Fifth Edition  -  ©2003
   1.  Revelation, Reason, and Revolution
   2.  Preparing the Ground
   3.  Foundations for Darwin's Theory
   4.  Science and Geology
   5.  Charles Darwin, M.A.
   6.  The Species Question
   7.  The First Missing Link
   8.  From Mammal to Man
   9.  More Fossil Men
  10. Heads, Organs, and Embryos
  11. The Age of the Earth
  12. Old Earth, Young Earth
  13. From Revelation to Scientism
  14. The Road to Atheism
  15. New World Order
Contents
Author
Preface
Introduction
 Appendices Notes Bibliography Index

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In the Minds of Men
Appendices

 
APPENDIX A

Malthusian Progression Derived From 1798 Edition of
An Essay on the Principle of Population

PERIOD IN YEARS
POPULATION GROWTH
SUBSISTENCE IN ACRES
POPULATION PER ACRE
25
2
2
1
50
4
3
1+
75
8
4
2
100
16
5
3+
125
32
6
5+
150
64
7
9+
175
128
8
16+
200
256
9
28
225
512
10
51
250
1,024
11
93
275
2,048
12
170
300
4,096
13
315



 
 
 
APPENDIX B

Increasing Estimates of the Age of the Earth

AUTHORITY
YEAR OF 
DETERMINATION
AGE IN MILLIONS 
OF YEARS
 
1850
25
Kelvin
1862
20
Kelvin
1897
40
J. Joly
1899
90
Rayleigh
1921
1,000
W. O. Hotchkiss
1932
1,600
A. Holmes
1947
3,350
L. Ahrens
1949
2,500
A. Holmes
1956
4,500
Still accepted
1984
4,500

Note the sudden increase in estimated age with the introduction of the radiometric method in 1921. Throughout, the estimated age appears to double about every twenty years, and it would, therefore, seem another increase is imminent.




 
 
 
APPENDIX C

Uranium 238 to Lead 206 Decay Series

ISOTOPE
HALF-LIFE
EMISSION
Uranium 238
4.55 x 109 years
Alpha
Thorium 234
24.1 days
Beta
Protactinium 234
1.14 minute
Beta
Uranium 234
235,000 years
Alpha
Thorium 230
80,000 years
Alpha
Radium 226
1,660 years
Alpha
Radon 222
3.85 days
Alpha
Polonium 218
3.05 minutes
Alpha
Lead 214
26.8 minutes
Beta
Bismuth 214
19.7 minutes
Beta
Polonium 214
15 x 10-5 seconds
Alpha
Lead 210
2.22 years
Beta
Bismuth 210
4.97 days
Beta
Polonium 210
139 days
Alpha
Lead 206
stable
none




 
 
