the oldest missing link.

Chapter 9, Note # 28 Pilbeam (1970b) points out that a living baboon today, Theropithecus galada, found in Ethiopia, has "man-like" features and dentition just like Ramapithecus. He adds that there is no need to suppose that Ramapithecus was a hominid, but that in all probability it was simply an ape like the T. galada.

Chapter 9, Note # 29 In The first American, Ceram (1971b, 282) gives a good account of the Laguna-girl discovery in California in 1933. Carbon 14 analysis indicated it to be seventeen thousand years old. References given.

Chapter 9, Note # 30 Coon's (1965) plates 1, 6, and 66 are photographs of living individuals having massive eyebrow ridges (supraorbital torus) characteristic of Neanderthal man.

Chapter 9, Note # 31 T.H. Huxley's (1901) essay "On the relations of Man to the lower animals" is an excellent summary of the anatomical similarities and differences between man and ape (7:77).

Chapter 9, Note # 32 Terrace (1979) exposes many of the experimental procedures in which it is claimed that apes have communicated with humans and vice versa. In the same issue, J.V. Sebek (p. 78) explains the "Clever Hans" effect whereby performing animals appear to communicate.

Chapter Ten

Chapter 10, Note # 1 Haller's (1971) book is one of a number of important books documenting what has long been suspected: the ingrained, firm, and almost unanimous racism of North American men of science during the nineteenth and into the twentieth century.

Chapter 10, Note # 2 Photographs of the Weidenreich reconstruction appear in virtually every book concerned with fossil man. It should be borne in mind that the reconstruction leaves an impression of Sinanthropus being "near human" but the early descriptions were of its being "near ape". None of the original fossil pieces now exist, so it is not possible to refute or confirm the reconstruction and acceptance of this as evidence of man's evolution thereby becomes a matter of faith.

Chapter 10, Note # 3 In the first edition of the Origin, Darwin spoke of rudimentary, atrophied, or aborted organs in the sense of their being regressive; that is, they had at one time been fully functional but through disuse had become smaller or even absent. Later researchers, such as Wiedersheim, realized that a small and useless organ might, in fact, be progressive or nascent--that is, might be on the evolutionary road to becoming fully functional. This led then to the difficulty of knowing when a seemingly useless organ was either regressive or progressive.

Chapter 10, Note # 4 This modern school biology textbook contains the amazing statement, "There are more than 100 such vestigial organs including appendix, the coccyx, wisdom teeth, nictitating membrane of the eye, body hair, muscles that move the ears and nose" (p. 773). Incredibly, this author includes an illustration of male nipples. As a final insult to the reader's intelligence a reproduction of Haeckel's fraudulent drawings of the embryos of the fish, chick, pig, and human is shown on p. 776.

Chapter 10, Note # 5 Darwin (1871) claimed that the human male nipples were rudimentary rather than nascent, and states: "These in several instances have become well developed, and have yielded a copious supply of milk" (1:31).

Chapter 10, Note # 6 Concerning the so-called vestigial human ear muscles compared to the horse, Darwin (1871) actually said, "Consequently we ought  frankly to admit their community of descent" (1:32).

Chapter 10, Note # 7 The Lamarckian overtones in Darwin's (1859) thinking can frequently be seen in such statements as: "...bearing in mind how strong is the principle of inheritance...' (p.457).

Chapter 10, Note # 8 Carpenter et al. (1978) begins with the presupposition, "The vestigial posterior appendages (spurs or claws)...", and goes on to describe how the male snakes use these retractable spurs in combat. Since they have a useful function, how can they be vestigial?

Chapter 10, Note # 9 Biological Sciences Curriculum Study: A molecular approach (1980, 238) cites the yolk sac of the human embryo as vestigial. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study: An enquiry into life (1980, 279): cites the human appendix as vestigial while on p. 282 a redrawn version of Haeckel's embryos of dog, bat, rabbit, and man taken from Romanes (1892) is given as evidence of the long-discredited Biogenetic Law.

Chapter 10, Note # 10 Metchnikoff (1907), the great medical authority, made the following incredible statements: "Some very large parts of our alimentary canal must be regarded as useless inheritances, bequeathed to us by our animal ancestors" (p. 69).

Chapter 10, Note # 11 The perceived problems of bacterium in the human intestine are discussed on p.248ff. and Metchnikoff concludes that removal of this bacterium, if necessary by the removal of the intestine, would greatly lengthen the human life span!

Chapter 10, Note # 12 Interestingly, like Rudolph Virchow in Germany, Lane became involved in socialist issues in his later years. In 1926 he gave up a successful practice to found the New Health Society (Tanner 1946, 126)

Chapter 10, Note # 13 It was the rise of Mendelian genetics that caused Haeckel's Biogenetic law to be abandoned early in this century. Gould's (1977c) book on the history of the subject and its ramifications to the social sciences is said to be the first published in fifty years.

Chapter 10, Note # 14 Drawings of the dog and human embryo appear in Haeckel's (1868) History of creation. 1:309-11.

Chapter 10, Note # 15 The now familiar engraving of the development of the embryos of a dog, bat, rabbit, and man taken from Haeckel's Anthropogenie (1874) appear on p. 153 of Romanes (1892).

Chapter 10, Note # 16 In Winchester's (1971, 83) school biology textbook, Haeckel's fraudulent illustration of embryos has been reproduced as evidence of evolution and enhanced by color tinting. The author makes no mention that the theory was discredited half a century earlier.

Chapter 10, Note # 17 In a step-by-step manner, Rifkin (1983, 111-56) exposes the faulty logic of the theory of evolution.

Chapter Eleven

Chapter 11, Note # 1 Shakespeare's (1599) line given to Rosalind addressing Orlando in As you like it (4, 1:90) was an unquestioned truth in the sixteenth century.

Chapter 11, Note # 2 Referring to Genesis 1:26 Lightfoot (1825) says, "Man created by the Trinity about the third hour of the day, or nine of the clock in the morning" (2:335). A man of great scholarly ability, John Lightfoot's (1602-75) over-enthusiastic exegesis has been far from "harmless" in its latter-day use by critics who have taken the "nine of the clock" statement out of context to use it to discredit the Ussher date for the time of Creation.

Chapter 11, Note # 3 Having given the figures for the rate of sediment deposition, Dunbar (1960) then assures his readers that "these deposits are only a surface veneer of the great delta built by the Nile" (p. 18). However, this cannot be true since Lyell (see 1914,29) states that the highest point on the delta is only seventy-two feet above sea level.

Chapter 11, Note # 4 Lyell (1914) describes the work of measuring sediment thickness in the Nile delta and the human artifacts that were continually brought up by the boring tools on pp. 26-30. Lyell concludes, "In a boring 72 feet deep, being 2 or 3 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, in the parallel of the apex of the [Nile] delta...M. Rosière had estimated the mean rate of deposit of sediment in the delta at 2 1/4 inches in a century; were we to take 2 1/2 inches, a work of art [a brick] 72 feet deep must have been buried more than 30,000 years ago" (p.29).

Chapter 11, Note # 5 Joly (1922) was long occupied with finding the age of the earth by the concept of "denudation of the continents" -- that is, measuring the salts in the oceans and the rate of addition; as well as measuring sediments. He concluded the earth to be no more than 200 million years and in this paper gives a valuable criticism of the radiometric methods, which, at that time, were giving ages ten times as long. On p. 482 he gives a lengthy argument to show that the halo phenomenon does not support the long radiometric ages.

