AND THE ICE EPOCH                               by DONALD W. PATTEN
A Global Flood or a Local Flood

The Biblical Flood and the Ice Epoch



1  As  further discussion of early humanism which was pro-spiritual and modern humanism which is anti-spiritual is reserved for Chapter XII, pp. 319-322.

2  The term "swirling sphere," or a like term "spiraling sphere," make good alliteration in the English language. However, some object to the use of either of these terms on the basis that they inaccurately describe the Earth's motion around the Sun in our solar system. In this limited sense, such a point may be valid. However in a broader sense, the terms "swirling sphere" or "spiraling sphere" are precisely correct.
    The Earth possesses four types of motion. One is centrifugal, due to the Earth's rotation around its axis. This is at an equatorial or circumferential speed of approximately .29 miles per second. A second motion is revolving motion, due to the Earth's revolving around the Sun. This is at an orbital velocity of about 18 1/2 miles per second.
    However the Earth possesses two additional motions. Third is galactic motion. Our Sun and all of the members of its solar family are revolving around our galaxy, the Milky Way, at a rate of 12 miles per second in the direction of the constellation Hercules. Fourthly, our galaxy is revolving through the universe, at an additional velocity of 170 miles per second in the direction of the constellation Cyngus. Thus the term "swirling sphere" is a good term from the galactic perspective; the term "spiraling sphere" is perhaps superior. These terms accurately describe the Earth's motion as viewed from the Milky Way.


Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1946, "Catastrophism," p. 169; "Uniformitarianism," p. 1093.

2  Dolph E. Hooker, Those Astounding Ice Ages, New York: Exposition Press, 1958, p. 137.
    "Men of narrow, cynical minds may say the biblical story of a Flood is nothing but a fanciful Sumerian tale. How do they know? Aside from pure assumption, based solely upon imagination, they can produce no evidence whatsoever to support such a statement. On the other hand, evidence to sustain validity of the biblical story is plainly visible not only throughout the whole world, but in the heavens as well. Furthermore, the story is by no means exclusively Sumerian. It exists in the traditions of nations throughout the world—nations some of whom never heard of the Sumerians. One need not accept the biblical story as God-given to recognize that its truth is attested by much actual evidence."

3  Byron C. Nelson, The Deluge Story in Stone, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1931, p. 7.

4  Further discussion of Hutton's approach is given in Chapter III, p. 34, footnote 2, and Chapter V, p. 72, footnote 9.

5  Further discussion of the Lyellian time chart is given in Chapter XI, p. 301. A catastrophic time chart is also given on p. 302.

6  Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval, New York:  Doubleday & Co., 1955, pp. 161-162.

7  In 1880, Darwin received a letter from Marx asking his permission to dedicate the English edition of Das Kapital to him. With courtesy, Darwin refused, not because he did not share Marx's atheism, but rather because his family and friends would not approve of so atheistic a work. (Gavin De Beer, Charles Darwin, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd., London, 1963, p. 266.) The fact that Darwin was a capitalist must reflect Marx's intense interest and overriding enthusiasm for Darwin's biology, because Darwin in no way shared Marx's view of economics or politics. In fact both Darwin and his wife, Emma (Wedgwood) Darwin, happened to be grandchildren of Josiah Wedgwood, a famous entrepreneur, the Henry Ford of the pottery industry in 18th century England, who led a typical Horatio Alger success story of rags to great riches.

8  Author's Note: The tendency toward conformity is strong among the scholarly community, even though they are the first and the loudest to disdain the principle. Spengler, for instance, noticed this one generation ago in Germany, and used a descriptive term translated as "the intellectual mob." Academic men will recognize the tendency of their own community to adopt ideas en masse, while decrying the same principle in the total society. In the academic world, perhaps more than in society in general, promotions for instance, are highly dependent on conformity.

9  Alfred M. Rehwinkel, The Flood, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1951, pp. 127-176. Further discussion of this subject is also given in Chapter VIII of this volume.

10  Charles Hapgood, "The Mystery of the Frozen Mammoths," Coronet, Sept. 1960.

11  Ivan T. Sanderson, "Riddle of the Frozen Giants," Saturday Evening Post, Jan. 16. 1960.

12  Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1950.
    Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1955.

13  One of Velikovsky's errors of predisposition is discussed in Chapter X, page 266.

14  Dolph Earl Hooker,  Those Astounding Ice Ages, New York:   Exposition Press, 1958.


1  These two works of William Whiston are both available in magnified microfilm reprints, reprinted xerographically, by the Pacific Meridian Publishing Co. of Seattle. A third work by Isaac Newton, published posthumously by his sister, is also available through microfilm reprints. It is entitled Observations upon The Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733). Newton was very much a Calvinist and a Puritan. Being a scientist, he had entered into an agreement with the Royal Society to do no publishing on subjects religious during his lifetime. The Royal Society thereby hoped that theologians would not concern themselves with publishing on matters scientific. Nevertheless when Newton died, some 80% of his unpublished writings did not concern astronomy, mathematics or physics. They concerned his deep Christian faith. A very few of these have been published; many unpublished items are located at the Babson Institute.

2  James Hutton was an M.D. who, being independently wealthy, devoted vast amounts of time to the study of this new field of geology. His interest in geology was in the nature of being possessed by a hobby; others with whom he associated were academic figures and were truly professionals in that early day of geological study. Hutton became the prime figure in the early Scottish school of geology, and he confined his studies to Scotland, and particularly the Scottish Highlands. He advocated the concept of "oceans of time" for all geological events, and fortified his ideas with appeals to the rocks exclusively. This is to say he looked downward only; he did not look upward and give any consideration to astronomical data as having a possible bearing on his methodology; neither did he look backward into history and give any consideration to ancient cosmologies as having any possible bearing upon his methodology.
    Hutton's error was not in his appeal to the rocks for the history of the Earth, but rather his appeal exclusively to only the rocks, and exclusively to forces which his generation had experienced and recorded. Hutton's idea of catastrophism was limited to (a) a mild earthquake, and (b) the eruption of a volcano. Hall, Lyell and Playfair followed Hutton's lead in this respect. "Nor are we to proceed in feigning causes when those appear insufficient which occur in our experience," said Hutton (Hutton's Theory of the Earth, i. p. 160, ii p. 549).

3  Lyell's  geological time chart is given in Chapter XI, p. 301. It is the policy within this book not merely to demonstrate why certain ideas or hypotheses are incongruous. This is merely replacing a poor idea with no idea. Rather the policy of this book has been to offer an alternative and better idea to what is considered a poor idea. This principle is achieved in several chapters of this work. One reflection of this principle is the proposing of a catastrophic geological time chart in Chapter XI, p. 302, immediately following the Lyellian time chart.

4  Some suspect that Pluto was at one time a satellite of Jupiter, which strayed from its original sphere. Among them is Kuiper, who considers that Hidalgo and the Trojan Asteroids as well as Pluto may once have been satellites of Jupiter. Kuiper's assumption is not widespread, however, (Gerard P. Kuiper, Planets and Satellites, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1961, p. 576.)

5  Robert L. Forward, "Pluto, Last Stop Before the Stars," Science Digest, August 1962, p. 73.

6  There is another case, similar to Bode's law, which is also not understood, but in which a relationship, not understood, is presumed. This is the proximity of the geographical and the magnetic poles. The relationships between the geographical and magnetic poles are a subject of consideration in Chapter VI.

7  Eric Larrabee, "Scientist in Collision: Was Velikovsky Right," Harpers Magazine, August 1963, p. 52.

8  James S. Pickering, 1001 Questions Answered About Astronomy, New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1959, p. 203.

9  The destruction of Troy by the Greeks is both described by Homer and attributed to conflicts then going on among the contesting celestial deities who were in conflict. Among the contestants were Zeus (Jupiter), Ares (Mars), Pallas Athene (Venus) and to a lesser extent, Aphrodite (the Moon) and Hera (Earth).
    Greek tradition further attributes the founding of Troy to Dardanus, whose mother was Electra, one of the seven celestial sisters, all daughters of Atlas. When Troy was destroyed, Greek mythology has it that Electra could not bear to watch, so she withdrew from the heavens, never to return.
    Velikovsky has written some valuable data on this subject also, in Part II, Worlds in Collision (pp. 207-375). It is of interest to note that during this same century, the Hebrew fire and brimstone prophets also discussed cosmology, impending judgments, periodical in sequence. Among them are Joel and Amos, who called the nation to repentance 3 years before the great "earthquake" or "earth-shaking." Others who followed included Micah and Isaiah, the monthly prognosticator, the watchman in the night. Isaiah's cosmology is described, chapters 24-37, also II Kings 19-20. Of particular interest is a time when a blast from heaven is associated with a reversing of the sun dial and the breaching of the walls of Jerusalem, some 40 feet thick and 100 feet high, by earthquake. Habakkuk 3 among other portions of the minor prophets is remarkably descriptive.
    It is of interest to note that the destruction of both Troy and the Assyrian armies (of Sennacherib) are attributed to celestial mechanics. Thus Isaiah was the prophet of crisis for the Hebrews, even as Homer was the bard of crisis for the Greeks. Some further data on this subject is presented in Chapter VIII.

10  The Moon always shows the same face toward Earth, but shows both sides towards the Sun. Recent photographs of the Moon's other side indicate that craters there are more numerous than on the Moon's earthward side. Similarly recent photographs of Mars indicate that Mars has even a higher rate of astroblemes than the Moon, possessing on occasions craters within craters within craters.

11  The origin of lunar mountains, bearing very much on the question of the origin of our Earth's mountain systems, is discussed at length in Chapter V.

12  Bielids are meteors which are associated with a meteor shower which has not been observed for a number of years. The meteors which composed the Bielid meteor shower were believed to be the debris of a comet known as Biela's comet, from the name of its discoverer. Biela's comet was observed to split in two in 1846 and vanished completely in 1865. The tiny stony and metallic fragments of which the comet's head was composed were strewn along the comet's orbit and were encountered by the Earth as a meteor shower each year for a number of years, whenever the Earth crossed the path in which the Bielids travelled. The meteor stream, however, probably because of the gravitational influence of one of the larger planets, has been scattered or diverted, and the Earth no longer has a Bielid meteor shower. Ref: James P. Pickering, 1001 Questions Answered About Astronomy, New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1949, p. 203.

13  Eric Larrabee, loc. cit.

14  To an aphid or a flea, an egg shell might seem quite durable. But not to a man or a predator. And to a man or a predator, the crust of the Earth seems very durable, as it indeed seemed to Hutton. However, when viewed from the enormous magnitudes of a plunging asteroid or a satellite-sized celestial body, the crust of the Earth, some 5 to 30 miles thick, is relatively insignificant. Considered in terms of these conditions, the Earth's thin crust is quite fragile, though flexible.


1  Whiston, William (translation), Flavius Josephus; Antiquities of the Jews, Bridgeport, 1828, M. Sherman, p. 85.

2  Further discussion on ancient flood traditions is given in Chapter VIII, pp. 164 and 165.

3  It is noted in the Genesis account of chronologies that there were nine generations between the Deluge and Abraham. Shem's age is given as 98 years at the time of the Flood. He lived a total of 600 years, continuing on some 500 years after the Flood. His 9th generation descendant, Abraham, migrated from Ur of the Chaldees to Palestine approximately 400 to 500 years after the Flood.  Reference, Figure 25, p. 215.
    Here in Palestine, one of Abraham's early experiences was his meeting with the ancient and venerable Melchisadek, to whom he tithed, and from whom he received the communion emblems. Who was the ancient Melchisadek? Henry Halley comments as follows in his Bible Handbook (Henry H. Halley, Halley's Bible Handbook, 1959 (22nd Edition), Chicago, Illinois).

"Priest-King of Salem (Jerusalem). Hebrew tradition says that he was Shem, survivor of the Flood, who was still alive, earth's oldest living man, priest, in the patriarchal age, of the whole race. If so, it is a hint, that, this early, right after the Flood, God chose Jerusalem to be the scene of Human Redemption ..."
    If Halley's suspicion is correct, or nearly correct, and the ancient, venerated Melchisadek is also either Shem, or possibly Arphaxad, Salah or Eber, then Abraham's source material concerning conditions both prior and during the Flood become increasingly important. Undoubtedly Abraham, as the tither, did more than merely receive communion from Melchisadek. Undoubtedly they communed concerning their understanding of God as Creator and Lord. Undoubtedly they communed about the ancient conditions and about the then current spiritual state of the human race, the divergence of migrations of patriarchal families, and the maintaining of satisfactory historical accounts of these ancient events. Abraham's source, and  renditions  then became  source  material  for Moses,  who  compiled Genesis.