 
APPENDIX D

Velocity of Light. Values Decreasing


OBSERVER
METHOD
DATE
VALUE 
OF C (Km/s)
Bradley
Aberration
1740
300,650          
Lindenau
Aberration
1783
300,460           +160
Struve
Aberration
1843
300,020          +160
Glasenapp
Jupiter Satellite
1861
300,050          
Cornu/Helmert
Toothed Wheel
1874.8
299,990          +200
Cornu/Dorsey
Toothed Wheel
1874.8
299,990          +200
Harvard Observat.
Jupiter Satellite
1876.5
299,921           ± 13
Michelson
Rotating Mirror
1879.5
299,910           ± 50
Newcomb
Rotating Mirror
1882.7 
299,860           ± 30
Michelson
Rotating Mirror
1882.8
299,853           ± 60
Nyren
Aberration
1883
299,850           ± 90
Perrotin
Toothed Wheel
1900.4
299,900           ± 80
Perrotin
Toothed Wheel
1902.4
299,860           ± 80
Perrotin/Prim
Toothed Wheel
1902.4
299,901           ± 84
Rosa/Dorsey
Electromag. units
1906.0
299,803           ± 30
Mercier
Waves on Wires
1923
299,795           ± 30
Michelson
Polygonal Mirror
1924.6
299,802           ± 30
Michelson
Polygonal Mirror
1926.5
299,798           ± 15
Mittelstaedt
Kerr Cell
1928.0
299,786          ± 10
Pease/Pearson
Polygonal Mirror
1932.5
299,774            ± 10
Anderson
Kerr Cell
1936.8
299,771            ± 10
Huttel
Kerr Cell
1937.0
299,771            ± 10
Anderson
Kerr Cell
1940.0
299,776            ± 10
Essen/Gordon-Smith
Cavity Resonator
1947
299,798            ±    3
Essen/Gordon-Smith
Cavity Resonator
1947
299,792            ±    3
Aslakson
Radar
1949
299,792.4         ±    2.4
Bergstrand
Geodimeter
1949
299,796           ±   2
Essen
Cavity Resonator
1950
299,792.5         ±    1
Hansen/Bol
Cavity Resonator
1950
299,794.3         ±    1.2
Bergstrand
Geodimeter
1950
299,793.1         ± 0.26
Bergstrand
Geodimeter
1951
299,793.1         ±   0.4
Aslakson
Radar
1951
299,794.2         ±    1.4
Froome
Radio Interferom.
1951
299,792.6         ±0.7
Bergstrand
Geodimeter
1953
299,792.85       ±    0.16
Froome
Radio Interferom.
1954
299,792.75       ±   0.3
 Florman
Radio Interferom.
 1954
299,795.1         ±    3.1 
 Scholdstrom
 Geodimeter
 1955
 299,792.4         ±    0.4
 Plyler et al.
 Spectral Lines
 1955
 299,792            ±   6
 Wadley
 Tellurometer
 1956
 299,792.9         ±    2.0
 Wadley
 Tellurometer
 1956
 299,792.7         ±    2.0
 Rank et al.
 Spectral Lines
 1956
 299,791.9         ±   2
 Edge
 Geodimeter
 1956
 299,792.4         ±   0.11
 Edge
 Geodimeter
 1956
 299,792.2         ±    0.13
 Wadley
 Tellurometer
 1957
 299,792.6         ±    1.2
 Froome
 Radio Interferom.
 1958
 299,792.5         ±    0.1
 Kolibayev
 Geodimeter
 1960
 299,792.6         ±   0.06
 Karolus
 Modulated Light
 1966
 299,792.44       ±   0.2
 Simkin et al.
 Microwave Interf.
 1967
 299,792.56       ±   0.11
 Grosse
 Geodimeter
 1967
 299,792.50       ±   0.05
 Bay / Luther / White
 Laser
 1972
 299,792.462     ±   0.018
 NBS (Boulder)
 Laser
 1972
 299,792.460     ±    0.006
 Evenson et al.
 Laser
 1973
 299,792.4574   ± 0.0011
 NRC/NBS
 Laser
 1973
 299,792.458     ±    0.002
 Blaney et al.
 Laser
 1974
 299,792.4590   ± 0.0008
 Woods et al.
 Laser
 1978
 299,792.4588   ± 0.0002
 Baird et al.
 Laser
 1979
 299,792.4581    ± 0.0019
 NBS (US)
 Laser
 1983
 299.792.4586    + 0.0003

This table is taken from the following recently published report:
NORMAN,  Trevor and  Barry  Setterfield.  August  1987. Technical Report:  The Atomic
Constants, Light, and Time. Flinders University of South Australia: (School of Mathematical
Sciences).