Chapter 11, Note # 6 During the past few decades Israel's National Water Carrier and Jordan's Ghor canal have siphoned off about eight hundred cubic meters of water daily from the River Jordan. The result is that with continuing evaporation, the level of the Dead Sea is dropping and the salt, which was at the saturation point (28 percent), is beginning to precipitate out.

Chapter 11, Note # 7 Koczy (1954) concludes: "2 x 10-14 grams of uranium is added each year to each millilitre of sea water. Therefore, if no uranium is removed from sea water, its uranium content should be doubled in the course of 60,000 years, which is an improbably short time from a geological point of view" (p. 126).

Chapter 11, Note # 8 University of Toronto's Macallam (1903) explains: "... the proportions [of salts] in plasma are an ancestral feature derived from a form which had its habitat in the ocean in the earlier geological periods when the ocean water was very much less rich in salts of magnesia than it is now" (p. 234).

Chapter 11, Note # 9 Immanuel Kant published his Allgemeine Natürgeshichte und Theorie des Himmels in 1756. In it he expressed an evolutionary system of cosmology. This system was given authority when in 1796 Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace, defended it in his Exposition du systéme du monde. Laplace expanded on this theme in 1825 in his Traité de Méchanique Céleste while Robert Chambers' Vestiges (1844) popularized the notion among the English-speaking people. On page 17 of Vestiges Chambers gives his translation of a key passage from the Traité: "Planets all move nearly in one plane.... Motions of all their axes are in one direction--namely, from west to east." This statement lent great support to the theory of an evolved solar system but is factually incorrect. Of the nine planets in our solar system, three revolve in a retrograde direction and the remainder in the prograde direction. Of the forty-four satellites (moons) it is known that twelve revolve in a retrograde direction and twenty-one in a prograde direction. The direction of rotation of the remainder is at present unknown.

Chapter 11, Note # 10 In his letter to J. Croll, 31 January 1869, Darwin writes: "I am greatly troubled at the short duration of the world according to Sir William Thomson for I require for my theoretical views a very long period before the Cambrian formation" (F. Darwin and A.C. Seward 1903, 2:163).

Chapter 11, Note # 11 Concerning the lack of randomness found for cobalt 60 and cesium 137 decay, Anderson and Spangler (1973) conclude: "The evidence is inconsistent with the thesis of decay independence" (p.3120).

Chapter 11, Note # 12 In his abstract Anderson (1972) states: "The inconsistency ... of radioactive decay raises serious questions relative to the generality of the independence of radioactive decay."

Chapter 11, Note # 13 Anderson and Spangler (1974) were free to express their views more explicitly in the journal Pensée, which is now defunct. The same authors writing in American Physical Society, Bulletin, 1971, 10:1180 had presented their data in cautiously worded terms to show that the gamma emission rate of cobalt 60 was significantly influenced by electrical fields. They concluded that, in this case, radioactive decay is not independent.

Chapter 11, Note # 14 Radioactive decay. The terms used in expressing rate of decay are as follows:

1.) Particle count. A sample of known weight is exposed to a Geiger counter for a known period of time, perhaps two days, and the total number of (alpha) particles emitted counted.

2.) Specific decay rate. The particle count is divided by the sample weight and by the time to reduce the figure to i) the number of counts or atoms per milligram per hour in the case of the uranium/lead method or, ii) atoms per gram per minute in the case of the carbon 14 method.

3.) Decay constant. This is formed mathematically from the specific decay rate:
                I         N
   =    -----      -----
               N        T
where lambda, , is the decay constant, N is the number of radioactive atoms of a particular kind in a sample at a given moment and N / T is the rate of decay of those atoms at that moment. Potassium 40, for example, has a decay constant of 0.58 x 10-10 per year.

4.) Half life. This is derived from the decay constant and is the time required for a large number of radioactive atoms of a particular kind in a sample to decay to half the original number.
              log 2       0.693
   =      -----        -----
where the half-life is usually denoted by tau, , and lambda, , is the decay constant.

Chapter 11, Note # 15 Rutherford writes referring to Aston's (1929) work and concludes, "The uranium in our earth has its origin in the sun.... It has been decaying since the separation of the earth from the sun... The earth cannot be older than 3.4 x 109 years" (Nature 1929, 123:313).

Chapter 11, Note # 16 Cosmic rays are shown to be very high energy protons, some exceeding the mass of helium nuclei by thirteen times. Since the nuclei of argon 36 are only nine times that of helium, some of these cosmic rays are, therefore, themselves the nuclei of argon. Moreover, cosmic bombardment of argon 40 produces argon 36, so that throughout time, argon 36 has been increasing.

Chapter 11, Note # 17 Potassium-argon ages of 3.3 billion years were reported by Funkhouser and Naughton (1968) for lava thought to be less than one million years old.

Chapter 11, Note # 18 Emiliani (1958) was one of the first to estimate ancient ocean temperatures by measuring the oxygen 18 content of oyster shells taken from drill cores. The results also bore a relationship to age and caused a significant downward revision of the times for the ice ages. (See Chapter Twelve, note 4).

Chapter 11, Note # 19 Eldridge (1982, 104) categorically states the age of moon rocks to be 4.5 billion years, yet, typically for this type of publication, no references to this source are given.

Chapter 11, Note # 20  Ages of moon rock samples quoted by S.R. Taylor (1975) range between 3.16 and 4.6 aeons, where the "aeon" is defined as a billion years (p. 64, 180 and 263). Same reference sources used as  quoted  in  Whitcomb and  DeYoung (1978, 99-100).

Chapter 11, Note # 21 Whitcombe and DeYoung (1978, 99) cite the following sources for the dating of moon rocks and in their Table IV-4 summarize all the radiometric ages reported. Proceedings of the second, third, and fourth Lunar Science Conference; Earth and Planetary Science Letters for 1972-77; Science 1970, 167:462-555.

Chapter 11, Note # 22 Professor of nuclear medicine Dudley's (1975) criticism of this most sacred aspect of the dogma of uniformitarianism, i.e. a constant decay rate, was not acceptable to the mainline scientific journals but appeared in the Chemical and Engineering News and in full (in English) in the Italian journal Letters al Nuovo Cimento 1972, 5:231.

Chapter 11, Note # 23 Hynek's (1983) short article with a diagram shows how Roemer made his measurements in 1668 by observing the time between eclipses of Jupiter's moons from opposite positions of the earth's orbit around the sun.

Chapter 11, Note # 24 Goldstein et al. (1973) refrain from giving the actual and corrected velocity but simply conclude by saying that "the velocity of light did not differ by 0.5% in 1668 to 1678 from the current value." 0.5 percent beyond the current value turns out to be 301,300 km per second.

Chapter 11, Note # 25 Strong (1957) asks the question, "Does c change with the passage of time?" (p. 126).

Chapter 11, Note # 26 Steidl (1982) gives a four-page summary of the monographs produced by Barry Setterfield, which at the time this book was going press were not generally available in North America.