4  They include two ancient Assyrio-Babylonian stories—that of Ammizaduga as preserved by Asshur-bani-pal, and that of Berosus, as given in Eusebius. They include the Persian version, as preserved in the Zendavesta, and apparently also a second version has been preserved from ancient Persian folklore. A Syrian version exists in the Dialogues on the Syrian Goddess, as given by Lucian, and similar to both the account of Berosus and the Greek account, as given by Plato and particularly Appolodorus. In this account, Deucalion and Pyrrha double as Noah and his wife. Manetho, the Egyptian historian, related a Flood tradition. Livingstone, the African missionary, found a tribe called the Bermegai, relatively highly civilized, in Africa, which possessed a Flood story. Ovid gives a Roman version. The Rig Veda gives a Deluge legend in India. In China, the Deluge story includes the reputed founder of the Chinese civilization who, along with his family, escaped a deluge. Other parallel legends occur in many other cultures spread from Iceland eastward to Polynesia, and from Alaska southward to Tierra del Fuego, and the Strait of Magellan. For further reference, see Byron Nelson, The Deluge Story in Stone, Appendix II, (Minneapolis, Augsburg Publishing House, 1931).

5  Throughout this volume, various versions of the Bible have been used, particularly since clarity in language is essential in some places which does not occur in the older translations. Among the versions used are the following:
    1. Amplified
    2. Goodspeed
    3. King James
    4. New Catholic (Douay)
    5. Revised Standard
When a specific version is cited to a chapter, all of the quotations following in the chapter are from the same version unless otherwise cited.

6  The altitude and topography of the Ararat region is indicative of the elevation of the final resting place of the Ark. This is the basis for assuming tides of at least 10,000 feet, and perhaps 15,000 feet, both above and below mean antediluvian sea level.

7  Whiston, William: Josephus p. 86.

8  The following is contained in a letter to the author from Mr. A. James Wagner, meteorologist. "An interesting observation about which you may not be aware is that the word translated 'continually' in the King James, with reference to the retreat of the Flood waters, may be more literally rendered by the phrase 'in going and coming.' This is interesting and helpful to our belief that the main force of the Flood was tidal in nature." Dated 12/12/63, Dr. Wagner continues: "The discussion of the grounding of the Ark on the high mountain hedge of the Ararat-Caucasus group offers strong evidence of the tidal nature of the Flood. I'll bet this observation will stir up quite a storm."

9  Mackinder, an early 20th century English geographer, specialized in a field variously called geopolitics and/or political geography. He coined the term "heartland of Eurasia." He considered this to be the region from the Caspian and Aral Seas northward and northeastward, embracing Eastern Russia, Interior and Northern Siberia, Kazakhstan Turkestan and Uzbekistan. This, he posited, was the one area on our planet which was immune to sea power and also had a pivotal location relative to the series of nations on rim of the Eurasian land mass.
    Mackinder's view was posited in marked contradistinction to that of Admiral Mahan, an American naval officer and naval historian. Mahan viewed the oceans of the world as the pathways of commerce and of military movement when necessary. He viewed control of the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea as essential to the success of any nation, and posited that the nation which controls these waters with seapower will, more than any other, control the destinies of the nations of the world.
    Mackinder, a professor at the London School of Economics, disagreed with Mahan, who viewed the broad, waterless deserts as barriers, along with the numerous rugged interior mountain ranges, hindrance to transportation and agriculturally unimportant. Mackinder, on the other hand, viewed this region as unsusceptible to sea power and the nations possessing sea power. He also viewed this area as having a pivotal location relative to the many nations around the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Middle East. What Mackinder considered pivotal, Mahan considered a barrier. It is also of interest to note that Mahan, an American, advocated the British principle of sea power, while Mackinder, a Britisher, admired the geopolitical area of the Soviet Union.
    Within the recent generation, another outspoken and compelling thinker, Colonel DeSeversky, a refugee Russian, has again disagreed, maintaining that air power—rather than heartland location or sea power—is the critical element wherein the destinies of nations will be determined. (It seems ironic that DeSeversky, a Russian by birth, admires American geopolitical position, while Mackinder, a socialist-minded English intellectual, admires Russian geopolitical position, and Mahan, an American admiral, admired English geopolitical position. It is almost as if the grass seems greener on the other side of the fence.)
    Each of course is correct within a limited perspective of technology and time. It is of interest to note that the paramilitary guerilla actions of Communists in Asia, among the nations on the rim of the Eurasian land mass, is an application of Mackinder's geopolitical thinking, inasmuch as this military strategy gives the Communists the greatest number of advantages coupled with the fewest number of disadvantages.
    Mackinder's geopolitical consideration of the Heartland of Eurasia is in marked contrast to our geophysical consideration of the Heartland of the Eastern Hemisphere. Mackinder considered the Arctic Ocean as geopoliti-cally unimportant; we consider it as geophysically important. Mackinder considered the land mass of Africa as unimportant in location and unimportant in military potential; hence he limited his thinking to the "heartland of Eurasia." In contrast we consider the Eastern Hemisphere geophysically, and geophysically Africa is an important appendage to the land mass of Eurasia. Therefore we use the term Heartland of the Eastern Hemisphere which includes one continent and one ocean which Mackinder omitted.
    It is within this Heartland Region of the Eastern Hemisphere, the vicinity of Armenia with the Ararat and Elburz mountains, where the Ark was grounded. This location is hardly a maritime one, to say the least; yet it is the region of the grounding of the most famous barge of ancient times. This "heartland" location is held to be a signal factor in understanding the cause of the Flood and the nature of the Flood. The Heartland factor is to be evaluated independently from the mountainous and altitudinous topography wherein the Ark was grounded. Both factors strongly suggest tidal mechanisms, tides of subcontinental magnitude.

10  The estimate of compression at 2 tons per square inch, or 300 tons per square foot during the crescendoes of the chaotic Deluge period are calculated as follows. Water is about 62 lbs. per cubic foot. 10,000 cubic feet of water in vertical position results in 620,000 lbs. of pressure. 620,000 lbs. = 310 tons of pressure per square foot, which is slightly over 2 tons per square inch.

11  The total weight of the atmosphere is equal to about 30 feet of water. The percentage of water vapor in the atmosphere varies between 0 and 1 1/2%. This is about 5 inches of water.

12  The author's estimate of the ratio of importance of the rain to the tides in the cataclysm is about 1:2500. The rain contributed perhaps .04 of 1% of the water, and the oceans, the "fountains of the deep" contributed 99.96% of the water. The rain was a rinsing action; the tides were a washing action; both were simultaneous.


1  George Gamow, Biography of the Earth, New York:  Viking Press, 1960 p. 85.

2  Adrian E. Scheidegger, Principles of Geodynamics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1963, p. 50.

3  The viscosity of the plastic-like hot magma within the Earth's crust is complicated, due in part to different densities, pressures and temperatures in various vertical areas. Another factor which markedly affects viscosity is stress and removal of stress. Yet another factor to be considered is the centrifugal speed of the magma, and the drag induced thereon by an approaching extra-terrestrial gravitational force. The mechanics of flow of the Earth's magma are complicated and not fully understood. For further information, see Scheidegger's Principles of Geodynamics, p. 106-161 and associated sources as listed.

4  Gamow, op. cit., pp. 80-91.

5  Scheidegger, op. cit., pp. 209-291

6  In addition to these, there is lack of theory for the origin of coal strata and petroleum pools. Further, the Earth's mantle (crust) contains no indication as to the origin of either carbon or nitrogen, elements abundant in the atmospheres of both the Earth and the Jovian planets. See Dolph E. Hooker, Those Astounding Ice Ages, New York; Exposition Press, 1958, pp. 122-139.

7  Richard Hartshorne,  Perspective on the Nature of Geography,  Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1959, p. 91.

8  Hartshorne, ibid., pp. 91-92.

9  "No powers are to be employed that are not natural to the globe, no action to be admitted except those of which we know the principle," said Hutton. This illustrates a man whittling down history and the universe to his own preconceptions. With one flourish of the pen, he brushed aside every possibility except that which he determined to understand with his mind. Frank L. Marsh, Studies in Creationism, Washington D.C.: Review & Herald Publishing Assn., 1950, p. 106.

10  Wegener, Alfred,  The Origin of Continents and Oceans, translated from 3rd German ed. by L.G.A. Kerl. London: Methuen. 1924.

11  Scheidegger, loc. cit., pp. 10-14, 104-105.

12  Scheidegger, op. cit., p. 289.

13  Scheidegger, op. cit., p. 291.

14  Scheidegger, op. cit., pp. 147-148.

15  Mountains could have various possible geographical patterns. They could have perhaps been scattered across the face of the Earth in a random pattern, which is similar to the astroblemes (craters) on the Moon and Mars; they are not. Mountains could have occurred in sunburst arrangements, but do not. Mountains could have occurred in latitudinal or linear arrangements had a constant rate of rotation occurred along with a geographically shifting axis. Had crustal expansion been a principle, a similar pattern would have resulted. Had there been a varying rate of rotation along with a constant location in the axis, elevation from mean sea level would have varied according to latitude. Mountains could have occurred in ubiquitous wrinkles, had a universal crustal contraction been a factor. Mountains might have occurred in concentrations at continental peripheries had the Continental Drift idea been the determinant. None of these geographical patterns are the case, with one minor exception, which is the Rift Valley of East Africa. This, rather than being a formation of mountains, is the reverse; it is a cleavage rather than an uplift of the Earth's crust. This particular phenomenon does relate to limited crustal expansion, and shall be discussed or recounted in two later footnotes, one in this Chapter V, footnote 16 below, and another in Chapter X, footnote 23, p. 252.

16  Observe that there are two great cycles, or zones of recent mountain uplifts, not one. One of the zones is the Circum-Pacific, which approaches each geographical pole within 20°, or 1500 miles. This zone generally describes the rim of the Pacific Ocean, from Antarctica and Chile, through Alaska, Japan and the Philippine Islands to Indonesia. The other zone is the Alpine-Himalayan zone, which begins in the Atlantic Ocean, the Canary Islands, and Spain, and continues through the Alps, Ararat-Caucasus-Elburz group, through the Himalayas and associated ranges, across New Guinea and into the island arcs of Polynesia, including Samoa. In each of these zones of uplift, the mountain structures are similar in all respects.
This observation opens the door for a suspicion that at sometime during one crescendo of this catastrophic period, the location of the Earth's geographical poles suddenly underwent a major shift. While this does not necessarily require a shifting of the angle of the axis, which is 23 1/2° to the perpendicular of the ecliptic, nevertheless the possibility of such a shift also exists.
    Observe the location of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenetic zone, a segment of a great circle, rising some 20 and 25° above the Earth's equator, on a path quite similar to some of the space-probe satellites which have been launched within the recent decade. This zone is comparable to the plane of the ecliptic near the time of the summer solstice (June 21). At this time, the sun's perpendicular rays fall some 23 1/2° north of the equator, due to the angle of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic. The plane of the ecliptic is the plane of the path of the Earth as it orbits around the sun. It is on this plane that vertical rays of the sun fall upon the Earth. At the equinoxes, March 21 and Sept. 21, the plane of the ecliptic crosses the equator, and the days are equal in length in both hemispheres. On the solstices, it rises 23 1/2° above the equator into one hemisphere and alternately the other.
    It is suspected that the zone of the Alpine-Himalayan uplift, similar to the plane of the Earth's ecliptic in June, and even more similar to the pattern of orbiting satellites, actually reflects the plane of the Earth facing the orbiting astral visitor, as it revolved past the Earth. The Alpine-Himalayan zone of uplift is the plane of the bulge during the crisis. But there were two bulge zones; hence the possibility of two locations of the geographical poles during the one crisis period.
    If such were the case, then certain other points must be a logical consequence. One is that the Circum-Pacific zone reflects or indicates the former equatorial zone, which supposes that the geographical poles may have been previously located within 1,000 miles of Nigeria and Samoa respectively.
    Additional evidence may possibly exist in research into the magnetic alignment of prediluvian lava formations. As lava hardens, the iron compounds contained therein crystallize in a pattern containing a magnetic alignment to the magnetic poles. This lava alignment does not shift later, if the magnetic poles were to subsequently shift. Since it is commonly assumed that there is a relationship, not well understood, between the proximity of the geographical and magnetic poles, such discoveries should add to a suspicion of a historical shift in location of both geographical and magnetic poles.
    In such a circumstance, another condition also would necessarily follow. It involves the Earth's oblateness, which is due to its centrifugal
motion (rotation). The Earth's equatorial diameter is 7927 miles, whereas its polar diameter is only 7900 miles, a difference of 27 miles. A change in the location of the Earth's poles implies a change in the location of the Earth's equatorial zones. A consequence then would be a shift in the Earth's oblateness to the new equatorial zone. This in turn would be facilitated by a splitting or a cleavage, a perpendicular tear in the Earth's crust, astride the equator, which would allow for the necessary expansion. Such a cleavage, due to a new equatorial zone of oblateness, could be expected to be not only perpendicular to the equatorial zone, but could also be expected to be broadest and more complex in breaching in the equatorial zone.
    Such a condition closely approximates the Rift Valley of Africa. This is a cleavage which extends north and south about 5,000 miles, and is broadest in its breaching or cleavage in the equatorial zone. The Great Rift Valley possesses indications of recent vulcanism at the edges, where minor outpourings of lava occur, outpourings which are contrasted with other volcanic formations in the same region which are superimposed by alluvial strata. Other factors, such as the geosyncline of the Lake Victoria Basin, the shallowness of Lake Victoria, (279 feet deep for the largest fresh water lake on Earth), the attenuated shoreline, the precipice of Murchison Falls, where the White Nile plunges out of this basin and into the Rift Valley— a river as large as the Niagara passing with immense velocity through a precipice only 15 feet wide. Also the volcanoes of Elgon, Kenya, Kilimanjaro and Ruwenzori are related factors. Additional material on the great Rift Valley of Africa will be given in footnote 18, Chapter X, where it pertains to other data.
    If this concept of a shift in location of the poles is historically correct (and geophysically correct), there may exist a clear relationship not only (1) between the Earth's equatorial plane, geographical poles and the Flood catastrophe, but also (2) between the 23 1/2° angle of the axis to the perpendicular of the ecliptic and the Flood catastrophe. This is the phenomenon responsible for the Earth's climatological seasons.
This suspicion of a shift in location of the geographical poles, during the Flood celestial crisis, also suggests that the Circum-Pacific series of mountain ranges is clearly older than the Alpine-Himalayan series, older by perhaps a few months. This point bears further on a discussion toward the end of this chapter on (a) the global scope of the orgenetic uplifts, (b) the direction of causation, and (c) the recent timing of this astral catastrophe. Observing the phenomena of these two great circle patterns of orogenetic uplift conjointly with the celestial crisis cannot help but be stimulating and ultimately illuminating.

