Upside Down Formations That Can't Be
Over the past century, scientists have speculated that life began with a one-celled creature and that over enormous spans of time more complex creatures evolved. Thus they have charted a kind of family tree of life as they believe it evolved. This means that simple creatures ought to be found in the lowest or oldest layers of the earth, while the more complex organisms ought to be higher up in the strata. The theory fails to explain why one-celled organisms still exist today since presumably they have now had about 4.5 billion years to get on with evolving to better things.
This succession from simple to complex in the layers of the earth is then used to date each layer according to the time scale developed and frequently amended during the past 150 years.
If exceptions are found in the layers of the earth, that is, if simple
(older) creatures are found deposited above complex (younger) creatures,
scientists normally explain such finds as 'overthrusts.' An overthrust
occurs when portions of the earth are pushed upward to form hills and mountains.
Such layers may then come to rest on top of younger layers. No one would
deny that overthrusts do in fact occur. Serious questions are raised, however,
when enormous areas are found to have fossils in the 'wrong' order and
there is no evidence whatsoever that overthrusts occurred. Some examples
follow where something other than an explanation of overthrusts is called
|When Precambrian strata seem to be deposited by water on
top of Cretaceous formations, billions of years of rock are resting in
the wrong place. Field work carried out in 1968 resulted in the above conclusion.
This geologic puzzle is the Lewis Overthrust, which extends from Glacier
National Park 350 miles into Alberta, Canada, in a strip 15-30 miles wide.
This phenomenon is cited in the texts as the classic example of a large
overthrust, that is, older rock pushed up and out over younger rock. The
fossils are in the wrong order. The problem of applying the overthrust
theory here is the vast extent of the 'wrong order' formation (CRSQ
, 1969, 6:2, P.96).
A mystery occurs in the Franklin Mountains near El Paso, Texas, at a location known as West Crazy Cat Canyon. Here we find massive Upper Ordovician limestones lying immediately on top of an Upper Cretaceous formation. A geologist who conducted a tour there a few years ago explained that no actual physical evidence had yet been discovered of an overthrust, but since the fossils were completely out of order, geologists assumed an overthrust (CRSQ , ;1966, 3:1, p.59).
|Another famous location is the Glarus Overthrust near Schwanden,
Switzerland. Instead of the textbook order of Permian, Jurassic, and Eocene,
a 21-mile overthrust is assumed because the order of formations is Eocene
at the bottom, Jurassic next and Permian on top. A so-called gouge layer
shows no striations, and even the irregularities at the bottom of each
formation have not been worn away. Again the fossils clearly are in the
wrong places (CRSQ , 1971, 8:4, p.251-255). Some argue that the
formations were overturned, but again the extent of overturn involved seems
to raise extreme problems.
In the Empire Mountains in southern Arizona, Permian limestone rests on top of Cretaceous. The contact resembles gear meshing. There could have been no sliding without the projections of the lower formation being ground off. Yet it is called an overthrust. Fossils are in the wrong order in Heart Mountain, Wyoming, and in nearby Sheep Mountain. These mountains are capped with Paleozoic limestone. Lower down are Jurassic and Tertiary sediments. Below these Paleozoic limestone again appears (CRSQ , 1964, 1:4, P.44-45).
|In the past decade, studies of plant spores have been made in the formations of the Grand Canyon. Spores of the conifer were found in the Permian, Mississippian, Cambrian and Precambrian, and pollen of flowering plants were also found in the Precambrian. No evolutionary theory can accommodate these findings(CRSQ 1972, 9:1, p.25; l966, 3:1, p.49; l972, 9:4, p.238).|
Sometimes appearances can be very deceiving. In 1948 a startling observation
was made at Mount Vesuvius. It was found that blocks of limestone enveloped
in molten lava at Vesuvius have, by the absorption of silicates, developed
into forms that are similar to Precambrian rock, for example, those found
by Dawson in Canada (Victoria Institute , 1948, 80:25).
|Vesuvius - limestone transformed|
It is evident that the neat charts and diagrams found in textbooks do not describe the actual world. The succession of fossils from lower to higher strata does not correspond to published charts. The overthrust explanation is not valid for many geological 'wrong-order' formations. Fossils and rock strata are dated by means of a most curious circular line of reasoning. For example, this fossil is 100 million years old (an unverified statement) and therefore any rock that contains this fossil is 100 million years old. The rocks are dated by the fossils they contain. The fossils are dated according to the rock they are in, but the rock has been identified first according to its fossils. Yet as examples show, fossils are found in impossible situations where no evolutionary explanation can apply.