Chapter 11, Note # 27 Moon and Spencer (1953) make the following remarkable statement: "The acceptance of Riemannian space allows us to reject Einstein's relativity and to keep all the ordinary ideas of time and all the ideas of Euclidean space out to a distance of a few light years. Astronomical space remains Euclidean for material bodies, but light is considered to travel in Riemannian space. In this way, the time required for light to reach us from the most distant stars is only 15 years" (p. 635).

Chapter Twelve

Chapter 12, Note # 1 Loren Eiseley (1961, 239) in Darwin's century, uses this quote as an example of Huxley's sophistry, that is, his deceptive argument that appears to be correct but is actually invalid; in this case because it assumes evolution to be proven.

Chapter 12, Note # 2  An excellent descriptive paper of the halo phenomenon was produced by Joly (1917) in which he refers to the early work conducted in the latter part of the nineteenth century.

Chapter 12, Note # 3    Gentry's (1967, 78) statement, acceptable to Medical Opinion and Review, is the obvious implication of Gentry's work but could not be expressed in such terms in the mainline journals such as Science (organ of the American Association for the Advancement of Science).

Chapter 12, Note # 4    Emiliani (1956) comments on the results obtained by the oxygen 18 dating method applied to oyster shells taken from seabed core samples: "This chronology is considerably shorter than the chronologies usually suggested in the literature. If correlation between core stages and continental stratigraphy is correct, the Pleistocene time since beginning of the Günz age appears to be only about 300,000 years" (p.924). Loren Eiseley (1961) in his Darwin's century (New York: Doubleday) refers to Emiliani's work and cautiously adds, "The million-year age of the Pleistocene period may be shortened by new studies" (p. 139). It was shortened by more than half, and so another article in the canon of yesterday's faith quietly became discredited. (See also Chapter Eleven, note 18).

Chapter 12, Note # 5   One of the unsolved mysteries of Antarctica is the mummified bodies of crab-eater seals found thirty miles in-land and up to three thousand feet above sea level in ice-free areas. Described by Dort (1971), their age is unknown. Further details by L. Péwé and N. Rivard in Science 1959, 130 (18 September): 716.

Chapter 12, Note # 6    In explaining the delayed introduction of the new high-energy spectrometry, Grootes (1980) said: "For C14 counting by accelerator... it is not yet exactly known where the background counts come from." He suggested that "background counts originate in the accelerator in parts of the system that are not occasionally cleaned or changed" (p. 793). The sequel to this little insight into the heady workings of nuclear physics passed from the ridiculous to the bizarre when the new high-energy accelerator was installed at a well-known Canadian university (1983). The C14 results obtained using previously analyzed samples again gave ages that were too young, i.e., more C14 was found than expected from the alleged age; furthermore, there could be no question of contamination. Rather than question the long ages demanded by Lyellian uniformitarianism, the physicists in charge seriously believed that some new particle mimicking C14 had been generated! (Private discussion with author.)

Chapter 12, Note # 7 In 1952 Kulp described the carbon 14 method: "There are two basic assumptions in the carbon 14 method. One is that the carbon 14 concentration in the carbon-dioxide cycle is constant.  The other is that the cosmic ray flux has been essentially constant" (p. 261). These sweeping assumptions established the method in the 1950s but have since been modified significantly.

Chapter 12, Note # 8 By 1965 it was being recognized that the production of C14 was not uniform and Suess (1965) states: "The oceans as a whole cannot, of course, be considered a well-mixed reservoir" (p.5947).

Chapter 12, Note # 9    Stansfield (1977): "It now appears that the C14 decay rate in living organisms is about 30 percent less than its production rate in the upper atmosphere.... Creationists argue that since C14 has not yet reached its equilibrium rate, the age of the atmosphere must be less than 20,000 years" (p. 83). Stansfield obtained the 30 percent figure from the work of R. Lingenfelter, 1963. Reviews of Geophysics (Washington) 1:1.

Chapter 12, Note # 10 According to Dillow (1981, 146) the surface atmospheric pressure of the pre-flood world was 2.18 atmospheres of 32 pounds per square inch.

Chapter 12, Note # 11 The pterosaur fossil was found in non-marine rock of flat topography and Lawson (1975) suggests that in some way the creature had to be capable of powered flight since it could not soar from clifftops. See also G.G. Shor, Science, 1975, 188 (16 May): 677.

Chapter 12, Note # 12 Jueneman (1972) points out the inconsistencies in results when C14 is calibrated against the bristle-cone pine and suggests something is radically wrong. The situation has led to divided schools of opinion. For the European school, see G.W. Pearson et al. 1977. Nature 270 (3 November): 25. For the American school, see H.E. Suess. 1976. Antiquity 50 (March): 61.

Chapter 12, Note # 13 Helmholtz (1856, 506) sets forth the question of the contracting sun and all the pertinent calculations in the appendix to his article.

Chapter 12, Note # 14 Yockey (1977) boldly exposes the whole problem of the absent neutrinos and points out that "the neutrino was originally an ad hoc assumption [by Wolfgang Pauli in 1931] to save the principle of conservation of energy in decay" (p.395). His statement "the measured flux is less than one fifth of the predicted value and may be zero" was derived from the published data of Bahcall and Davis (1976). Bahcall and Davis (1976) state: "The Ar37 production rate ... is 0.13 ... atoms per day.... The cosmic ray production rate ...  is 0.09 Ar37 per day.... There is no evidence for a solar neutrino capture rate of 1.5 units [per day]" (p.266).

Chapter 12, Note # 15 Wittmann (1980) provides additional data to indicate a shrinking sun, while the July 1980 issue of Sky and Telescope (p. 10) contains a diagram showing all of Eddy and Boornazian's data. Although there is scatter, there seems little doubt of their downward trend.

Chapter 12, Note # 16  Parkinson (1980) takes the data obtained between 1836 and 1954 and points out that there were six observers and two telescopes, which introduced bias. He admits the absence of neutrinos is a problem but cannot accept that the sun is shrinking.

Chapter 12, Note # 17 Stephenson (1982) wants an open-ended beginning for our solar system and states: "The data provide fairly strong evidence that the diameter of the sun oscillates. The period of oscillation is some 80 years and its amplitude is about 0.025 percent" (p. 172). Eddy and Boornazian's (1979) conclusion of secular decrease was discounted but the same data is used by Stephenson to justify oscillation!

Chapter 12, Note # 18 Thwaites and Awbury (1982) explain: "If one extrapolates back in time 4.6 billion years with the accepted estimate of 0.005 second per year per year, one gets a fourteen-hour day" (p. 19). With further explanation, the authors show how one second per year corrections need to be made at the 20th, 28th, 35th, 40th, 45th, 49th, 53rd, and 57th years, and soon (continuing to two second per year corrections starting at the 214th year after the correction system is begun). The system used today was actually back-dated to 1900, but the authors failed to mention why two second a year corrections have been made since 1981. See The Astronomical Almanac.

Chapter 12, Note # 19 Challinor (1971) studied data from 1956 to 1969 and concluded there were three types of variation in the rate of rotation of the earth: seasonal, irregular, and long-term.

Chapter 12, Note # 20 Table B5 of The Astronomical Almanac (1983) shows leap seconds have always been added, never subtracted, on the following dates: January 1, July 1, 1972; every January 1 from 1973 to 1980; then January 1 and July 1, 1981, 1982, and 1983.