17  A classical example of a great circle (which is merely the shortest distance between two points on a plotted sphere) is the ocean route between the Panama Canal and Tokyo, Japan. The Panama Canal is at about 9° N latitude; Tokyo is about 36° N. latitude. Many map projections indicate that the shortest route between the two is via the Hawaiian Islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, at a latitude of about 20° N. It would not seem that the shortest distance could possibly include latitudes north of Tokyo's. In reality, however, such is the case, due to the Earth's round-ness, projected but distorted onto a plane (the map). In reality, the shortest distance between Panama and Tokyo includes a seeming detour northward to a latitude of 45° N., skirting the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

18  Scheidegger, op. cit., pp. 289-291.

19  If the forces of pressure upon the earth's external crust, due to continental tides, were measured in tons per square inch, the alternating forces of thrust exerted upon the inside of the Earth's crust would be measured in megatons per square inch, the magnitude of thrust required to suddenly raise (and align) the Alps, the Andes, the Ararats or the Himalayas.

20  Map projections, when portraying features of a sphere on a plane, always leave something to be desired, regardless of the projection. The pattern of arcs, greater arcs, and global great circles in the alignment of recent mountain uplifts is portrayed fairly well by Figure 6, page 76. It is an abbreviated oblique mercator projection, as adapted by J. TUZO Wilson. Another map portraying these relationships is given in Chapter VII, a chapter of models. Figure 23, page 158 shows the two zones of orogenetic uplift on an adjusted polar type of projection, semi-azimuthal but semi-conical. This projection was designed by Bartholomew and termed a "regional" projection, and is centered longitudinally on the longitudes of 60° W. and 120° E. Bartholomew's Advanced Atlas (McGraw-Hill), pp. 14-15.

21  James S. Pickering, 1001 Questions Answered About Astronomy, New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1959, pp. 36-37.

22  A further discussion on the relationship between history and science is given in Chapter XII, pp. 318-319.

23  Hartshorne, op. cit., p. 106.  A valuable discussion of the entire problem of geomorphology and genesis is given, pages 81-106.

24  Scheidegger, op. cit., p. 291.

25  Scheidegger, op. cit., p. 289.

26  A model of this catastrophic crisis is given in Chapter VII describing astral orbits and celestial regions of dominance. The model as presented suggests a somewhat prolonged period of crisis, something like 150 days and 150 nights. Although a model could be presented involving either (a) a single grazing conflict, or (b) a series of single grazing conflicts by a series of visitors, nevertheless it is concluded that (c) there was but one visitor involved, and this for a prolonged period of time. Further reference is made to Hartshorne's chapter on Time, Genesis, Geomorphology and Geology, pp. 81-107, with particular reference to page 90. "The test of any such theory is not in its logic but in its workability . . . Whether explanatory analysis of development adds more than it detracts from a comprehension of the existing character of a landform as an integral element in areal variation is therefore a matter of judgment, rather than logic."

27  Job, Chapter 9, verses 5-9 (numerous other comparable examples occur in the Book of Job).

Yes I know, it is true, but how can mortal man be right before God?
If one should want to contend with Him, he cannot answer one question
in a thousand. God is wise in heart and mighty in strength;
who has ever hardened himself against Him and prospered?
God,  Who removes the mountains,  and they know it not,
when He overturns them in His anger
Who shakes the Earth out of its place, and the pillars of it tremble;
Who commands the sun and it apparently rises not, and seals up the stars from view.
Who alone stretches out the heavens, and treads upon the waves and high places of the sea;
Who made the constellations the Bear, Orion and the Pleiades, and the vast starry spaces of the south;
Who does great things past finding out, yes, marvelous things without number.

28  Author's Note. Error and truth are considerations which have received the widest possible treatment. Occasionally well-known thinkers will propose or suppose that truth lies about midway between two opposites. (Their number is not small.) Thus, they posit, truth and presumably progress also lie midway at a compromise between two opposing views.
    For example, two children disagree on the total of 5 and 5. One claims that it is 15; the other insists that it is 55. The profound appearing thinker promptly posits that the sum of 5 and 5 is 35, midpoint between 15 and 55. Many modern thinkers take this approach. It may serve well as parliamen-tarianism, but this type of rapprochement, or compromise, is inadequate, to say the least, for scientific or historical research.

29  Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1946, "catastrophism," p. 159; "uniformitarianism," p. 1093.

30  Scheidegger, op. cit., p. 289.

31  Hartshorne, op. cit., p. 91.

32  Scheidegger, op. cit., p. 291.

33  Webster's Illustrated Dictionary,  Washington D.C.:   The Publishers Co.,
Inc., 1962, "sterility," p. 650.

34  Scheidegger, op. cit., p. 148.

35  Hartshorne, op. cit., pp. 91-92.

36  Hartshorne, op. cit., p. 90.


1  The diameter of the entire ring system is 171,000 miles. The outer ring is slightly over 10,000 miles wide, inside of which there is a dark band containing little or no material. This is Cassini's division, and is about 3,000 miles wide. Inside Cassini's division is a much brighter ring, about 16,000 miles wide. Inside this is another division, about 1,000 miles wide, inside of which is the crape ring, about 11,500 miles wide. The total ring system is about 41,500 miles wide. The inner edge of the crape ring is about 7,000 miles above the surface of Saturn.
    Cassini's division is the primary void among Saturn's rings. It is caused by systematic perturbations caused by gravitational disturbances of Saturn's nearer and larger satellites. Cassini's division is l/2 of the period of Mimas, 1/3 of the period of Enceladus, and 1/4 of the period of Tethys. The gravitational fields of these three satellites swept out the original material in this region, resulting in separated rings of remaining material.
    A similar illustration of perturbations has been caused by Jupiter upon the asteroid belt. At fractional periods of Jupiter, the asteroids have also been perturbed out systematically, thus leaving alternating belts containing either a concentration or a void of asteroids.

2  A brief discussion of Roche's limit with reference to the Rings of Saturn was given in Chapter III, pp. 39 and 42. Further discussions of Roche's limit occur in numerous volumes on astronomy.

3  The densities of the Jovian Planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) when compared to the density of water are 1.35, .71, 1.56 and 2.47 respectively. Saturn is the only one among them that would float in water, and may be composed of ices of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, plus hydrogen. There is also a deep atmosphere of ammonia and methane.
    The densities of Jupiter's four major satellites (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) are 4.03, 3.78, 2.35 and 2.06 respectively, considerably more than Jupiter's density of 1.35 (compared to water). This reflects that they contain probably no atmosphere, in contrast to Jupiter. This also reflects that Ganymede and particularly Callisto must be composed of rock cores and thick, deep crusts of ice. Pickering says "Callisto has a density which is very low and it may be made of ice." Thus the total composition of Callisto may not be fully known, but it seems certain that its 10 billion cubic miles of material must be mostly ice.
    The densities of Saturn's six inner satellites are .5, .7, 1.2, 2.8, 2.0 and 2.4. Some are lighter than water and are presumed to be mostly if not entirely ice. The others are presumed to contain rock cores, and deep crusts of ice, like Saturn itself.

4  Dolph Earl Hooker, Those Astounding Ice Ages, New York: Exposition Press. 1958, pp. 19-20.

5  Ivan T. Sanderson, "Riddle of the Quick-Frozen Giants," Saturday Evening Post, Jan 16, 1960, p. 82.

6  The fossils of these people, dead for 2000 years, have been achieved by a careful search of the ruins of Pompeii. Where a person died and was covered by pumice, the body decomposed, but the pumice did not subsequently shift. The result was a cavity in the pumice which, if filled with plaster of paris, produces a perfect specimen of the dying individuals, with dying expressions on their faces, in positions reaching for loved ones. Even the detail of the fabric of their clothes, along with wrinkles are preserved.

7  Sanderson, loc. cit., p. 82:  "The Riddle of the Quick-Frozen Mammoths," Reader's Digest, April, 1960, p. 123.
    It takes a great deal of cold to freeze a warm-blooded mammal. Men have been out in temperatures of —100° F. for up to half an hour without their lungs freezing. Sled-dogs in the Arctic and Antarctic have been out in blizzard conditions in temperatures well below —80° F. for many hours and even days without freezing, and admittedly moving air is more chilling than still air. In 1911 when Scott took his ill-fated dash to the South Pole, his little Shetland ponies survived until their food gave out.
    At —10° F. it takes 20 minutes to quick-freeze a dead turkey, 30 minutes to preserve a side of beef. But these are mere bits of meat, not the mammoths clothed in fur, at a temperature of about 98° F. Unless we have tremendous cold outside, the center of the animal we are trying to freeze will remain comparatively warm for some time, probably long enough for decomposition to start. Meanwhile, the actual chilling of the flesh will be slow enough for large crystals to form within its cells. Neither event occurred with most mammoths, although one of them has been found by the radiocarbon dating method to be just over 10,000 years old. The flesh of many of the animals found in the muck is remarkably fresh. Frozen-food experts say they must have been frozen at well below —150° F.
    Further, several studies indicate that mammoths were not especially designed for the Arctic; nor did they live in Arctic conditions. The Indian elephant, which is a close relative of the mammoth . . . has to have several hundred pounds of food daily just to survive. But, for more than six months of the year, there is nothing for any such creature to eat on the Arctic tundra. Yet there were tens of thousands of mammoths.

8  Charles H. Hapgood, "The Mystery of the Frozen Mammoths," Coronet, September, 1960, p. 76.
    Hapgood, bothered by this problem, hazarded a guess as to the cause of the quick-freeze. He wrote as follows: "Only one possibility, I believe, can explain this riddle of science and with it the mysterious extinction of the mammoth. In my opinion, the climate did not change; the entire surface of the earth migrated from one climate zone to another . . ." He continues on in this vein, suggesting a shift in the location of the earth's axis. He notably fails to explain what could have caused the shift in axis, which would be something closer to the real cause. His tentative explanation is still grounded to the idea that the snow came from evaporated ocean water, and hence it is only another wrinkle or rehashing of the uniformitarian approach. Interestingly enough, catastrophists Price, Nelson and Rehwinkel also tended toward this type of explanation, which differs only modestly from the classical uniformitarian suppositions.

9  Byron C. Nelson, The Deluge Story in Stone, Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1931, p. 122.

10  Nelson, op. cit., p. 125. "The remains of mammoths are incredibly numerous in Siberia and, strangely enough, their numbers increase farther north toward the Arctic Ocean. Their bones are spread over the bottom of that ocean, where ships have dredged them up. And 200 miles to the north, in the New Siberian Islands, not much farther from the North Pole than New York is from Chicago, mammoth remains are the thickest of all."
    The reason that the New Siberian Islands and other offshore islands in the Arctic Ocean were populated by fauna in that area are (1) there was a subtropical climate, and (2) oceans were lower by approximately 400 feet, resulting in land bridges not only to these islands, but also between Siberia and Alaska across what is now the Bering Strait. Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America were once an interconnected land mass in that age. South America, like Australia, was an island continent, lacking a land bridge which today exists.

