Chapter 3
By Erich von Fange

Table of Contents

Upside Down Formations That Can't Be

Over the past century, scientists have speculated that life began with a one-celled creature and that over enormous spans of time more complex creatures evolved. Thus they have charted a kind of family tree of life as they believe it evolved. This means that simple creatures ought to be found in the lowest or oldest layers of the earth, while the more complex organisms ought to be higher up in the strata. The theory fails to explain why one-celled organisms still exist today since presumably they have now had about 4.5 billion years to get on with evolving to better things.

This succession from simple to complex in the layers of the earth is then used to date each layer according to the time scale developed and frequently amended during the past 150 years.

If exceptions are found in the layers of the earth, that is, if simple (older) creatures are found deposited above complex (younger) creatures, scientists normally explain such finds as 'overthrusts.' An overthrust occurs when portions of the earth are pushed upward to form hills and mountains. Such layers may then come to rest on top of younger layers. No one would deny that overthrusts do in fact occur. Serious questions are raised, however, when enormous areas are found to have fossils in the 'wrong' order and there is no evidence whatsoever that overthrusts occurred. Some examples follow where something other than an explanation of overthrusts is called for.
When Precambrian strata seem to be deposited by water on top of Cretaceous formations, billions of years of rock are resting in the wrong place. Field work carried out in 1968 resulted in the above conclusion. This geologic puzzle is the Lewis Overthrust, which extends from Glacier National Park 350 miles into Alberta, Canada, in a strip 15-30 miles wide. This phenomenon is cited in the texts as the classic example of a large overthrust, that is, older rock pushed up and out over younger rock. The fossils are in the wrong order. The problem of applying the overthrust theory here is the vast extent of the 'wrong order' formation (CRSQ , 1969, 6:2, P.96). 

A mystery occurs in the Franklin Mountains near El Paso, Texas, at a location known as West Crazy Cat Canyon. Here we find massive Upper Ordovician limestones lying immediately on top of an Upper Cretaceous formation. A geologist who conducted a tour there a few years ago explained that no actual physical evidence had yet been discovered of an overthrust, but since the fossils were completely out of order, geologists assumed an overthrust (CRSQ , ;1966, 3:1, p.59).

Another famous location is the Glarus Overthrust near Schwanden, Switzerland. Instead of the textbook order of Permian, Jurassic, and Eocene, a 21-mile overthrust is assumed because the order of formations is Eocene at the bottom, Jurassic next and Permian on top. A so-called gouge layer shows no striations, and even the irregularities at the bottom of each formation have not been worn away. Again the fossils clearly are in the wrong places (CRSQ , 1971, 8:4, p.251-255). Some argue that the formations were overturned, but again the extent of overturn involved seems to raise extreme problems. 

In the Empire Mountains in southern Arizona, Permian limestone rests on top of Cretaceous. The contact resembles gear meshing. There could have been no sliding without the projections of the lower formation being ground off. Yet it is called an overthrust. Fossils are in the wrong order in Heart Mountain, Wyoming, and in nearby Sheep Mountain. These mountains are capped with Paleozoic limestone. Lower down are Jurassic and Tertiary sediments. Below these Paleozoic limestone again appears (CRSQ , 1964, 1:4, P.44-45).

An impossible combination of fossils was reported found in 1970 in Guryul Ravine, Kashmir. Permian brachiopods were found mixed with lower Triassic pelecypods. Since the one is supposed to have become extinct long before the other evolved, no explanation of the puzzle was offered (CRSQ , 7:2, p.122).
In the past decade, studies of plant spores have been made in the formations of the Grand Canyon. Spores of the conifer were found in the Permian, Mississippian, Cambrian and Precambrian, and pollen of flowering plants were also found in the Precambrian. No evolutionary theory can accommodate these findings(CRSQ 1972, 9:1, p.25; l966, 3:1, p.49; l972, 9:4, p.238). 

Sometimes appearances can be very deceiving. In 1948 a startling observation was made at Mount Vesuvius. It was found that blocks of limestone enveloped in molten lava at Vesuvius have, by the absorption of silicates, developed into forms that are similar to Precambrian rock, for example, those found by Dawson in Canada (Victoria Institute , 1948, 80:25).
Vesuvius - limestone transformed
One text writer stated that some of the strata described above could scarcely be supposed to have been inverted if it had not been for a study of the fossils in them. He also said that had these sections been planned for the purpose of deception, they could not have been more skillfully devised (CRSQ , 1964, 1:4, p.44).
Derek Ager (1973), an evolutionist and respected geologist, has some astonishing things to say to his colleagues about the nature of the earth layers (stratigraphy). He is ready to consider catastrophic events on the earth caused by extraterrestrial forces, such as erratic comets or planets; he discards the notion that the past is measured only in terms of present forces, such as weathering. This last item has been an almost sacred doctrine of evolutionists for the past l50 years. Ager discards the notion as only an illusion that continuous sedimentation builds up over vast stretches of time; changes do not take place gradually; and fossils, he admits, are dated by means of circular reasoning. Ager remains loyal to evolution, but his observations are devastating to almost everything taught even today in conventional geology textbooks.

It is evident that the neat charts and diagrams found in textbooks do not describe the actual world. The succession of fossils from lower to higher strata does not correspond to published charts. The overthrust explanation is not valid for many geological 'wrong-order' formations. Fossils and rock strata are dated by means of a most curious circular line of reasoning. For example, this fossil is 100 million years old (an unverified statement) and therefore any rock that contains this fossil is 100 million years old. The rocks are dated by the fossils they contain. The fossils are dated according to the rock they are in, but the rock has been identified first according to its fossils. Yet as examples show, fossils are found in impossible situations where no evolutionary explanation can apply.