Chapter 12, Note # 21 Oort's notion for the origin of comets is dismissed by Brady (1970) in the statement: "With this sort of evidence it seems unnecessary to reopen the question of interstellar origins [of comets] and the view established by Strömgren (1914) and now generally accepted that these comets all approach the planetary system in elliptical orbits of a very long period, is still unassailable" (p. 1064).

Chapter 12, Note # 22 The Australian tektites have given rise to a lot of controversy since they are found in a stratigraphic horizon near the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary which is dated at 7,000 to 20,000 years B.P. However, potassium-argon and fission track radiometric methods have given dates of 700,000 years and older. No one wants to give up the stratigraphic dating, and no one wants to give up the radiometric method! See also R.O. Chalmers et al. Geological Society of America: Bulletin Part 1 1979. 90 (May): 508, where the argument still rages.

Chapter 12, Note # 23 Gold (1955) speculates, "From the nickel content of the deep ocean deposits ... the quantity of material currently deposited on the Earth is ... one million tons per year. This estimate would imply that the Moon is acquiring a layer one centimeter in thickness every 107 years" (p. 598). (In 4.5 billion years this would amount to eighteen inches.) Gold continues, "Fine dust particles on the [Moon's] surface ... move only at such a speed that the maria can be filled to an average depth of perhaps a thousand feet in a period that may be three thousand million years" (p. 599). Lyttleton (1956), a British enthusiast, predicted a layer of dust on the moon "several miles in thickness" (p.72).

Chapter 12, Note # 24 Bender et al. (1973) say: "The lunar laser ranging measurements ... have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance" (p. 237). Writing in 1975, S.R. Taylor in Lunar science: A post-Apollo view (New York: Pergamon) added that "further improvements have enabled the distance to be measured to within 2 to 3 cm" (p.3).

Chapter 12, Note # 25 Baldwin (1965) frankly confesses that the origin of the moon is a mystery: "There is no existing theory of the origin of the moon which gives a satisfactory explanation of the earth-moon systems as we now have it. The moon is not an optical illusion or mirage. It exists and is associated with the earth. Before 4.5 billions of years ago the earth did not exist. Somehow, in this period of time, the two bodies were formed and became partners. But how?" (p.42).

Chapter 12, Note # 26 William Thomson (1865) opposed Darwin's long ages in three fundamental areas: (l) The luminosity of the sun, (2) the rotation of the earth, and (3) the heat of the earth. The rate of heat flow through the surface of the earth is given in the statement: "The increase of temperature downwards may be taken as roughly averaging 1 degree Centigrade per 30 meters" (p.513).

Chapter 12, Note # 27 Curie temperatures are: pure iron, 750°C; haematite, Fe203, 675°C; magnetite, Fe304, 578°C.

Chapter 12, Note # 28 Lamb (1883) was an extremely able scientist yet in his biography in the Encyclopaedia Britannica or Scribner's Dictionary of scientific biography, no mention is made of Lamb's classic work on terrestrial magnetism. Jacobs (1967) says of Lamb's work: "H. Lamb showed in 1883 that ... this time is of the order of 105 years, whereas the age of the earth is more than 4 x 109 years" (p. 430).

Chapter 12, Note # 29 Gauss (1834) was instrumental in forming the Magnetic Association in 1835 to which workers submitted their results. Magnetic measuring stations were located at Greenwich (U.K.), Dublin, Capetown, Hobart (Tasmania), Toronto, St. Helena Island, and other stations throughout the East India Company. (Gauss adopted the name Charles as the French equivalent of his given name Karl for this French publication.)

Chapter 12, Note # 30 McDonald and Gunst (1967) conclude that the earth's magnetic field is decaying "5 per-cent per one hundred years" (p. 1), while their Table 3 lists the magnetic moment measurements made from 1835 to 1965 (reproduced in Appendix K).

Chapter 12, Note # 31 The data from the 1979/80 satellite showed that the overall intensity of the earth's magnetic field was declining at a rate of twenty-six nanoteslars per year with a half-life of just 830 years. Extrapolation of the data shows that the magnetic field will have entirely disappeared in 1,200 years.

Chapter 12, Note # 32 Earth's heat. The power (P) consumed by electrical devices is rated in terms of watts where this is given by the electrical resistance (R) multiplied by the current (I) squared: P=RI2. The resistance (R) of the hot rocks within the earth will be essentially constant, but as the cur-rent (I) increases in the past, as indicated by the greater magnetic field, the power (P) and thus the heat generated will increase as the square of the current. For example, if R is constant at 10 and I increases arithmetically 2, 4, 6, 8, etc., then P will increase as follows: 40, 160, 360, 640, etc. The total power produced by the current in the earth beneath us is given by multiplying P by the constant 8.13 x 108, which gives a colossal number of megawatts. However, to go back only ten thousand years in the past would mean increasing this figure millions of times and at this point the heat generated would be loo great for life to exist on the earth's surface.

Chapter 12, Note # 33 Carrigan and Gubbins (1979) complain, "No one has developed an explanation of why the sign reversals take place. The apparently random reversals of the earth's dipolar field has remained inscrutable" (p. 125).

Chapter 12, Note # 34 In New Scientist 1964, 24 (3 December): 631, the anonymous author cautiously points to a beginning of "no more than a few million years ago" and asks the question "where is the earth's radiogenic helium?"

Chapter 12, Note # 35 A photograph appears in this National Geographic article showing a bat entombed in a stalagmite, clearly indicating that growth during this period must have been over a few days, or weeks at most.

Chapter 12, Note # 36 Dickey et al. (1968) have noted that evolutionary theory requiring millions of years cannot explain the enormous pressure differences which exist in adjacent rock strata: "The significance of this observation to structural geology is very great. It means that pore water has been able to move across the bedding planes of shale hardly al all in spile of a pressure gradient exceeding ten pounds per square per foot during scores of millions of years. Obviously shales have small but appreciable permeability to water; otherwise how could compaction occur?" (p. 612).

Chapter 12, Note # 37 Books and articles continue to appear containing extrapolated ventures into frightening population statistics. Two examples are Vogt (1960) and Hauser (1970).

Chapter 12, Note # 38 Langer (1964) shows that between A.D. 1348 and 1350 at least a quarter of the population of Europe died of the plague; however, within three hundred years, the normal rise in population had been resumed.

Chapter 12, Note # 39 Stansfield (1977) gives a typical evolutionary explanation: "The size of a population may fluctuate over various lengths of time, but the long-term picture is one of stability" (p. 82). This author appeals to an oscillating population in order to leave an open-ended past.

Chapter Thirteen

Chapter 13, Note # 1 This little book, which records Keith's 1925 Conway memorial lecture, gently draws aside the veil that hides the inner sanctum of the human mind to reveal the altar upon which we place our most treasured and secret offerings of belief.

Chapter 13, Note # 2 Darwin had used this same passage from Marcus Aurelius in the second edition (1874) of his Descent of Man (p. 123). A parallel passage written a millenium earlier than Marcus Aurelius appears in Proverbs 23:7.

Chapter 13, Note # 3 Westfall (1981) has written what is regarded to be the definitive work on Newton. A less voluminous work is by B.J.T. Dobbs. 1976. The Foundation of Newton's Alchemy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chapter 13, Note # 4 Cohen (1955) writes, "Newton had essayed a linguistic analysis of theology in an attempt to find the corruptions that had been introduced to Christianity. Newton was not an orthodox Trinitarian" (p. 72).