11  Hapgood, op. cit., pp. 71-72.

12  Hapgood, op. cit., p. 74. "Baron Edward Toll, the explorer, reported finding a fallen 90-foot fruit tree with ripe fruit and green leaves still on its branches, in the frozen ground of the New Siberian Islands. The only tree vegetation that grows there now is a one-inch high willow."

13  The author took courses in geography and related subjects in two different colleges, and has discussed this problem with uniformitarians in several different departments. The tendered explanations were nearly identical. The following explanation was suggested:

Perhaps some mammoth started walking across the ice in a blizzard on a recently frozen lake. Perhaps he wandered into an area where the ice was too thin, and the mammoth fell through and drowned. Perhaps he had been carrying his breakfast of buttercups and tender sedges with him across the ice, and drowned with them yet in his mouth. Maybe through some freak of nature, his drowned body did not deteriorate, but was preserved until a permanent change of climate occurred. And possibly this sort of thing happened to thousands or millions of animals over long periods of time—animals including bison, horses, lions, rhinoceroses, sheep and others.
The author totally disagrees with such inadequate explanations, no matter how sincerely tendered, no matter how involved the path of logic may be.

14  Dolph Earl Hooker, Those Astounding Ice Ages, New York: Exposition Press, 1958, p. 44, as taken from National Geographic, October 1935. Admiral Byrd wrote as follows:

"The rock fragments from this mountainside invariably included plant fossils, leaf and stem impressions, coal and fossilized wood. Here at the southernmost known mountain in the world, scarcely two hundred miles from the South Pole, was found conclusive evidence that the climate of Antarctica was once temperate or even sub-tropical."

15  Reference is made to Chapter V, page 77, footnote 16. It is suspected not only that the Ice Epoch descended on the Earth suddenly from outer space, but also during the same chaotic period, the location of the geographical poles of the Earth and also possibly the angle of axis suddenly changed. The sudden descent of the Ice Epoch from outer space will assist in understanding why the freezing came so suddenly. The sudden shift in latitudes may assist in understanding why tropical crustaceans populated the Arctic Sea in the previous age, and also it may assist in explaining, in part, why frozen fauna are found in greater numbers in Siberia as the distance toward the North Pole decreases.

16  Hooker, op. cit., p. 68.

17  Hooker, op. cit., p. 30. "The everlasting wind blowing from the pole is as dry as the winds over the Sahara. ..."

18  Mr. Arthur Patten, Tonasket, Washington.

19  Mr. Rupert Shaw, Seattle, Washington.

20  Mr. Arthur Kalmen, Grand Coulee, Washington. Mr. Kalmen is an employee of the Bureau of Indian Affairs for the Colville Indians, a man who is conservationist-minded, being a member of the Department of Interior. He is familiar with other ice caves in addition to this particular one on the Ailing ranch and its surrounding area. Our estimate of 5 gallons of water per hour from the spring at the base of the hill containing the ice cave is considered conservative by Mr. Kalmen.

21  William Lee Kennon, Astronomy, Boston: Ginn & Co., 1948, p. 368.

22  Ibid. The estimate contained herein of the composition of Jupiter is that it may have a rock core of 19,000 miles, a surrounding ice shell some 17,500 miles thick, which in turn is surrounded by a deep atmospheric envelope, some 8,000 miles thick. Other opinions concerning the composition of Jupiter vary.
    Saturn and Jupiter, with densities as compared to water, of .071 and 1.35 respectively, contain the greatest percentages of hydrogen of all the planets in our solar system, but are closely followed by Uranus and Neptune with densities of 1.56 and 2.47 respectively. Saturn and Jupiter together comprise 92% of the known (i.e. visible) material in our solar system apart from the Sun. Uranus and Neptune comprise another 7%. The 5 terrestial planets—Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Pluto, together with all of the asteroids, comets, meteor streams and satellites, comprise but a weak 1% of the material in orbit in our solar system. And many of the comets and satellites are abundant in ice, also. Therefore it is not difficult to posit that ice is an abundant material in our solar system, particularly in the satellite regions of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. And the ices in these regions possess temperatures ranging from —200° all the way down almost to absolute zero.

23  Estimates of the total number of comets which are regular members of our solar system run as high as one hundred billion, and are far more numerous than the planets. Evidences suggest that there is a great diversity among the Sun's comets with regard to (1) eccentricity of orbit—elongation of the orbit; (2) perihelion—closeness of approach to the Sun, (3) period —time involved in one revolution, and (4) probably size also.
    In eccentricity, some orbits are probably rather oval, while others are extremely elongated—more so than Halley's comet or Nereid. In perihelion a few of the Sun's comets approach as close as Pluto or Neptune. Yet fewer of them approach as close as Jupiter, and yet fewer approach as close as Mars or Earth, where the reflection of the sun's light will allow detection. In periods, evidences suggest they range all the way from a few centuries through hundreds of thousands of years, and even up to many millions of Earth years. In distance, some of them may well orbit out halfway to Alpha Centauri, the nearest star, some 4 light years away (25,000,000,000,000 miles).
    As the comets approach the Sun, and perhaps approach to regions of the planets, they may be perturbed in one of three ways. They may be perturbed into (1) a hyperbolic orbit, in which case they will retreat in an orbit which never closes, and hence proceed on into the galaxy. Comets may also be perturbed into (2) closed orbits of a greater major axis, in which case their periods will increase. They may also be perturbed into (3) closed orbits of reduced period, in which case they may then orbit partly or entirely within the planetary regions. It is thought that this is the method by which the comets of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune have been organized.
    One interesting example of cometary perturbations is the comet Wolf I. In 1875 it approached within about 1,100,000 miles of Jupiter and was disturbed. In its new orbit it was discovered in 1884. In 1922 it again passed near Jupiter, and was again perturbed—this time the perturbation almost corrected the first disturbance. In its first disturbance, its perihelion distance changed sufficiently that it could be detected from the Earth; however, in its resumed orbit, it is difficult to detect due to its distance from the Sun and its faintness.


1  In 1950, Velikovsky had published his first work, Worlds in Collision, by Doubleday. In his preface, he wrote as follows:

Worlds in Collision comprises only the last two acts of the cosmic drama. A few earlier acts—one of them known as the Deluge—will be the subject of another volume of natural history.
    At the date of the writing of our manuscript (1966) some years later, this second work on the Deluge, which Velikovsky planned, has yet to be published. Perhaps he anticipates that this will be his finest work. Undoubtedly he has been laboring continually for nearly two decades on this forthcoming work. It is hoped that he will not fail in this effort, and the work should be of great import. It will be of interest to see how similar or dissimilar it will be in (a) subject material, (b) organization, and (c) conclusions, when compared to our work.

2  The nearest stars to our Sun are a group of three inter-revolving stars, a triple binary, known as the Centauri. This group includes Alpha Centauri, Beta Centauri and Proxima Centauri. Alpha Centauri and Beta Centauri revolve around a common center, and the distant Proxima Centauri, about 1 trillion miles distant, revolves around the inner two, or more precisely, around the common center of the inner two. Alpha Centauri is about 4.3 light years from the Sun (26 trillion miles) and Proxima Centauri is about 4.25 light years (25 trillion miles). The Sun's region of gravitational dominance is considered to extend out about half way to the nearest stars. In the direction of the Centauri about 40° from the South Pole, this is about 10 to 13 trillion miles. In the Northern Hemisphere, among the closest stars are Barnard's Star and the Sirius binary Canis Majoris A and B. Sirius is about 8.6 light years distant. The Sun's light, which takes about 8 minutes to travel to the Earth, takes about 8 light years to travel to Sirius. The Sun's region of dominance extends from perhaps 15 trillion miles to 40 trillion miles in the varying directions toward the nearest stars.

3  A variation in the Moon's region of dominance exists. The Moon's eccentricity is much greater than the Earth's, and is about .055. Its distance varies from 221,000 miles to 252,000. Its field of dominance extends in a pear-shaped region of 197,000-250,000 miles at perigee and extends in a pear-shaped region of 224,000-315,000 miles at apogee. This region varies between 24,500 miles to 63,000 miles from the Moon, depending on the part of the month, and the direction considered.

4  In selecting a preferred model, many features of the Flood crisis must be considered conjointly. One model may explain one or two features best, or with the highest mathematical probability. A second model may explain other features best. A preferred model is one which, in consensus, explains best all of the features. Therefore the preferred model is one which recognizes best all of the features of the Flood crisis. Among the features which must be considered are the following:

(1) The historical traditions of the Flood crisis, with the Genesis account being the best source.
(2) The repeating of layered stratigraphy of the several continents
(3) The repeated parallelism of mountain uplifts
(4) The two zones of recent orogenetic uplift
(5) The magnetic deflection and sudden deposition of astral ice
(6) The gravitational interaction involving
    a. Tides in the Earth's fluid atmosphere
    b. Tides in the Earth's fluid hydrosphere
    c. Tides in the Earth's viscuous, semi-fluid magma (or lithosphere)
    d. Impressions   left  upon  and   within  the   semi-solid  crust   (also lithosphere)
(7) The four body problem, involving
    a. The Sun
    b. The Earth
    c. The Visitor
    d. The Moon
(8) The Earth's basic conditions, which include
    a. Its mass
    b. Its  orbit
    c. Its dimensions
    d. Its angle of axis to the perpendicular of the ecliptic
    e. Its location of its geographical poles
    f. Its location of its magnetic poles and field
    g. Its velocity of revolution
    h. Its speed of rotation
(9) The basic conditions of the Visitor
(10) Possibility of previous and subsequent astral crises
(11) Other factors
The line diagrams given on the following pages constitute the preferred model, and the remarks throughout this book are consistent with this preferred model.

5  Hartshorne, Richard,  Perspective of the Nature of Geography, Chicago: Rand McNally, 1959, p. 91.

Ibid., pp. 91-92.

7  Scheidegger, Adrian E., Principles of Geodynamics, Berlin:  Springer-Ver-lag, 1963, pp. 288, 291.

8  Hartshorne, Richard, loc. cit., p. 106.

9  The term "new theory" is a relative term. Another concept, rather similar but in embryonic form, was set forth in 1696 by William Whiston, only 9 years after the publication of Principia Mathematica, authored by Isaac Newton and published by Edmund Halley, the classic work establishing the nature of gravity. Whiston was a personal friend of Halley; he was the laboratory assistant of Newton, and succeeded Newton to his chair in mathematics at Cambridge. This is the same William Whiston who translated the works of Flavius Josephus from Greek into English. Whiston was an astronomer and mathematician; he was also an ancient historian and classicist; he was well-acquainted with the histories and cosmogenies of the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews and Romans. Whiston, like Newton, was a Puritan. Whiston's two leading works were A New Theory of The Earth (1696) and Astronomical Principles of Religion (1717). Whiston's work, along with Newton's endorsement, contributed heavily to the development of 18th century catastrophism.

10  Hartshorne, Richard, op. cit., p. 90.


1  Alfred Rehwinkel and Richard Andree in particular have gathered a substantial amount of material on Flood traditions. Among others who have worked on the same subject are Baron Alexander von Humboldt, James G. Frazer, Sir Henry Howorth, Hugh Miller, Byron Nelson, Harold Peake, Johannes Riem, George Smith, Lowell Thomas, Isaac Newton Vail, and William Wundt.
    Richard Andree (1835-1912) was a German geographer who, along with his wife Marie, a folklorist, claimed to have compiled Flood traditions from 88 different cultures and societies—42 from Eastern Hemisphere and 46 from the Indian cultures of the New World. Von Humboldt, one of the outstanding geographers of the early 19th century, did his field work in the Orinoco Region of South America. Later, after comparing his findings of Flood traditions with other studies, he came to two conclusions. His conclusions were (1) that the traditions of the Flood were global in geographical distribution, and (2) that the more primitive the culture, the more vivid or emphatic the traditions of an ancient Flood were apt to be.

2  The nearer to the Sun a planet or comet is, the more rapidly it revolves, and for planets, the more abbreviated is its orbit. A plane perpendicular to the zodiac is crossed by Mercury once every 44 days. The same plane is crossed by Venus once every 112 days. For Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, it is once every 183, 343, 2166, 5381, 15344, and 25106 days respectively. This illustrates how much more activity there is in the regions nearer the Sun, and how much higher is the chance of conflict with a random comet with the inner planets. This principle, however, is countered by the distribution of distances of known comets at perihelion. Most do not approach the Sun within the ranges of the inner planets.

3  E. O. James, The Ancient Gods, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1960, p. 75.

4  Kenneth Morgan, The Religion of the Hindus, New York: Ronald Press 1953, pp. 94-95.

5  The nectar of the mythology of India bears a striking, even a suspicious parallel to the ambrosia of Greek mythology, the manna of the Hebrews, and also the heavenly nectar in the Japanese tradition.