 
 
 
APPENDIX E

Electron Rest Mass. Values Increasing

AUTHORITY
REFERENCE
YEAR OF 
DETERMINATION
VALUE 
x 10-31 Kg.
R.T. Birge
Rev. Mod. Phys. 1:1
1929
8.994
R.T. Birge
Science 75:383
1932
9.035
F.G. Dunnington
Rev. Mod. Phys. 11:70
1939
9.1070
R.T. Birge
Phys. Rev. 60:785
1941
9.1064
J.D. Ryder
Electronic Eng. Princ. p. 3
1947
9.1060
G.I. Blown
Mod. Valence Theory p. 167
1953
9.1066
W. J. Moore
Physical Chemistry p. 209
1950-56
9.1068
H. H. Sisler
General Chemistry p. 121
1949-59
9.1070
A. J. Woodall
Physics p. 1239
1955
9.1078
E. R. Cohen et al.
Rev. Mod. Phys. 27:363
1955
9.1083
W. J. Moore
Physical Chemistry p. 618
1957
9.1085
A. P. French
Princ. Mod. Physics p. 109
1958
9.1085
Wehr & Richards
Phy. of the Atom p.41
1960
9.1084
Cohen & DuMond
Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Nuc. Mass
1963
9.1091




 
 
 
APPENDIX F

Specific Charge or Charge to Mass Ratio Value Decreasing

AUTHORITY
REFERENCE
YEAR OF 
DETERMINATION
VALUE
q m (x 107 emu grm)
J.J. Thompson
Basic Physics, p. 893
1900
.7 600
Houston
Intro. to Atom. Phy. p. 337
1927
.7 600
R.T. Birge
Rev. Mod. Phys. 1:1
1929
.7 60
R.T. Birge
Science 75:383
1932
.7 60
F.G. Dunnington
Phys. Rev. 52:475
1937
.7 597
Houston
Intro. to Atom. Phys. p. 337
1938
.7 593
F.G. Dunnington
Rev. Mod. Phys. 11:70
1939
.7 591
R.T. Birge
Phys. Rev. 60:785
1941
.7 592
Ryder
Elec. Eng. Princ. p. 3
1947
.7 590
Gardner
Elec. & Mag. p. 639
1951
.7 589
Cohen & DuMond
Rev. Mod. Phys. 25:706
1953
.7 592
E.R. Cohen et al.
Rev. Mod. Phys. 27:363
1955
.7 589
P. Fano
Bas. Phys. At. & Mol. p. 11
1959
.7 589
Wehr & Richards
Phys. of the Atom p. 34
1960
.7 589




 
 
 
APPENDIX G

Plank's Constant. Values Increasing

AUTHORITY
REFERENCE
DETERMINATION
(x 10-27 erg/sec)
M.E. Plank
(In J.W. Nicholson)
R.A.S., Mon. Not. 72:677 629
1912
6.548
Ryerson Lab.
Electrons R.A. Millikan p.242
1904-15
6.260
L.P. Seig 
Sc. Am. Supp. 1914, 78
(18 July): 46
1914
6.115
R.T. Birge
Rev. Mod. Phys. 1:1
1929
6.517
R.A. Millikan
(In G.P. Thompson)
Sc. Am. 1930. 143 (30 July):38
1930
6.550
F.G. Dunnington
Rev. Mod. Phys. 11:70
1939
6.610
R.T. Birge
Phys. Rev. 60:785
1941
6.621
R.A. Millikan
Electrons p.242
1946
6.560
Martin & Connor
Basic Physics p.929
1951
6.622
G.I. Brown
Mod. Valence Theory p. 16, 23
1953
6.624
E.R. Cohen el al. 
Rev. Mod. Phys. 27:363
1955
6.6251
W.J. Moore
Physical Chemistry p.618
1957
6.6252
A.P. French
Principles of Mod. Phys. p. 109
1958
6.6252
Wehr & Richards
Physics of the Atom p.65
1960
6.6253
Cohen & DuMond
Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Nuc. Mass
1963
6.6256
T. Barnes
C.R.S. Quarterly 1980, 17:46
1980
6.6262




 
 