Chapter 13, Note # 5 Strauss (1835) gained notoriety in the German academic community and the church by his Das leben Jesu, in which he dismissed the Gospel of John, stripped the other accounts of the miraculous, and gave prime place to Matthew.

Chapter 13, Note # 6 Twelve of these enormous folio volumes ordered by Napoleon contain some of the finest hand-coloured engravings ever produced and capture in the imagination the splendor that was once Egypt. See also notes to Denon (1803).

Chapter 13, Note # 7 Roberts (1846-49) spent 1838-39 in Egypt and Palestine making very accurate drawings of the ancient buildings and monuments. He considered the French work Description de l'Égypt grossly inaccurate. Roberts noted that the Egyptian temples and monuments had been maintained in good order by the Christian church until about A.D. 700 when they were abandoned to Islam. Most of the destruction had been wrought since that time. Denon (1803), renowned mostly for a series of pornographic etchings, was an intrepid artist-adventurer, both in the deserts of Egypt and in the bedrooms of Paris. His remarkable illustrations of former Egyptian decadence produced in these volumes together with those of François Jomard and others in the famous Déscription de l'Égypt spawned numerous magazine articles. The more truthful artistic renditions of Egypt by David Roberts of England and Carl Lepsius of Germany also did much to promote public interest in ancient Egypt during the early 1800s.

Chapter 13, Note # 8 Ceram (1971a) had taken his information on Champollion from a German biography of 1906. There is, however, a more recent biography of Champollion by M. Pourpoint 1963. Champollion et I'enigme égyptienne: le roman d'une dé'couverte. Paris. Other than Ceram's chapter (pp. 88-116), there appears to be no biography in English.

Chapter 13, Note # 9 In a footnote, Libby (1963) says: "The Egyptian historical dates beyond 4,000 years ago may be somewhat too old, perhaps 5 centuries too old at 5,000 years ago" (p. 278). It is of interest to note that Libby's reference to this statement was not a publication but a private communication with an authority (I.E.S. Edwards) on Egyptian dating. This confession completely vindicates Velikovsky's (1952) thesis and brings biblical events and Egyptian history into line, but so far as is known, nothing has yet been openly published to this effect.

Chapter 13, Note # 10 Champollion's dating was evidently questioned from the beginning as indicated by the title of historian William Mure's (1829) document held in the British Museum Library archives.

Chapter 13, Note # 11 Broken pillars. Sedgwick and Buckland were not only great geologists but also pillars of the Anglican Church. It appears that they began by believing in the literal interpretation of Genesis but, when faced with evidence that seemed to be explained more rationally by Lyell's uniformitarianism, slipped slowly away from the biblical account and in later years became virtual Darwinians. Others, such as Agassiz of Harvard University, remained believers to the end, although their understanding changed over the years. Murchison in England had little belief and less understanding of the Bible in the first place and was thus a good candidate for Lyell's geology.

Chapter 13, Note # 12 The moment of capitulation to Lyell, if not Darwin, by Smith's Bible dictionary appeared in the 1884 edition under "Noah": "The language of the books of Genesis does not compel us to suppose that the whole of the surface of the globe was actually covered with water if the evidence of geology requires us to adopt the hypothesis of a partial deluge" (p.453).

Chapter 13, Note # 13 Monsignor Manning (1865-74) of the Roman Catholic diocese of Westminster, London, was of the conservative school and founded the "Academia" in 1861 to combat "science falsely so-called", while he preached against the new "brutal philosophy" of nature where "there is no God and the ape is our Adam" (p.51).

Chapter 13, Note # 14 An abridged version of Henry Layard's 1849 classic Nineveh and its remains has recently been made available under the same title, edited by H.W.F. Saggs. 1970. London: Routledge and Paul.

Chapter 13, Note # 15 Brackman's (1978) thoroughly readable and highly informative modern work recounts the discoveries at Nineveh and Babylon and their confirmation of the biblical accounts.

Chapter 13, Note # 16 Bradley (1975) evaluates the impact of Evangelicalism on the Victorian period. Habershon (1909) and Thompson and Hutchinson (1929) describe the evangelical upsurge accompanying Layard's discoveries.

Chapter 13, Note # 17 In his letter to E. Haeckel, 23 November 1868, Charles Lyell said that six editions of his Principles had prepared the way for Darwin. In K. Lyell 1881, 2:436.

Chapter 13, Note # 18 Robert Chambers was elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1840. Within a year, he began to write Vestiges. The first edition (1844) was anonymous. The second, in 1846, contained a sequel in which his name was mentioned. Although he was widely suspected to have been the author, this was not acknowledged until the 1880s.

Chapter 13, Note # 19 Gosse (1907) explains, "It was the notion of Lyell himself a great mover of men that before the doctrine of natural selection was given to the world ... a certain bodyguard of sound and experienced naturalists ... should be privately made aware of its tenor" (p. 116).

Chapter 13, Note # 20 The biographer, Edmund Gosse (1907), refers to his father's book of the title Omphalos, published in 1857, which used an argument based on Adam's navel to counter Lyell and Darwin's belief in the transmutation of species; the key to this strange contortion is given: "For instance Adam would certainly... display an omphalos [navel], yet no umbilical cord had ever attached him to a mother" (p. 121).

Chapter 13, Note # 21 Remarking to his friend Rev. F.D. Maurice on the circumstances under which Water babies was written, Kingsley (1904) writes, "Remember that the physical science in the book is not nonsense but accurate earnest as far as I dare speak yet" (p.245).

Chapter 13, Note # 22 This well-documented review by Lucas (1979) of what must surely be all the recorded facts leaves Wilberforce as a reasonable and well-informed contender. See also letter in Nature 1980, 287 (9 October): 480.

Chapter 13, Note # 23 In a letter to C. Darwin dated 2 July 1860, J.D. Hooker describes how T.H. Huxley could not make himself heard at the Wilberforce debate and Hooker himself rose to defend Darwin. In L. Huxley 1918, 1:525.

Chapter 13, Note # 24 Letter from C. Darwin to J.D. Hooker, July 1860. Found in F. Darwin 1887, 2:324.

Chapter 13, Note # 25 Patriarchs acknowledged by Christ are in the following passages:

  Moses: Matthew 8:4; 19:8; Mark 1:44; 7:10; 10:3; 12:26; Luke 16:31; 20:37; 24:27; John 5:45; 6:32 and 7:19.
  Abel: Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51.
  Noah: Matthew 24:37; Luke 17:26.

Chapter 13, Note # 26 Bozarth (1978) puts his finger on the central conflict between evolution and Christianity: "It becomes clear now that the whole justification of Jesus' life and death is predicated on the existence of Adam.... Without the original sin, who needs to be redeemed?" (p.30).

Chapter 13, Note # 27 Ramm (1954) has produced a useful survey of the many theories to harmonize Scripture with geology, but the reader is warned that Ramm writes from the evolutionary viewpoint.

Chapter 13, Note # 28 Helena Blavatsky founded the spiritualist Theosophical Society in 1875, and Pember's book was intended to shed some light on this activity. The 1876 edition of this popular work was entitled Earth's earliest ages and their lesson for us, including a treatise on spiritualism. The title of subsequent editions was changed slightly.