6  The sun temples were constructed so that the first rays of the dawn of each morning approaching the equinox would fall deeper into the dark heart of the temple. If the first rays of dawn failed to fall on the heart of the temple on the expected day, the equinox, it indicated either (a) that their calendar needed a readjustment, or (b) a perturbation of the Earth had occurred, which again would call for an adjusted calendar. If the first rays of dawn succeeded in falling on the heart of the temple on the expected day, this was reassurance that the gods were sufficiently in celestial harmony that another regular year had been experienced.

7  It is suspected that a slight change occurred both in the location of the poles and in the orbit of the Earth during the 8th century B.C., at which time the year changed from 360 to 365 1/4 days. This was not the result of one conflict, but rather was the net result of several conflicts. One of these conflicts was prognosticated by Amos. Another, described in retrospect by Zechariah (ch. 14) is described with even greater clarity by Josephus (IX-X-4), and a third is described by Isaiah (24:20, 37:36, 38:8).

8  W. G. Aston, "The Age of the Gods," The Nihongi (Chronicles of Japan From Earliest Times to A.D. 697), London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1956), pp. 19-20.

9  J. Eric S. Thompson, The Rise and Fall of Maya Civilization, Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1954, p. 226.

10  Bart McDowell and John E. Fletcher, "Avalanche: 3500 Peruvians Perish in Seven Minutes," National Geographic, June 1962, p. 871.

11  William Whiston, Flavius Josephus; The Antiquities of the Jews, Bridgeport, Conn.: M. Sherman, 1828, pp. 85-86.

12  Whiston, op. cit., pp. 87-88.

13  Whiston, op. cit., pp. 88-89.

14  Whiston, op. cit., pp. 94-95.

15  Whiston, op. cit. pp. 96. Abraham conferred with each of them (the leaders of Egypt) and confuting the reasonings they made use of, every one for their own practices, he demonstrated that such reasonings were vain, and void of truth; whereupon he was admired by them, in those conferences, as a very wise man, and one of great sagacity, when he discoursed on any subject he undertook; and this not only in understanding it, but in persuading other men also to assent to him. He communicated to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of astronomy; for before Abram came into Egypt they were unacquainted with those parts of learning for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and from thence to the Greeks also.

16  In many places in the Biblical narrative, where catastrophic themes are involved, later translators have groped for words to translate that which they failed to comprehend. The terms "blood" and "pestilence" are repeatedly used. Blood is like iron dust, which oxidizes into a crimson color, and this may have some relationship to the Red Sea, so named when it may have literally appeared crimson. Pestilence is more on the order of bolides or meteorites, a somewhat larger scale item of similar astral origin. Note, for example in Psalm 91, the term "noisome pestilence."

Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler,
and from the noisome pestilence . . .
Thou shall not be afraid of the terror by night;
nor of the arrow that flieth by day;
nor of the pestilence that walketh in darkness;
nor of the destruction that wasteth at noonday.

17  Isaac Asimov, The Kingdom of the Sun, New York:  Collier Books, 1962. p. 126.

18  Swift also may have read the ancient Greek cosmologies as well. The Greeks had named the two steeds of Ares at least 3,000 years prior to Asaph Hall. Hall, in deference to classical Greek mythology, named the two steeds of Mars (Ares) in accordance with their ancient names, Deimos and Phobos, meaning "fear" and "panic."
    Job describes Arcturus with its two sons. Homer described Ares with its two steeds, at a time during which the Trojan war was, in their minds, a war between the celestial dieties of Athens and Troy, a war whose fortunes depends on such astral conflict. This was also the same age in which Amos, Isaiah, Joel and Micah were uttering their prognostication of judgments and the need of spiritual growth. Their prognostications or prophecies took the form of blasts from heaven (Isaiah 37), "blood," earthquakes, falling fire and brimstone, pestilence, tumults, vexations and a similar array of phrases.
    Sometimes these phrases were not well understood by later generations, and were translated with a sort of biological implication (such as "blood" and "pestilence", whereas their origin was astral in nature, as is shown frequently in the context.
    These are the same times in which Isaiah describes the Earth as wandering like a drunkard, a day in which Northern Palestine more than Southern Palestine was afflicted (Isaiah 9). These were days, Isaiah reminded his people, which were similar to those of the long day of Joshua (Is. 28:21). Not only at this time were the walls of Troy shattered with earthquakes; similarly we find that the great walls of Jerusalem, 30 feet thick and 100 feet tall, were breached, and the aqueducts were also broken.
    More can be set forth on this theme; however it is obvious why the Greeks named the two mythical steeds of Ares (Mars) "fear" and "panic."

19  Mary Proctor, in her volume The Romance of Comets makes an interesting statement together with a possibly erroneous rationalization or conclusion: "It was not till the time of Halley's comet in 1682, that modern astronomy began to consider the question of the possibly periodic character of cometic motions with attention. (For my own part, I reject as altogether improbable the statement of Seneca that the ancient Chaldean astronomers could calculate the return of comets.) Mary Proctor, The Romance of Comets, New York: Harper Bros., 1926, p. 103.

20  William B. Ward, Out of the Whirlwind, Richmond: John Knox Press, 1958, p. 103.

21  For a further sketch of catastrophic time-chart,  reference is made to Chapter XI, p. 304.

22  Biblical references are Genesis 19, 1 Samuel 7, and II Samuel 24.


1  The weight of the envelope of air above the Earth's surface is 14.8 lbs. per square inch—a total of 5 x 1015 tons. This is about equal to 30 feet of water, distributed evenly across the surface of the Earth. This, while a substantial tonnage, is less than one millionth of the weight of the Earth as a whole. The weight of the lithosphere is about 99.8% of the total; the weight of the lithosphere and hydrosphere combined is about 99.9999%. One millionth or otherwise, the atmosphere is far and away the most critical part of man's terrestrial environment. Moderate changes in the atmosphere could have drastic effects upon the biological habitat. Atmosphere, weightwise, is relatively nothing, but for biology, it is the most important of all portions of the terrestrial picture.

2  Dolph Earl Hooker,  Those Astounding Ice Ages, New York:   Exposition Press, 1958, p. 44; ref: National Geographic, October, 1935.

3  The proportion of water vapor to the other gases in the antediluvian atmosphere is not known. The author's estimate is 5-10% of the total volume. Similarly the proportion of carbon dioxide is not known, but may have been in excess of 1%.

4  The Genesis account states that it rained for the first 40 days and nights of the Floodtide Cataclysmic Crisis. It also indicates that rain was a persistent and steady phenomenon rather than an intermittent and insignificant phenomenon. Undoubtedly the bulk of the rain which fell was a result of the condensing of the canopy, and this is a further indication of the bulk of water in vapor form which was "above the firmament" in the Antediluvian Age. If it took 40 days of rain (approx. 1000 hours) to condense out the canopy, it is conceivable that our estimate of 5 to 10% of water vapor in the antediluvian atmosphere may be conservative. This estimate of 5 to 10% is equal to about 1 1/2 to 3 feet of liquid water. This estimate concludes that there was between 18 and 36 inches of rainfall, on the average, during the first 40 days of the Flood cataclysm.

5  See footnote 6.

6  "The possibility that Earth's petroleum deposits could have come from outer space was laughed at when suggested by Velikovsky; it is now put forward by others in perfect seriousness. Hydrocarbons similar to petroleum derivatives have recently been found on meteorites, and an extraterrestrial origin for all petroleum was proposed recently in Nature by A. T. Wilson of Victoria University, New Zealand. Oil was believed, when Velikovsky wrote, to be millions of years old. There is of course a method, based on the radioactive decay of the carbon isotope 14, for dating organic materials. When Velikovsky asked its inventor, W. F. Libby, for a Carbon 14 test of petroleum, he was told that one had already been made; it had been reported in Science in 1952 and showed the age for samples from the Mexican Gulf in the thousands, and not millions of years." (See Harper's Magazine, Aug. 1953, p. 48-55.)
    The author does not advocate the adoption of Velikovsky's views en masse or per se, without revision, reworking, re-examination, and further analysis. On the other hand, Hooker discusses coal strata as follows:

In Westphalia, there are 117 beds of coal, one above the other; in South Wales, 100 beds; in Nova Scotia, 76 beds; in Pennsylvania and other coal regions all over the globe there are multiple layers of coal, always with sedimental strata of clay, shale, limestone, etc., in between. These rock vary in thickness from a few inches to hundreds of feet. Coal strata vary from paper-thin to many feet in thickness.  . . . Coal seams 50 feet thick are not uncommon. (Hooker, op. cit. p. 128-129.)
    Hooker, like Velikovsky, proceeds to point to the solar system for the area of origin for Earthian carboniferous deposits, including petroleum pools. However, his approach is more conservative, less dramatic, more specific, and less controversial. Both, however, have their good points. The adoption of Hooker's views are not urged per se either; he makes certain obvious errors. For further germane points, see Hooker's volume.
    It should be pointed out, however, that along the regions of these earlier pre-deluge uplifts, such as the Appalachian cycle, coal strata, both folded and unfolded, are common, as are (to a lesser extent) petroleum pools. The crust of the Earth gives no clue as to where the carbon in the hydrocarbons originated; and the Earth's crust has been the exclusive area of investigation for the uniformitarian school of thought, which today has nowhere near a remotely sensible explanation. Hooker and Velikovsky, looking toward the methanes and heavier hydrocarbons in other regions within our solar system, both have good points.

7  For further explanation of the concept of the Catastrophic Time Chart is reserved for Chapter XI. Note that the Carboniferous Period, embracing both the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Periods, has been well-named if poorly dated by Lyell. Similarly note that if this Catastrophic Time Chart is even approximately correct, it rather tightly boxes in Darwinism with its requirements of oceans of uninterrupted geological time. However, this does not concern the writer, since he apprehends that both catastrophism and Creationism are facts. This opens up the possibility that Darwin may have made as many errors as did Lyell.

8  A discussion of the rifting of the Earth's crust is given in Chapter X, Page 252, footnote 23. This subject is also mentioned in Chapter V, page 77, footnote 16.

9  This observation that the Master Architect has fashioned creation from such a catastrophic dump or void is held to be a brief and dim, yet valuable reflection of the glory and magnificence of our Maker. And it can be seen why the Floodtide Cataclysm, while being neither the first nor last of the Earth's geophysical crises, nevertheless was the worst.

10  "The ozone layer is thus a buffer between the continuance of terrestrial life as we know it at present and sudden extinction by the short-wave rays of the Sun against which we have no physiological protection." W. M. Smart, The Origin of the Earth, Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1959, p. 56.

11  The ancient Rabbis considered that they were the stewards of Divine oracles, and took extreme care in preserving these documents, and also in copying them. It is common knowledge that they would copy a manuscript, perhaps one entire book of the Old Testament, and then count the Hebrew characters in both the original manuscript and the copy. The count would have to agree. Then, the middle or median character of each manuscript would have to be located. These too would have to agree in each copy. If they didn't, it meant that somewhere, a comma, a dot, a jot, a dash, a character of some kind had been either introduced or omitted. The erroneous copy would then be promptly destroyed, because they were stewards of "The Word of the Lord." Through this type of painstaking care, and with this type of psychology, we have received in the Hebrew account of ancient times, renditions which are only mildly garbled, and are essentially undiluted source material within the sphere of the topics discussed. Had the ancient Sybillene oracles, the Delphine oracles, or the Egyptian oracles been preserved, they too would undoubtedly be valuable source material.

12  USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, 61-54, March, 1961, p. 1.

13  Robert Fettner, Nature, London: May 1962, Vol. 194, p. 793.

14  It should be noted by way of interest that according to the Genesis log of ages, in the early postdiluvian centuries, the first half dozen generations may have all died at approximately the same time. If this logging is substantially accurate (and it so appears) this indicates that if ozone is the major factor in causing a decline in longevity, its proportion in the lower atmospheres increased for many years until the new equilibrium was established. It further suggests that the biological changes which followed (1) may be markedly cumulative, and (2) may include deleterious changes on the intracellular level. In intracellular biochemistry, the ozone radical, when delivered in lieu of the normal diatomic oxygen molecule, will react variously with intracelluar materials.

15  There has been a paucity of studies made of ozone with respect to the human physiology. This study suspects that ozone is a major factor in the general aging processes and in the breakdown of tissue. This study suspects that further experimental analysis may reveal that ozone (tria-tomic oxygen) when delivered and utilized within cell tissue, being an over-oxygenated material, will cause abnormal chemical reactions, occasionally harmful. Among the potentially harmful effects could be the damaging of a cell, transforming it from a healthy, productive one into a deformed, semi-parasitic one, potentially a virus-encouraging condition, potentially a cancer-encouraging condition. It is forecast that triatomic oxygen will be found as an aging factor in the environment of our era, and moreover, triatomic oxygen may be found to affect lipids more than proteins, and proteins more that nucleic acids. If such is eventually confirmed through laboratory analysis, then studies in historical catastrophism, and the ancient curve of declining longevity, along with the contemporary factor of atmospheric ozone, contain biochemical implications which might be of major import in understanding our environment.