 
APPENDIX H

Gyromagnetic Ratio. Values Decreasing

AUTHORITY
REFERENCE
DATE
g  VALUE
(rad/sec/gauss)
Thomas, Driscoll & Hippie
Phys. Rev. 78:787
1950
267    53.00
Cohen using the 1950 result
Fund. Const. Phys. p.269
1957
267    53.00
Driscoll & Bender
Phys. Rev. Lett. 1:413
1958
267    52.20
Vigoreux 
Proc. Roy. Soc. A270:72
1962
267     52.03
Yagola, Zingermann & Sepetyi
Fund. Atom. Con. p.45
1963
267     51.31
Yanovskii & Studentov
Izmerit. Tekh. 5:24
1963
267     51:30
Cohen & DuMond
Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Nuc. Mass
1963
267     51.92
Taylor, Parker & Langenberg
Rev. Mod. Phys. 41:375
1969
267     51.96
Wertz & Bolton
Elec. Spin. Res. Table A
1972
267     51.00

Note:  The first determination was carried out in 1946 but only reported to three figures.




 
 
 
APPENDIX I

Half-lives of Some Radioactive Elements Increasing


AUTHORITY
DATE
IONIUM 
(x 104 years)
RADIUM A
(mins.)
RADIUM F
(days)
PROTO-
ACTINIUM
(x 104 years)
ACTINIUM
(years)
ACTINIUM X
(days)
ACTINIUM C:
(mins.)
THORIUM C
(mins.)
CARBON 14
(years)
Soddy
1904
--
2.77
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
Rutherford
1904
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
55.
--
Rutherford
1913
7.0
3.00
136.0
--
--
10.5
3.47
60.0
--
Rutherford
1930
7.6
3.05
136.3
1.25
13.4
11.2
4.76
60.5
--
Crowther
1936
7.6
3.05
136.5
1.20
20.0
11.2
4.71
60.8
--
Hoyle
1947
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
5550
Libby
1949
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
5568
Libby
1950
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
5580
Glasstone
1950
8.0
3.05
140.0
3.20
21.7
11.2
4.76
60.5
--
Korsunsky
1958
8.3
3.05
140.0
3.20
--
11.4
4.76
60.5
5720
Rev. Mod. Phys.
1958
8.0
3.05
138.4
3.43
21.6
11.7
4.79
60.5
--
Upsala
1963
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
5685
AWRE, Eng.
1963
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
5760
NBS, U.S.A.
1963
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
5780
Gregory
1966
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
5760
Lammerts
1970
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
5760




 
 
 
APPENDIX J

Carbon 14 Dates Reported in Radiocarbon Journal

SAMPLE 
DESCRIPTION
LOCATION
LAB. IDENTITY
RADIOCARBON
(volume year)
AGE
(Years)
Crude oil from 1,100 ft.
California
C-631
*        1952
24,000
Pleistocene wood
La Brea
LJ-55
1        1959
14,400
Petrified wood
Italy
Pi-75
3        1961
10,090
Neanderthal mandible
Libya
GrN-2022
5        1963
40,700
Neanderthal skeleton
Iraq
Grn-1495
5       1963
50,600
Mylodon dung
Chile
Sa-49
6        1964
10,200
Mammoth vertebra
Wyoming
A-372
6        1964
9,600
Mastodon bones
Ohio
M-1254
7       1965
10,700
Diprotodon molar
New Zealand
NZ-1
7       1965
11,100
Broken Hill man
Rhodesia
UCLA-630
7       1965
9,000
Coal
--
MO-334
8       1966
1,680
Fossil wood & coal
Spain
GIF-198 to
8       1966
3,930
Fossil wood & coal
Spain
GIF-278
8       1966
5,025
Natural gas
Mississippi
1-1149
8       1966
34,000
Neanderthal bones
Morocco
NY-73
10        1968
32,000
Sabre-tooth tiger femur
La Brea
UCLA- 1292
10        1968
28,000
Pleistocene wood
La Brea
UCLA- 1325
11        1969
8,550
Mammal bones associated 
with Zinjanthropus boisei
Africa
UCLA- 1321
11        1969
10,100

*  Reported in Libby, W.F. 1952. Radiocarbon dating. University of Chicago Press.