Chapter 13, Note # 29 Undoubtedly the definitive work on the Gap theory, Custance (1970) nevertheless uses some very strained interpretations for its support. Field's (1976) Without form and void was written specifically to counter every argument used by A.C. Custance (1970), one of the last proponents of the Gap theory.

Chapter 13, Note # 30 Numbers (1982) presents a fair and well-documented history of the Creation movement, from the early 1920s when they tried to keep evolution out of the schools to the 1980s when they tried to get Creation in.

Chapter Fourteen

Chapter 14, Note # 1 Details of the situation in 1888 in which agnosticism had become a national issue with T.H. Huxley furiously defending his views are given in L. Huxley 1900, 1:217; 2:221.

Chapter 14, Note # 2 Francis Darwin (1887, l:317) commented in a footnote on his father's interview with Edward Aveling. The note adds that Aveling (1883) wrote on Charles Darwin and atheism in The religious views of Charles Darwin. Aveling (1897) countered this footnote by his article Charles Darwin and Karl Marx in New Century Review.

Chapter 14, Note # 3 Dupree (1959, 182) points out that both Gray and Darwin were married to Unitarians and, interestingly, Gray's wife was continually in ill health. Gray himself likened Jane's miseries -- dyspepsia, headaches, dizziness, and so on -- to those of Charles Darwin.

Chapter 14, Note # 4 Letter from C. Darwin to A. Gray, 26 November 1860. In F. Darwin 1887, 2:146.

Chapter 14, Note # 5 This statement, which lays out the foundation for modern theistic evolution, is a letter from A. Gray to G.F. Wright 14 August 1875, reported in J.L. Gray 1893, 2:656.

Chapter 14, Note # 6 Published by A. Gray in Atlantic Monthly for July, August, and October 1860.

Chapter 14, Note # 7 Letter from C. Darwin to C. Lyell, 2 August 1861. Found in F. Darwin and A.C. Seward 1903, 1:191. Natural selection to Darwin had become sacred (he always wrote the words as a proper noun) and in a letter to Asa Gray, 8 May 1868, it is clear he would not allow any other mechanism for evolution to be considered: "If the right variations occurred, and no others, Natural Selection would be superfluous" (in F. Darwin 1887, 3:85).

Chapter 14, Note # 8 Aristotle (1961 ed.) in his Book B., lines 198b-199a, describes the end purposes within natural processes and concludes that there must be some guiding principle, since chance or luck alone would not produce what is found. In contrast, Darwin claimed that luck or chance alone is responsible for natural selection.

Chapter 14, Note # 9 Some commentators attempt to redress Darwin's irreligious views by quoting his reference to the Creator in the last paragraph of the Origin. The fact is the first edition (1859) contained no reference to the Creator while the addition of the words "by the Creator" were made as an afterthought to the penultimate paragraph in the second and subsequent editions. This was surely only a sop to mollify the Christian community. The paragraph reads: "To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by the Creator, that the production and extinction of the past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to secondary causes" (1860, 488).

Chapter 14, Note # 11 Acknowledgment of the first eleven chapters of Genesis found in: Matthew 19:4-5; 24:37-39; Mark 10:6; Luke 3:38; 11:51; 17:26-27; Romans 5:12; 1 Corinthians 6:16; 11:8-12; 15:21-45; 2 Corinthians 11:3; Ephesians 5:31; 1 Timothy 2:13; Hebrews 11:7; 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5; 3:4; 1 John 3:12; Jude 11,14; Revelation 14:7.

Chapter 14, Note # 12 Humanist writer Bozarth (1978) makes the following revealing statement: "Christianity has fought evolution ... because evolution destroys utterly and finally the very reason Jesus' earthly life was supposedly made necessary. Destroy Adam and Eve and the original sin, and in the rubble you will find the sorry remains of the son of god" (p. 30).

Chapter 14, Note # 13 Although employed by Harvard, Gray (1880) delivered his new gospel to Yale, which he found to be less committed to orthodoxy, and it was here that he converted James Dana.

Chapter 14, Note # 14 Although a Baptist by training, Fosdick (1956) was asked to take the First Presbyterian Church, New York City. After preaching a particularly fiery sermon, "Shall the fundamentalists win?" in May 1922, he was forced to resign. The Presbyterians at that time were fundamentalist and fully accepted Special Creation and the Flood.

Chapter 14, Note # 15 John Henry Newman published his Essay on the development of Christian doctrine in 1845. He conceded that the Scriptures were given by inspiration, but argued that it had taken eighteen centuries for man to come to an understanding and to "their full elucidation". The theory of development is clearly based on the evolutionary supposition of man's ascent, rather than on the Fall.

Chapter 14, Note # 16 Henri Bergson's standing in the scientific and intellectual circles of Paris suffered for the same reason that Alfred R. Wallace was excluded from the London circles. Both were deeply involved in the study of occult phenomena, and in 1913 Bergson became president of the Society for Psychical Research.

Chapter 14, Note # 17 The doctrine of theistic evolution is summed up by the statement in Teilhard de Chardin's Christianity and evolution: "On the one side there is an innate, tumultuous upsurge of cosmic and humanistic aspiration ... that upsurge is the new faith in the world. And on the other side ... the anticipation of a transcendent and loving pole of the universe; it is unswervingly upheld by Christian dogma ... this is the ancient faith in God.... Surely the two terms -- faith in the world and faith in God -- so far from being antagonistic, are structurally complementary?" (p. 175).

Chapter 14, Note # 18 The Teilhard Centre for the Future of Man, London, lists its executives as: historian Dr. Joseph Needham, Anglican Bishop George Appleton, Canon David Jenkins, anthropologist Dr. Margaret Mead (deceased 1978), Professor Roger Garaudy, Professor Bernard Towers, and Lady Collins.

Chapter 14, Note # 19 A translation of the Monitum is as follows: There are now widely available certain works of Fr. Teilhard de Chardin, published even after the author's death, which are enjoying considerable popularity. Leaving aside all judgment on purely scientific matters, it is sufficiently clear that in the areas of philosophy and theology the aforementioned works abound in such ambiguities and even serious errors as to offend against Catholic teaching. Therefore the Father of the Sacred Congregations of the Holy Office urges bishops and superiors of religious institutes to effectively protect the minds, especially of the young, against the dangers in the works of Fr. Teilhard de Chardin and his followers. Dated Rome, 30 June 1962.

Chapter 14, Note # 20 Originally published in 1961 in Germany, this English translation of J.V. Kopp's Teilhard de Chardin: A new synthesis of evolution (1964) was published less than two years after the papal monitum banning Teilhard's works. Kopp's work promotes Teilhardian evolution yet is given the Imprimatur of Cardinal Spell-man to assure the Catholic reader that it is free of doctrinal or moral error!

Chapter 14, Note # 21 Garaudy (1968) is the leading French Communist philosopher and is on the executive board of the Teilhard Centre for the Future of Man. His vision for the future of Christianity is contained in his statement: "The synthesis of the (Christian) God of the Above and the (Marxist) God of the Ahead: this is the only God whom we shall in the future be able to adore in spirit and in truth" (p. 54).

Chapter 14, Note # 22 Marx's manuscript of his Critique contained neither title nor date while his subject refers to paragraphs 261-313 of Hegel's major work in political theory. The familiar quotation appears on p. 131 in Marx's introduction, which is actually at the end of the book.