16  By way of interest, the normal respiration rate is 18 to 20 breaths per minute. Thus an individual will inhale the equivalent of one breath of pure ozone every 60 days.

17  If this is the correct understanding of the Antediluvian Age, and the wealth of time which ancients possessed, then man at that time possessed a wealth modern man lacks, namely time. The modern age, in which technology is mushrooming, has resulted in man being wealthy in other ways, in terms of knowledge, money, credit, political power and services.
    In the earlier age according to the Genesis account, man with his wealth of time, promptly abandoned his concern about his Creator. The Earth soon became "filled with violence" and "corrupt." Today, with the opening up of another kind of wealth—a wealth of inventions, energies and knowledge—the Earth has somewhat similarly become "corrupt, and filled with violence." This tendency has not diminished as atheistic and semi-atheistic ethics have increasingly prevailed.
    Thus it is debatable whether wealth is good for man, be it a wealth of money, economic power, political power, or (as in the case of the antediluvians) in terms of time. These wealths frequently turn men from faith, honor and humbleness toward less desirable and more vicious, violent principles—more akin to the flesh than the spirit. Thus a wealth, even in terms of time, may or may not be "good," even as it is with money or power. It is a matter of values, and application, which in turn hinge upon matters of faith.
    Faith is again a matter of anticipations and conclusions relative to (a) the destiny of the race, and/or (b) the destiny of the individual soul. Both or these are related to the understanding of origin, and Creator along with creation. Shortness of life keeps man perpetually living on the brink of eternity, in contrast to the longer-lived antediluvian ancients. Conceivably the limitations and restraints contained therein prevent man to a degree from abusing and misguiding his fellow man, and the currently existing lack of longevity therefore might conceivably be classified as "good." It is a matter of values and viewpoints.

18  Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, pp. 87-88.

19  Five of the seven annual feasts of the Hebrews in the post-Mosaic times were concentrated around two annual events, each six months apart. The first two feasts of the year were within the first 8 days following the vernal equinox (the Passover and the Unleavened Bread). The last three feasts were concentrated within the 15 days of and including the autumnal eqinox (the Trumpets, Atonement and Tabernacles).

20  The prophet Isaiah looked backward (in a sense) to the Earth's prior antediluvian climatology, as he understood it. He then projected a similar climatology for a coming millenial age, and this is reflected in his prognostications relative to both climate and longevity.

"And the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose;   it shall blossom abundantly...." Isaiah 35:1, 2a.
    He seemingly anticipates a rejuvenation of the Earth's climate which formerly existed in desert-like Arabia and the Sahara. A rejuvenation of the Earth's climate along lines of antediluvian climatology could restore dozens of millions of square miles to productivity. Concerning a restoration or partial restoration of longevity, he wrote:
"There shall be no more (in Jerusalem) an infant that lives but a few days, or an old man who dies prematurely, for the child shall die a hundred years old, and the sinner who dies when only a hundred years old shall be accursed ... for like the days of a tree shall be the days of my people . . . Isaiah 65:20, 22.
    Isaiah, a prophet and cosmologist, was simultaneously a dark pessimist, and a profound optimist; he was a pessimist regarding the immediate, short-range destiny of his people, so engrossed in anti-spiritual values and polytheism. But he was even more optimistic regarding the ultimate or long-range destiny, both for his own people in particular, and for the human race in general.
    He apprehended a period of dismal crises and desolating turbulences tor the immediate future of his people, the leaders of whom were so anti-spiritual in values, and so inclined toward a negative pantheism. This differs but little from our own century, where leaders are mostly engulfed in anti-spiritual values, along with atheistic, semi-atheistic and uniformitarian philosophies. It hardly takes a prophet to forecast a similar culmination or wars, desolations, destructions and increasing crises for our cen-tury, unless the leaders were to happen to exchange anti-spiritual values for pro-spiritual ones, an event which is rare (but not unheard of in history).
    Even as Isaiah foresaw an increasing anti-spirituality in his own age, a rising tide which would crest only with destruction, so he also foresaw an eventual age when pro-spiritual ethics would replace anti-spiritual ones, an age when universal peace would exist conjointly with universal justice and universal longevity. This may have been the age our Lord had in mind when He discussed a time when the meek would inherit the Earth.


1  Among other Greeks of the era of the 4th and 5th centuries B.C. who taught one form or another of emergence were Anaximenes, Aristotle, Empedocles and Epicurus. John W. Klotz, Genes, Genesis and Evolution, at. Louis; Concordia Publishing House, 1955, p. 22.

Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: G & C Merriam Co., 1946 "Catastrophism," p. 159; "Uniformitarianism," p. 1093.

3  Eric Larrabee, "Scientists in Collision: Was Velikovsky Right?" Harpers Magazine, August, 1963, p. 51.

Newsweek, December 23, 1963, p. 48.
    Catastrophism is a fighting word among geologists. ... It was a major line of thought for a few decades last century, but a vigorous counterattack by the naturalists against the supernaturalists eventually pushed it aside. But now many geologists believe the counterattack may have been all too vigorous. In their haste to reject the hand of God, they have passed over some solid evidence that could help improve their understanding. . . . As a result, many geologists at a recent meeting . . . were advising the rehabilitation of catastrophism, without recourse to a supernatural agent.
    Author's note: Some uniformitarian geologists, in making a slight retreat from their uniformitarian dogma, have come up with the term "catastrophic uniformitarianism." This is a case of having one opposite modify another, like black whiteness and humid aridity, terms which confuse rather than clarify. This is something like a person at a restaurant ordering "scrambled eggs, sunny side up." One can have scrambled eggs in one order and eggs sunny side up in another order. But one can hardly have scrambled eggs, sunny side up. So it is with uniformitarianism and the scrambled strata of our planet.

5  It is well established that the internal structure and organization of the simplest one-cell organism, or even a molecule within a one-cell organism is more complex by several magnitudes than the organization of our solar system. Hence it might be easier to establish satisfactory theory for the origin of the solar system than to establish satisfactory theory for even the simplest of nature's organisms. Yet the diversity of modern thought on cosmogony indicates that there is a lack of consensus on this (relatively) simple problem.

6  This argument is made to point up the catastrophic view which Darwin and Lyell completely rejected. One should not ignore these Darwinian proposals, a portion of which (when satisfactorily qualified) contain validity for serene interludes. Darwin proposed three principles for survival: ferociousness, mating precocity and adaptiveness. These three pyramids have been merged into one by subsequent writers who often tended to oversimplify. Our argument is directed to the view that it was the catastrophic principle which mostly determined which species survived and which did not. The Darwinian proposal is viewed as a minor determinant when it is properly qualified, which seldom is done. It is not a major determinant.
    Furthermore, this argument or any argument must respect the principle that Earth history is viewed with a catastrophic camera. Species which perished in catastrophes have been recorded in the fossil record, and man has some limited idea as to how many, how large and how diverse were the types which perished therein. Animals which perished during interludes have not been preserved in fossil form. No one has any idea as to how many of the created species disappeared in the serene interludes where Darwinian thinking, if properly qualified, applies. These two principles apply on a global basis, but perhaps even more incisively on a regional basis, inasmuch as it would appear that Creation has been accomplished both in great diversity and variously across the regions of the Earth.

7  This abbreviated analysis of conflicting geographical patterns of survival, relative both to extant and extinct species, is sufficiently complicated and diverse that one is faced with the question of what do they prove, beyond catastrophism. It is concluded that this zigzag pattern proves nothing; however, Darwin endeavored to conclude or infer principles from a pattern which was random, and proved nothing for his thesis. However, when catastrophically cast, the subject of migrations of races, migrations of languages and zoogeography is a fascinating consideration.
    This zigzag pattern of survival perhaps is overplayed because it discusses survival patterns in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, a division which did not exist in a continental sense in the previous age. During the previous Antediluvian Age, sea level was several hundred feet lower than in the current age. The Bering Strait between Alaska and Siberia was an isthmus, and it contained a humid, subtropical climate. Thus in the previous age, both Africa and North America were appendages of the Eurasian land mass. Antarctica, Australia and South America were isolated island continents. Even today the similarity of the extant species of Northern Eurasia and North America are quite similar. The existing species of Australia, South America and sub-Sahara Africa, on the other hand, are quite dissimilar. Thus even though the zigzag pattern of fossil finds and specie survival was a bit overplayed, nevertheless it is more logical to account for the diversity of species between the continents, particularly the island continents, in terms of Creation, diverse among the regions.

8  In Darwin's Origin of Species, 23% of his paragraphs relate to matters Lyellian in theme whereas 77% relate to matters Lamarckian. In his second most famous work, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), about 8% of his subject matter is Lyellian and 92% is Lamarckian. Although the relationship between Lyell and Darwin was very close, the relationship between Lamarck's ideas and Darwin's, when studied objectively, can hardly be minimized. After Darwin published his work Origin of Species in 1859, Lyell followed with a work in 1863 entitled The Antiquity of Man which allows, through comparison, for the Lyellian theme to be factored out of Darwinian thought. Most of Darwin's discussion, including all relating to biological function, are Lamarckian.

9  That Marx would dedicate this kind of a book (against capitalism) to a capitalist (Darwin) reflects that Marx may have been concerned more about negating spiritual principles than negating economic principles. Marx's enthusiasm is due to the thrust of implications contained therein, and not to the logic contained therein. Darwin refused the "honor," not because he didn't share Marx's atheism, but rather because his wife didn't; furthermore, his friends, the dilettante set of London society, mostly heirs, did not look upon this sort of thing as proper.

10  Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution, New York: Doubleday, p. 387. "Edward Aveling, Karl Marx's son-in-law, came away from a conversation with Darwin shortly before his death complaining of his parochialism regarding himself as an agnostic rather than an atheist. Aveling consoled himself, however, with the thought that 'Atheist' is only 'agnostic' writ aggressive, and 'Agnostic' is only 'Atheist' writ respectable - on which Francis Darwin rightly commented that it was precisely the difference between aggressiveness and unaggressiveness that distinguished his father from the class of thinkers to which Dr. Aveling belong!"

11 Edward C. Colin, Elements of Genetics, Philadelphia: The Blakiston Co., 1949, p. 93.

12  Richard LaPierre, The Freudian Ethic, New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1959, p. 55. "Some of Freud's critics have thought that the popularity of Freudianism stems from its preoccupation with sex; and it has been remarked that, although Freud did not discover the causative basis for human action, he did succeed in deifying the lowest common denominator, The ancient Greeks deified sex in the person of Aphrodite; but she was a happy and playful goddess, not a grim and destroying force. Moreover, the Greeks had many other gods. To Freud, sex was all, or almost all. It is doubtful, however, that Freud's engrossment with sex explains, even in part, the popularity of the Freudian doctrine. The explanation lies, as will be shown in due course, in the fact that Freud's idea of man has ac-quired functional value; it has, in recent years, given men a justification for some of the more significant of the changes that they have been working out in our society. And in so doing, it has no doubt contributed its force to the other forces that have been inciting these changes."

13  Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution, New York: Doubleday & Co., 1962, p. 131.
    In November, 1838, two years after his return from the voyage, he became engaged to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood. Emma, then thirty-one, a few months older than Charles, was the youngest daughter of his uncle Josiah, and their childhood ties had recently been drawn closer with the marriage of her brother to Charles' sister Caroline. It was so much a matter of course that a Darwin should marry a Wedgwood that the only thing in doubt was which Darwin and which Wedgwood it would be.

14  Himmelfarb, op cit., p. 16.
    "As Freud felt obliged to psychoanalyze himself, so Darwin conscientiously sought in himself the hereditary influences he found so readily in plants and animals."
    Author's note: Whereas Darwin advocated the idea of inbreeding in animals and plants, so also he advocated this deleterious principle to his sister and to his cousins.