 
 
 
APPENDIX K

Earth's Magnetic Field. Values Decreasing

AUTHORITY
YEAR
MAGNETIC MOMENT 
(amp per meter2) x 1022
Gauss
1835
8.558
Adams
1845
8.488
Adams
1880
8.363
Neumayer
1880
8.336
Fritsche
1885
8.347
Schmidt
1885
8.375
Vestine et al.
1905
8.291
Vestine et al.
1915
8.225
Dyson-Furner
1922
8.165
Vestine et al.
1925
8.149
Vestine et al.
1935
8.088
Jones-Melotte
1942-43
8.009
Vestine et al.
1945
8.065
Afanasieva
1945
8.010
U.S.C. & G.S.
1945
8.066
Fanselau-Kautzleben
1945
8.090
U.S.C. & G.S.
1955
8.035
Finch-Leaton
1955
8.067
Nagata-Oguti
1958-59
8.038
Cain et al.
1959
8.086
Fougere
1960
8.053
Adam et al.
1960
8.037
Jensen-Cain
1960
8.025
Leaton et al.
1965
8.013
Hurwitz et al.
1965
8.017




 
 
 
APPENDIX L

POPULATION EXPLOSION

Pn  =   2/C-l  [Cn-x+1]       [Cx - 1]

Pn = World population after n generations

n = Number of generations found by dividing total time by number of years per generation

x = Number of generations alive. If people live to see their grandchildren, x equals 3.

C = Half  the number of children  in  the  family.  Zero population  growth  occurs  when  all  children  live  to parenthood, and each set of parents has two children, C then equals 1.

The calculations are very simple and "ballpark" figures can be found quickly with a pocket calculator, while for the larger exponents, a set of common logarithm tables will be required.
 
 

Example 1:  Assuming Archbishop Ussher was right and the earth was created about 4004 B.C., this would put the Genesis Flood at about 4,300 years ago. Although 4 couples survived, with insignificant error we can begin with 1 couple and take C equals 1.23, which means that throughout the total time, the average family has less than 2.5 children. This will take into account loss of population by disease, starvation, war, etc. Suppose people only lived for 43 years to simplify the calculation, and they lived to see their grandchildren so that there were 3 generations alive at any one time, thus x equals 3. n is found by dividing 4,300 by 43 equals 100 generations.

Pn today = 2/1.23-1      [1.23100-3+1]      [1.233 - 1]

Pn today = 8.70    [l.2398]    [0.86]

Pn today = Approximately 4.8 billion

By imposing these very severe restrictions on population growth, and bearing in mind that historical records show large families until relatively recent times which allows even greater depopulation by natural disaster, it is seen that the world population derived is just about the actual world population for today. The time frame of 4,300 years would, therefore, seem reasonably correct.
 

Example 2:  Suppose that the conditions were exactly as in Example 1 except that the timeframe was expanded to 1 million years. In this case, n would be given by 1,000,000 divided by 43 equals 23,256 generations. C remains at 1.23 and x equals 3.

Pn today =  2/1.23-1     [l.2323256-3+1]     [l.233-l]

Pn today = 7.48   [l.2323254]

Pn today = 7.48 x antilog [23254 x log (1.23)]

Pn today = 7.48 [4.50 x 102090]

Pn today = 3.37 x 102091

Mathematicians have given thought to the largest number possible, and, to have any meaning, the total number of electrons in the universe has been considered as a candidate. By computation this number is 1090, a mere drop in the bucket compared to 102091! In other words, if mankind had been multiplying at this very modest rate for a million years, the population would by now be so great that when packed shoulder to shoulder, it could not be accommodated within the entire universe! Alternatively, in order to finish with the world population as we find it today, only one family in every 500 having more than two children would have survived. Surely an extraordinary rate of decimation.
 
 

End of Appendices  -  In the Minds of Men


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