Chapter 14, Note # 23 Letter from C. Kingsley to C. Darwin, 18 November 1859. In F. Darwin 1887, 2:287.

Chapter 14, Note # 24 Powell (1857) not only dismissed the whole of the Old Testament, which of course included the Creation account and the Flood, but, in a series of papers On the study of the evidences of Christianity published in 1860, also dismissed all the New Testament miracles. One might wonder what there was left in Powell's theology!

Chapter 14, Note # 25 Frederick Temple's 1860 essay Education of the world was considered too liberal by many since it denied miraculous Creation, and he was eventually obliged to withdraw it from later editions of the popular Essays and reviews. Nevertheless, by that time, in 1865, the book had already run to twelve editions. Temple's son. William (1881-1944), carried the liberal banner more successfully. William's theological position was Hegelian Idealist which linked God with nature, while his left-wing political aspirations linked church with state. He also became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1942 and was responsible for the founding of the leftist British Council of Churches and the World Council of Churches.

Chapter 14, Note # 26 Marx had just finished reading Darwin's Natural selection and commented to his friend Engels in his letter of 19 December 1860, "Although it is developed in a crude English way, this is the book that contains the natural history foundation for our viewpoint" (p. 139).

Chapter 14, Note # 27 Nietzsche (1882) said: "God is dead, but considering the state the species of Man is in, there will perhaps be caves, for ages yet, in which his shadow will be shown" (3:108).

Chapter 14, Note # 28 Marx and Engels were commissioned to prepare the manifesto at a secret Congress of the Communist League held in London in 1847. The first draft was drawn up in German while a French translation was quickly prepared for the abortive Paris uprising of June 1848. There were subsequently many translations and revisions.

Chapter 14, Note # 30 Professor Harrison's (1969) refutation of the Documentary hypothesis has been greatly expanded recently by the conservative scholar V.P. Hamilton. 1982. Handbook on the Pentateuch.

Chapter 14, Note # 31 This classic work of Driver (1891) formed volume one of the International Theological Library and more than any other work served to liberalize theological students. The evolutionary ideas of Wellhausen were thus carried across the English Channel and into British pulpits by the efforts of Professor S.R. Driver.

Chapter 14, Note # 32 Ceram's (1971a, 276) account is recommended since it contains the complete translated poem of Ut-napishlim giving the account of the Flood.

Chapter 14, Note # 33 Lindsell (1976) gives a well-documented record of the battle between liberal and conservative scholars from the nineteenth century to the present day.

Chapter 14, Note # 34 Kitchen (1978, 26) argues from a mass of historical and archaeological evidence that the early narratives in Genesis are firmly rooted in the normal life and literature of the second millenium B.C. and not in the dating scheme of the Graf-Wellhausen school. G.J. Wenham (1978) Vetus Testamentum 28:347 also points out the illogic of the Documentary hypothesis.

Chapter 14, Note # 35 Radday et al. (1982) conclude: "We are fervent in our belief that the Documentary hypothesis in Genesis should be rejected or at least thoroughly revised" (p. 481).

Chapter 14, Note # 36 Magnusson's (1977) book followed from the BBC television series and is a recent example of the popularization of the liberal view.

Chapter 14, Note # 37 All the Creation and Flood material of Frazer (1918) is in Vol. 1. An abridged single volume was published in 1923, but much of the Creation and Flood material was omitted.

Chapter 14, Note # 38 The author is indebted to the extensive work of Custance (1979); however, for all his research showing the universality of the Flood traditions, the reader should be warned that he concludes by saying that the Flood was local!

Chapter 14, Note # 39 The first edition of Frazer (1890) was in two volumes, but by the third edition, in 1910, the work had expanded to twelve volumes. A single volume abridgement was published in 1922 and is the version still being reprinted today.

Chapter 14, Note # 40 Montgomery's (1972) otherwise excellent, well-documented historical review loses some credibility by the inclusion of the "Navarra wood'. Said to be from the ark and five thousand years old (footnote on p. 129), it has since been shown to be only a few hundred years old by carbon 14 dating and, as evidence, must be totally rejected.

Chapter 14, Note # 41 Heidel (1963) is a conservative scholar and author of The Babylonian Genesis, which also appeared in the second edition in 1963.

Chapter 14, Note # 42 Sayce (1893) was originally a supporter of the Developmental Hypothesis but in the light of archaeological evidence he abandoned this view for the traditional account. He was then forced to use the Religious Tract Society as the medium for his scholarly work. In his work on races he showed (p. 61) that there was a linguistic: as well as racial relationship between the early inhabitants of Chaldea and the early Chinese.

Chapter 14, Note # 43 Tax and Callender (1960) record: "The Chinese did not invest the person of the monarch with the attributes of divinity. Above the king, who was not a god, was T'ien, 'Heaven', or Shang-Ti, the 'Supreme Ancestor' and the earthly sovereign was but his deputy" (3:13).

Chapter 14, Note # 44 Harper (1979), an English evolutionist, refers to evolution as a "metaphysical belief".

Chapter 14, Note # 45 Bird (1979) cites "Torcaso v. Watkins" while the footnote identifies this as "367 U.S. 488, 495 and n.11 (1961)", p. 178.

Chapter 14, Note # 46 Tax and Callender (1960) record the words of Julian Huxley: "I am an atheist in the only correct sense, that I don't believe in the existence of a super-natural being who influences natural events" (3:46).

Chapter Fifteen

Chapter 15, Note # 1 Humanists Kurtz and Wilson (1973) declare: "We have reached a turning point in human history where the best option is to transcend the limits of national sovereignty and move towards the building of a world community" (p.4). These ideas began with Karl Marx in 1848 where the central objective of the Communist Manifesto was and still is to eliminate national sovereignty by "the abolition of private property".

Chapter 15, Note # 2 This is a condensed version of the original seventy-four-page document by Huxley published in 1948 entitled UNESCO: Its purpose and philosophy. A further condensed version will be found in The Humanist 1979, 39 (March/April): 35. Huxley (1976) sets the theme of the philosophy with Attlee's words: "Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed" (p. 14).

Chapter 15, Note # 3 Irving (1955) speaking of Spencer: "He produced a treatise on sociology without reading Comte, and a treatise on ethics without apparently reading anybody. Clubs provided Spencer with an excellent substitute for reading" (p. 237).

Chapter 15, Note # 4 Vorzimmer (1963) shows how Darwin lifted Spencer's Lamarckian "physiological units" from the Principles of biology (Spencer 1864, 1:289) and called them "pangenes" in his Variation (Darwin 1868, 2:357). Blending inheritance works against natural selection by tending to bring a reversion back to the original stock rather than allow the supposed divergence to a new species. The Lamarckian aspect of blending inheritance is that acquired characteristics are supposed to be inherited; this results in a reduction of the power of natural selection. Lamarckian thinking was long ago discredited and, in deference to Darwin, it has never been considered "proper" to mention his 1868 excursion into Lamarckism by commentary on his "Hypothesis of Pangenesis".

Chapter 15, Note # 5 Change and Progress. The empty and often fraudulent promises of political candidates and especially the advertising agencies have led us to equate the word "change" with progress. However, when optimal conditions already exist any change can only result in regression.