15  Himmelfarb, op. cit., p. 137.

16  There are many examples in history of inbreeding in various degrees. For instance, the leading family of Great Britain, Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth, are fifth cousins (kissing cousins); this is not considered sufficiently close for biological peril. Mating among third and second cousins, however, raises the possibility of biological peril to prominence.
    Mating among first cousins, as in Darwin's case, or his sister Caroline's case, results in the offspring having identical genes in a ratio of 1 to 7. Many of these genes are expected to be recessive mutants. Mating of uncle-niece, or nephew-aunt, raises this ratio to 1 to 3 (25%). Mating among siblings, almost the worst possible kind, raises this ratio 1 to 1 (50%).
    Darwin correctly noted that inbreeding does tend to accentuate characteristics, and bring out new traits, latent in the mutant recessive genes. This was his only consideration, and he assumed that new traits would emerge in a rate of 50% favorable and 50% unfavorable. His own inbred sons possessed many identical pairs of mutant genes. The fact that four of them became reasonably successful does not indicate biological strength; it indicates academic and economic strength which prevailed over the inherent biological weakness.
    There are better-known illustrations of inbreeding than Darwin's children. Among the biological Caesars following Tiberius, inbreeding and incest were common. Caligula and Agrippina are among the better (or worse) examples. The inbred Caligula considered each of his three sisters, at one time or another, as his legal wife, Agrippina being one. The insane Caligula was succeeded by Claudius, whose wife was Messalina. The inbred Agrippina was simultaneously Messalina's aunt and niece. Agrippina proceeded to poison her second husband, Crispus, frame Messalina, marry the Emperor Claudius, and poison Claudius. In marrying Claudius, she became the successor of her deceased aunt-niece. In one of her previous marriages, she bore Nero, who went on to other accomplishments, few of which are praiseworthy.
    The 19th century also has a famous example. He came from a small town on the Austrian border, mountainous country where inbreeding in many communities was common. The responsible party was Herr Heidler who, although married, impregnated his servant girl, who also happened to be his niece. He proceeded to divorce his first wife, and marry his niece. From this second union came a series of miscarriages, as well as one son and one daughter. The son's name was Adolf Heidler (Hitler). As a youth, Hitler displayed a physical sickliness and a mental instability; it is also granted that he displayed some remarkable abilities, including an incredible will. In his later years, his paranoia verged on insanity, somewhat comparable to Caligula and Agrippina.
    In comparing the inbred Hitler and the inbred Caligula or Nero, it is of interest to note that they each possessed great egos, strong wills, a flair for oratory, a love of parades, an interest in arts (music, painting, sculpture) and a liking for the macabre. Consider Hitler's attitude toward the Jews, so similar to Nero's attitude toward the early Christians. Consider Hitler's willingness to blame the Reichstag fire on the Jews without evidence, and Nero's willingness to implicate the Christians in responsibility for the burning of much of Rome — not because they were responsible but because they were worthy of death anyhow. Further, the Roman Senate finally took steps successful in getting rid of their near-maniac Emperor, a step which sorely tempted the German general staff also.
    This footnote is not made for the purpose of psychoanalyzing inbreeds. Our purpose is secondarily to point out a reason, seldom evaluated in terms of its true significance, as to why Hitler was so obsessed about pure blood, German marriages, and the Aryan race. Almost inevitably biographers of Hitler note his inbreeding, but fail to relate it to his biological weakness, to his psychological eccentricity, or to his racial obsession.
    However, primarily this footnote is to demonstrate why Hitler or his sister, or Caligula or his sisters, are better examples of Darwin's deleterious biology than were Darwin's own sons or nephews, merely because of the higher intensity of inbreeding. History records that Frau Heidler had a series of five or six miscarriages; undoubtedly this was due to the inbreeding factor in part.

17  Himmelfarb, op. cit., p. 15.

18  "Huxley and Hooker were Darwin's advance guard, with Lyell bringing up the rear. But it was not long before others joined the ranks. By March 1863, enough had committed themselves, to one degree or another, for Darwin to draw up a table of organization of the names and professions of fifteen of his prominent adherents. One of these . . . observed hopefully that as species emerged from the war of nature, so truth would emerge from the intellectual collision precipitated by his work." Himmelfarb, op. cit., p. 266.

19  When the slightly-known Pasteur wrote Darwin of his biological objections, his correspondence was ignored by Darwin. When the leading geologist and zoologist of that age, Louis Agassiz, organized a series of lectures refuting Darwinism at Harvard. Agassiz' reputation was badly mauled by lesser scholars. The title of Agassiz' unfortunate series of lectures was "The Structure of Animal Life, a series of lectures on the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God, as manifested in His Works."
    The great enthusiasm and seeming gullibility which Darwin's works received, coupled with a modest amount of challenging and checking, indicate the mood of many academic figures, and it also reflects their aggressiveness in promoting their anti-spiritual conclusions. Within a few decades, challenging Darwin was identified with committing academic heresy, and penalties for such non-conforming heresy were repeatedly invoked. Darwin correctly foresaw this role. He did not foresee the related but contradictory conclusions of Mendel or DeVries, however.

20  A. Stuart Mason & G. I. M. Swyer, Major Endocrine Disorders, Fairlawn, N.J.: Oxford University Press, 1959, pp. 15-17.

21  Louis J. Soffer, Diseases of the Endocrine Glands, Philadelphia:  Lea & Febiger, 1956, pp. 103-104.

22  John W. Klotz, Genes, Genesis and Evolution, St. Louis, Concordia Publishing House, 1955, pp. 198-199.
    "In recent years a wrestler by the name of Maurice Tillet, known professionally as "the Angel," achieved considerable notoriety. Not only did he win a number of bouts and gain recognition in that way, but his physical appearance attracted considerable attention. Apparently he suffered from acromegaly, an endocrine disorder. As a result his head and his face became very large, his hands and his feet thickened, and his torso, too became broadened. Certainly if his bones were fossilized it is not hard to believe that they might be regarded as those of a pre-human form. And yet M. Tillet was a 20th century human being, and a cultured, well-educated member of our society at that."

23  The Rift Valley is a wrenching or a cleavage of the Earth's crust. It extends for some 5,000 miles, and is between 5 and 50 miles wide. Particularly in the equatorial zone of Central Africa, its pattern becomes highly complex and dendritic, a further indication that the crust of the Earth was literally torn by internal stresses requiring expansion.
    The northern extremity of the Rift Valley is in Syria, between the Anti-Lebanon and the Lebanon Mountains. It runs southward between Israel and Jordan, forming the Jordan Valley trench, and includes the Sea of Galilee, the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba. It continues in the Red Sea trench, and enters Africa proper in Ethiopia, opposite the confluence of the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Here it proceeds up and across a mountainous plateau, 5,000 to 7,000 feet above sea level. A series of small lakes stud the cleavage. In Kenya, Uganda, and Tanganyika, the Rift Valley becomes wider and more complex as it approaches the equator. It surrounds the Lake Victoria basin. In Kenya and Tanganyika, Lakes Rudolf, Naivasha, Natron and Eyasi stud the eastern rift. The larger lakes of Albert, Edward, Kivu, Tanganyika and Rukwa stud the wider western rift. They merge in Southern Tanganyika, near Lake Nyasa, and the merged Rift Valley continues southward into Mozambique.
    This is the major rift valley of the Earth; a second one, also perpendicular to and astride the equator, has been detected in the submerged Mid-Atlantic Range. The specific cause of the Rift Valley has yet to be established. Our conclusion is that its cause was the shift in location of the geographical poles in the time of the Floodtide Cataclysm, about 2800 B.C. The dating of the rifting of the Earth's crust is later, due to the subsequent isostatic adjustment of the Earth, in its requirement of a new zone of oblateness.
    In Chapter V, it was illustrated that there were two great cycles of orogenetic uplift, the Alpine-Himalayan zone and the Circum-Pacific zone. This, among other reasons, led to the suspicion that there had been a dislocation of the geographical poles (and also probably a shift in the angle of the Earth's axis) during the Flood cataclysmic period. Here, in the Rift Valley, is another strong indication of a dislocation and relocation of the Earth's geographical poles.
    The Earth is an oblate spheroid, and it rotates with a circumferential speed of over 1000 miles per hour at the equator, and with a circumferential speed of nothing at the poles, and with intermediate speeds in intermediate latitudes. One result of this is that the Earth's equatorial crust has bulged, due to the centrifugal motion of the magma. The equatorial diameter is 27 miles greater than is the polar diameter. If there were a relocation of the poles, there would necessarily be a relocation of the equator. And with the Earth in rotational motion, there would necessarily be a relocation of the equatorial bulge zone. This requires an expansion of the Earth's crust, a cleavage or a tearing perpendicular to the equator, and wider in the equatorial zones than in the sub-tropical extremities. The Rift Valley of Africa not only fulfills the requirements of being (1) perpendicular to the equator and (2) widest in the equatorial zone, but it also is (3) most complex (and dendritic in pattern) in the equatorial zone. This orogenetical cleavage, coupled with another similar one in the Mid-Atlantic Range, coupled with the two zones of orogenetic uplift, linked with astral catastrophic thought, is suggestive that there was a major relocation of the Earth's axis, and the two geographical poles, during the Flood catastrophe.
    Further factors which also point in this direction are such physical features as (a) the geosyncline of the Lake Victoria Basin, (b) the shallowness of Lake Victoria—the second largest lake in the world, with an area of 26,828 sq. miles and a maximum depth of but 270 feet, (c) its attenuated coast line and (d) its numerous islands, all reflecting a minimum of erosion, as if the basin had been filled up within recent times. Further related factors are the recent volcanic formations of (e) Elgon, (f) Kenya, (g) Kilimanjaro— Kibo and Mawenzi, (h) Ruwenzori, between Lake Albert and Lake Edward—Margerita and Alexandra—the so-called "Mountains of the Moon." Also (i) on the edges of the Rift Valley are outpourings of lava which are not covered by alluvium, again indicating a date of volcanic bleeding subsequent to the Flood. Other physical features suggesting a recentness are (j) the soda lakes and (k) Murchison Falls. Here the White Nile, a meandering river over 1300 feet wide, suddenly plunges over the edge of the geosyncline, and into the Rift Valley. The narrowest part of the crevasse or fissure of Murchison Falls is 15 feet wide, and through this crevasse, the entire White Nile flows, needless to say at a tremendous velocity. The lack of erosion at Murchison Falls is a further indi-cation of the recent uplift of this region, which again offers evidence of the recent dating, the recent new oblateness, and the celestial nature of the Flood crisis.
    If there had been no Global Flood, there would have been no series of water-laid alluvial, vertical, compressed stratigraphy on the surrounding plateaus. And if there had been a Global Flood after the rifting of the Earth's crust, there would have been diluvian stratigraphy in the bottom of the valley, which is not the case.
    It was on the edge of one of the clefted spurs of the Rift Valley in Tanganyika where alternating layers of shales, sandstones and pumices were laid down, that Dr. Leaky found his rich fossil deposits, including Zinjanthropus. Any explanation for Zinjanthropus must include an explanation for his manner of entombment. Zinjanthropus, dated arbitrarily at around 1,700,000 B.C. (a little extra beyond Lyell's 1,000,000 B.C. for margin), has been found in strata which was alternately laid down and compressed about 4,500 to 5,000 years ago. Then, some 500 years later, due to the requirement for a new bulge zone, and a new isostatic equilibrium, rifting occurred and the Great Rift Valley was created. Zinjanthropus was found at the Olduvai Gorge, on an edge of the cleavage. It would be highly interesting if all of the fossils in Tanganyika (and not merely a handful at one section of the edge of one spur of the rift) could be located and examined.
    Further, this story sounds suspiciously like a wrenching of the Earth's crust, recorded about 500 years after the Flood, during the time of Abraham in the vicinity of Sodom and Gomorrah. Here is a zone of crustal weakness similar to the subsequently shattered Jericho. However, the Biblical description of this region prior to the Sodom-Gomorrah catastrophe does not indicate that of a Rift Valley. Genesis indicates that this was a valley (the Vale of Siddim, Genesis 14:10, 17, full of slime, or bitumen pits). Genesis indicates that it was a well-watered (well-irrigated) valley, and quite productive.
    Subsequently came the seismic holocaust which almost engulfed the fleeing Lot, and did engulf his wife. Perhaps Lot's wife, being more attached to Sodom, her home town, and being more reluctant to leave, became engulfed in hot, toxic sulphurous fumes like Pliny the elder, when he was investigating the volcanism of Vesuvius as Pompeii was being destroyed.
    The location of Sodom and Gomorrah is in the Rift Valley. This, in Genesis, is a description of a major physical disaster for that region. The time is five centuries after the Flood, sufficient time for the Earth to develop intense internal pressures in a new zone of oblateness. The local picture interweaves into the total web of reasoning, increasing the understanding of the Flood as an astral catastrophe, recently dated. Hence our suspicion is that Noah and Zinjanthropus were contemporaries. Noah, a shipwright, escaped; Zinjanthropus didn't.

24  Gerald Litwack & David Kritchevsky, Actions of Hormones on Molecular Processes, New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1964, p. 123.

25  Louis J. Soffer, op. cit., pp. 832-833.

26  A. T.  Cameron, Recent Advances in Endocrinology, Philadelphia: The Blakiston Co.. 1940, p. 41.

27  Gigantism, related to hyperpituitarism and very likely also to longevity, seems to have been a near-universal phenomenon among mammals in the Antediluvian Age. However, this phenomenon was not limited to mammals; in the animal kingdom it also included birds, fish, insects, reptiles, etc. Furthermore, this phenomenon was not limited merely to the animal kingdom; remains of vegetation such as palm leaf impressions, petrified forests, etc., indicate that this phenomenon was universal in the plant kingdom also.
    This study presumes that gigantism was rare if at all existant in homo sapiens in the Antediluvian Age; its alternative, acromegaly, however, was common. Yet this study does not preclude the possibility of giant men in the Antediluvian Age.
    Geologist Clifford Burdick so suspects. His appeals are to purported discoveries of giant human tracks in four states. The locations are (1) Texas—the Paluxy River, (2) New Mexico—the White Sands district near Alamagordo, (3) Sonora—the Mayo river, and (4) Arizona-Doth (a) near Ashfork, and (b) on the Hopi Reservation. These findings are given in the following work: Walter Lammerts et al, The Challenge of Creation, Caldwell, Ida.; Bible-Science Assn., 1965, pp 24-40.

28  Immanuel Velikovsky, a Freudian catastrophist, has come forward with an interesting and unusual view relative to catastrophism and biological origin. Velikovsky rejects the uniformitarian premise, but he adopts the evolutionary premise, a view which requires considerable explanation. While he rejects Lyellianism, he declares his adherence to a revised form of Darwinism. His revision postulated emergence, not by the slow and gradual process, relied upon by Darwin and modern Darwinians. Rather he posits bursts and jumps, synchronized with catastrophes, and caused by catastrophe-induced mutations by clusters. He makes no endeavor to describe any genetical mechanics; neither does he erect any other defense for this idea.
    Velikovsky's view, embracing much of Darwinism while rejecting all of Lyellianism, leaves this reviewer with the impression of incongruity and semi-conformity. His views are set forth in his work, Earth in Upheaval, pp. 243-259. His seemingly incongruous view is reminiscent of the compromise of Tycho Brahe.
    Tycho, publishing about 50 years after Copernicus, and publishing prior to the age of telescopes, adopted parts of both the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system. He accepted the Copernican proposition that five planets revolved around the Sun (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn). However he rejected the proposition that the Earth did also, preferring to maintain that the Sun with its five planets revolved around the Earth, as did the Moon. Tycho's views were subsequently adjudged as an unworkable compromise; it must be said in Tycho's favor that in his age prior to telescopes, many of the observations in the Tychonic system and the Copernican system were virtually identical.
    Similarly it is felt that Velikovsky's views, coming some 30 years after George McCready Price's, are a compromise between the Creationist-Catastrophist view and the Evolutionary-Uniformitarian view. This reviewer doubts whether Velikovsky's seeming compromise is either consistent or stable; nevertheless to Velikovsky's credit, it must be realized that his view is an advance over the uniformitarian proposition. It is not really distant from the Genesis view of Creation in stages, or serial creation. Velikovsky summarizes as follows:

The theory of evolution is vindicated by catastrophic events in the earth's past; the proclaimed enemy of this theory proved to be its only ally. The real enemy of the theory of evolution is the teaching of uniformity, or the non-occurrence of any extraordinary events in the past. This teaching . . . almost set the theory apart from reality, (p. 259).

1  Norman E. Gaut, Angular Momentum Flux in the Formation of the Solar System, Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, AFCRL-64-167, 1964, p. 8.

2  0tto Struve and Velta Zeberges, Astronomy of the 20th Century, New York: MacMillan Co., 1962, p. 173.
    But the sun, as seen from a distance of 4 light-years, occupies only about 10/16 of the entire sky; the other star, as viewed from the sun, may be regarded as covering an equal angle. Thus the probability of the two objects striking one another after 100,000 years is only 2 x 10/16.

3  Norman E. Gaut, op. cit., p. 42.

4  Struve, op. cit., p. 172-173.

5  Kant, like Voltaire, Darwin, Marx and others, was interested in aggressively promoting anything which was anti-Genesis and yet sounded scientific. He was the originator of the school of "higher criticism" or skepticism in philosophy and theology in Germany. In this school of skeptical thought, virtually any remarkable or extraordinary narrative in the Bible was challenged, always on scholarly grounds. The skeptics in this school maintained that the Biblical Flood never occurred because rain couldn't have accomplished such an event, and because planetary catastrophes were unthinkable. This same school of thought maintained that the walls of Jericho couldn't have fallen in front of Joshua's armies, even though it was subsequently realized that Jericho is in the middle of the Great Rift Valley, a zone of crustal instability. In spite of such cosmological stories as the Phaethon story from Egypt and numerous corresponding stories in other ancient sources, they maintained that the normal procession of the Sun and Moon across the sky could not have been interrupted because uniformitarian cosmology had no room for such a possibility. This school of skepticism also has told us, in the name of scholardom, that Ecclesiastes must have been written after 100 B.C., although Dead Sea scrolls have been subsequently discovered, antedating 150 B.C., at which time Ecclesiastes had long been in the canon of scripture. Similarly this school of skepticism maintained that the Book of Daniel must have been written about 150 B.C. because of the high accuracy of the prophecies contained therein, and not even Nostradamus was that good. Thus Kant's school of "higher criticism," in constantly appealing to 'intellectualism' and 'scholardom', has successfully perverted scholardom for the purpose of undermining the history of, and the merit in, the Judeo-Christian heritage.

6  Rationalists, in their almost overeager desire to discredit the scriptural record, have made academic assaults upon the assemblage of the scriptures along two fronts, the historical front and the scientific front. Their assault, which has frequently been on the assemblage of Scripture in general, nevertheless has been on the book of Genesis in particular, the book of beginnings or origins.
    In founding the school of "higher" criticism, Kant did something more than merely formulate the intricate and systematic anti-spiritual view. With his critiques, he did propose a seemingly impressive proposition. But with the school of "higher" criticism, he joined his intellectual program with an intellectual organization to implement that program. And in so doing, he became a figure of truly major import in the historical phase of this assault upon the Judeo-Christian scriptures.
    The fact that archaelogists have frequently verified scriptural history, even in minute details, has blunted this historical assault of the "higher" critics from time to time, but it has by no means brought it to a halt or put it on the defensive.
    However in organizing the Kant-Laplace nebular hypothesis, and the cosmological uniformitarianism contained therein, Kant also became a leading figure in the scientific phase of this attack. The fact that Kant's uniformitarianism may be pseudo-scientific and not genuinely scientific has not even blunted, much less halted the assaults on this front. His uniformitarianism, supposedly scientific, was seized upon and promoted with extreme success, first by Lyell, then by Darwin, and then by many others.
    Very few figures in modern history have been bi-professional, as were Benjamin Franklin, Leonardo da Vinci or Theodore Roosevelt. However Kant achieved the unique position of being bi-influential, a major figure in both the philosophies of history and of science. No other figure in the modern age, to the knowledge of this writer, has achieved a dual influence to such a marked degree. Each fact separately would be noteworthy; taken together in one person, this duality is remarkable to say the least.

7  Rousas J. Rushdoony, Intellectual Schizophrenia (Culture, Crisis and Education), Nutley, N.J.:  Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing Co., 1961.

8  Struve, op. cit., p. 173

9  W. M. Smart, The Origin of the Earth, Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1949, p. 200. It must be concluded that, despite its ingenuity, the binary hypothesis in the form stated above and in its subsequent modifications is no nearer a tolerably satisfactory solution of the origin of the planetary system than its predecessors.

10  Struve, op. cit., p. 228

11  John C. Whitcomb Jr., The Origin of the Solar System, Philadelphia, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1964, pp. 16-17.

12  The reaction against the Biblical ethic is lamented by some and urged by others; however, regardless of the personal preference, its presence may well be a sign of cultural health and dynamism. Weyl and Possony, in their volume Geography of the Intellect (Chicago, Henry Regnery, 1963), consider that this contradiction within society is the "stuff" from which a culture's dynamism is derived. They proceed to analyze the people listed in Who's Who, and conclude that there is a particularly high proportion of Dutch, Jews and Scotch, all people of "the book," and people seemingly with an extraordinary amount of initiative and motivation. They hold that this is indicative of the distribution of dynamic initiative within Western civilization, and correlate both to (1) the propagation of the Biblical ethic, a highly spiritual ethic, and (2) the reaction to that ethic in its various forms.
    It is observed that both Pietist Germany and Puritan England, where the Biblical ethic has been most vigorously propagated in recent centuries, are also the two locations where the most vigorous reaction to it has occurred. And these same two regions have been the ones which assumed the lead in the dynamic development of Western Civilization.

13  Robert L. Forward, "Pluto, Last Stop Before the Stars," Science Digest, August 1962, p. 73.

14  Centaur takes its name from the Centaurus in Greek mythology. The particular Centaur with whom the constellation is identified is Chiron, the greatest of the Centaurs. Chiron was skilled in many arts and was appointed teacher to many of the lesser gods and heroes of Greek mythology. He was killed by Hercules in an accident, and was accorded a memorial by being placed among the stars as a constellation. (James S. Pickering, 1001 Questions Answered About Astronomy, New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1959, p. 215). Observe how parallel are the stories of the Greek Electra, the Greek Centauri, the Hindu Rahu, the Japanese Sosa no wo no Mikoto, the Aztec Quetzacoatl, and other similar celestial motifs from ancient times.

15  James Muirden, Stars and Planets, New York:  Thos. Crowell Co., 1965, p. 200.

16  GALACTOGENESIS is a term being used to describe this hypothesis of origin, both for the Jovian planets, possibly a former quadruple binary group which was dismembered and also for the Earth-Moon binary. This term is used as an alternative approach, and contrary to the idea of HELIOGENESIS as proposed by Kant and many others.

17  The use of such terms as "day" or "year" becomes quite ambiguous because, if the Earth has only completed some 100,000 orbits around the Sun, it cannot be more than 100,000 years old, regardless of its age, even though it may antedate either the Jovian planets, the Moon or the Sun. Whether for a Catastrophic Time Chart or an Uniformitarian Time Chart, the usage of such terms as 10 billion years, 158 million years or even 1 million years becomes an exercise in semantical fantasy.

18  This example of cowpunching, cattle and mavericks may seem excessively bucolic and not sufficiently pedantic; yet some rather deep and profound truths have been communicated by using simple word pictures of lost sheep, vines, prodigals, foxes, sparrows and mustard seeds. Also an ostentatious, multi-syllabled word picture is not necessarily characteristic of either depth or breadth of thought.


1  Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, New York:  Doubleday & Co., 1950, pp. 39-206.

Loc. Cit., pp. 207-378.

3  Swift wrote Gulliver's Travels in London in 1726; Whiston wrote many works between 1696 and 1740, also in London, including Astronomical Principles of Religion (1717) and A New Theory of The Earth (1696).

4  Isaac Asimov, The Kingdom of the Sun, New York: Collier Books, 1962, p. 126

5  This study suspects that Mars interacted with the Earth-Moon system. This study also suspects that Mars caused the Earth's orbit and the Moon's to shift a little. This study further suspects that the Earth-Moon system caused major changes in (1) Mars' tilt, (2) Mars' speed of rotation, and (3) Mars' orbit.
    This does not necessarily mean that there was a net change in the energy potential of Mars. But it does mean that during these crises, especially the last, the closest approach, some of Mars' angular momentum may have been converted. Such a conversion may have been (a) an addition to its rotational momentum, thereby increasing its rotational speed, but (b) a simultaneous subtraction to its revolutionary momentum (and thereby decreasing its orbital semi-major axis, and the eccentricity of its orbit). The Earth-Mars catastrophes are an excellent subject for a model.

6  Hedonism: The doctrine that pleasure is the sole or chief good in life and that moral duty is fulfilled in the gratification of pleasure-seeking instincts and dispositions.

7  Liberals must not be confused with pseudo-liberals.

8  The author looks forward to a coming day, possibly in the next century or so, when the merit of catastrophism (and Creationism and galactogenesis) may be looked upon as most logical, even in Russia. At such time, the absurdities of Marxism will be very apparent to Russians, along with the necessity of replacing it. Such a time may well herald the decline of Marxism, and when its decline sets in, it might be surprisingly rapid.
    Such a day might be a step, just possibly a big step toward an age of global peace concomitant with world-wide justice, possibly coupled with an improved ecological habitat, economy, and also a greater longevity for the human race. Such may be a time when the pro-spiritual more than the anti-spiritual, the meek more than the beastly (the praying more than the preying) will inherit the Earth, as is forecast by our Lord in the Sermon on the Mount, when he anticipated something about the meek inheriting the earth.  (Note that there was no endnote "9" in the printed book.)

10  Many uniformitarians will no doubt angrily reject our celestial (and pro-spiritual) catastrophism, and partly for the following reasons: It is not easy on the psyches, in fact it is fairly painful for some to acknowledge publicly in front of an audience or a class that they have been mistaken. But this includes a further inconvenience, the necessity of going back to begin studying again. To reject is just much easier.

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"The Biblical Flood and the Ice Epoch" by Donald W. Patten - is ©1966 by Pacific Meridian Pub. Co.

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