Chapter 15, Note # 6 The first statement of Galton's "Law" appeared in his Natural inheritance (London) 1889, 134.

Chapter 15, Note # 7 The system of dividing railway passenger cars into first and second class has been carried over into the twentieth century and subsequently adopted by the airlines.

Chapter 15, Note # 8 Concerning civilization's future, humanist Bertrand Russell (1951) confidently makes this prediction: "Ultimately less than 30 percent of the female population will be used for breeding purposes. Reproduction will be strictly limited to the type and numbers required to fill the needs of the State" (p. 49).

Chapter 15, Note # 9 The reviewer in Nature 1981, 291 (21 May): 267 scathingly refers to Lumsden and Wilson's (1981) work as "gibberish". In 1983 a simplified version of this gibberish was offered to the public entitled Promethean fire.

Chapter 15, Note # 10 Cowan's (1969) studied conclusion of Galton's work on heredity: "Rarely in the history of science has a generalization been made on the basis of so little concrete evidence, so badly put, and so naively conceived" (p.9).

Chapter 15, Note # 11 The hookworm, Uncinaria necator americanus, present in human feces was found to be transmitted through the bare feet of the victim. The heroic work of Charles Wardell Stiles in 1902 was responsible for tracking down the hookworm and promoting universal use of the flush toilet. In Williams (1969).

Chapter 15, Note # 12 For the want of a better word, Binet (1908) spoke of "general intelligence". Stern (1914) gave this scientific respectability by dividing the mental age by the actual age of the subject and multiplying the result by 100 to round out the numbers. Stern called this the Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.).

Chapter 15, Note # 13 Inspired by Havelock Ellis, with whom she had a long-continued extra-marital relationship, Sanger was an active advocate of birth control from 1915 to 1961. Editor of the left-wing The Woman Rebel, which was succeeded by Birth Control Review, she founded the Planned Parenthood Federation.

Chapter 15, Note # 14 Chase (1980) includes an enormous wealth of detail concerned with scientific racism to which this chapter is indebted. The names of the notables have been included to alert the reader of the philosophical ideals of yesterday's leaders -- a little digging into the background of today's leaders will prove equally as revealing.

Chapter 15, Note # 15  Originally a Ph.D. dissertation, Gasman (1971) brings together a wealth of documented detail and is recommended to the reader further interested in the Darwin to Hitler connection.

Chapter 15, Note # 16  In 1918 Darwin apostle Ernst Haeckel became a member of the Thule Gesellschaft, a secret, radically right-wing organization that played a key role in the establishment of the Nazi movement; Rudolf Hess and Hitler attended the meetings as guests (Phelps 1963).

Chapter 15, Note # 17 Keith (1949) forthrightly states: "The German Fuhrer ... has consciously sought to make the practice of Germany conform to the theory of evolution" (p.230).

Chapter 15, Note # 18 Van Evries' (1868) work is a fine example of scientific racism in which from anatomical studies of the brain he claimed that the Negro is inferior to the Caucasian. The work was quoted as "science" for the next half century. In contrast, a work of real science had been reported thirty-two years earlier by Frederick Tiedemann of Heidelberg University in the Royal Society of London: Philosophical Transactions 1836, 126:497, showing that the brains of Negroes and Europeans were no different.

Chapter 15, Note # 19 After saying "no intellectual discoveries are more painful than those which expose the pedigree of ideas" (p. 373), Carmichael (1954) traces the genesis of modern scientific naturalism to its ultimate fruition in Fascism and Communism.

Chapter 15, Note # 20 The title of the twenty-five-year anniversary issue "In the minds of men" is taken from the central purpose of UNESCO, as stated by Huxley (see Huxley 1976). After giving a history of the organization, the publication surveys the two principal objectives: The human rights movement and the peace movement. Early in 1982 the U.S. Congressional Committee on Intelligence heard an updated report on Soviet front groups; the World Peace Council (WPC) headed the list as the umbrella organization for all various peace movements and operates under the sponsorship of UNESCO.

Chapter 15, Note # 21 Fest (1974) has presented one of the best biographies of Hitler and in 844 pages documents, point by point, similarities between Hitler's Fascism and Lenin's Communism, the former freely borrowing from the latter.

Chapter 15, Note # 22 Nolle (1966) observed: "Fascism is anti-Marxism which seeks to destroy the enemy by the evolvement of a radically opposed and yet related ideology and by the use of almost identical and yet typically modified methods" (p. 20).

Chapter 15, Note # 23 Mahoney (1976), a psychologist, "invented" a research paper on child psychology. He reproduced it fifty-seven times and reversed the conclusions in half of them by reversing the data. The rejection rate at journal publishers showed that there was a distinct bias towards behavioural modification. In other words, the research paper was accepted if it validated the current belief in behavioural modification and rejected when it invalidated this belief. The author wrote up the results of this experiment designed to show the effect of bias among peer reviewers and tried to get it published in the profession's journals. It was rejected. He finally published it as a book. Mahoney exposes the harm done to real science by the rivalry between the behavioral and the biological determinist schools. The latter is fighting to maintain a position with investigations on identical twins. See Science 1980, 207 (21 March): 1323.

Chapter 15, Note # 24 Eysenck (1981) is the biological determinist of the nature school; Kamin is the behavioral determinist of the nurture school.

Chapter 15, Note # 25 Boas' view of the Judeo-Christian ethic can be gleaned from his statement: "The psychological origin of the implicit belief in the authority of religion which was so foreign to my mind ... became a problem ... in fact, my whole outlook upon social life is determined by the question: How can we recognize the shackles that tradition has laid upon us? For when we recognize them, we are able to break them." From Kardiner 1961, 139.

Chapter 15, Note # 26 Mead's demise. Margaret Mead was a vice-president of the Teilhard Centre for the Future of Man (see Chapter Fourteen, note 18), but when her time came to face death in 1978, she sought comfort and assurance from the shaman, which she evidently had not found in Teilhard de Chardin's theistic evolutionary philosophy. Further details of Mead's belief in the paranormal have been given by Martin Gardiner in the Skeptical Enquirer (Buffalo), Fall issue 1983:13.

Chapter 15, Note # 27 The idea may be farfetched but Skinner's daughter, Deborah, spent her first two-and-a-half years in a "Baby box" under controlled conditions; this caused some public outcry in 1945. Contrary to rumors, she did not commit suicide nor sue her father. Skinner's attempt to market the "Baby box" under the name of "Heir Conditioner" was a failure. See also People Weekly (New York), 1979, 11 (11 June): 73.

Chapter 15, Note # 28 Controversy arises when it comes to deciding when a child is hyperactive. Children with a strong Judeo-Christian background, for example, may well be in conflict and considered hyperactive when taught that ethics are not hard and fast but situational. Some would advocate drug therapy to help the child conform and thus resolve the conflict.

Chapter 15, Note # 29 The Japanese scientists who had examined the evidence (pictures, witnesses, and fin samples) thought the dead creature was a plesiosaur said to be extinct more than 100 million years ago; see The New York Times 24 July 1977. However, Western scientists, far removed from most of the evidence, dismissed the idea that it was a plesiosaur, and this view was reflected in the Western press when it was reported at all; see New Scientist 1977, 75 (28 July): 225; Newsweek 1977, 90 (1 August): 77.

End of Notes  -  In the Minds of Men