A MONGOL INVASION OF AMERICA
IN Grapevine Canyon in southern Nevada, some 28 miles north of Needles, Calif., there is a remarkable cliff covered with ancient petroglyphs, usually termed wall-writings. These ancient characters were examined by a well known Professor of Geology in one of our California universities, and the following is an outline of his conclusions.
Outline of Conclusions
"1. The shallow hieroglyphics were made by human hands. Some of the characters strongly suggest ancient Chinese.
2. They were carved after the general topographic features of the district had been formed, and after the rock outcrops had been coated with iron-manganese oxides, but while that coating was still in process of formation.
3. The carvings were made at intervals over a long space of time.
4. Rock surface subjected to decay.
5. The rock face was then partly buried by stream-deposited gravel to a depth of 22 feet.
6. Later gravel deposit was slightly cemented and pebbles in it notably decayed.
7. Later intrenched to depth of 22 feet.
8. No water has run down trench for more than 40 years and perhaps 150 years.
9. Evidence of two distinct but minor climatic changes since petroglyphs were made.
10. Carvings many centuries old—and probably thousands of years old.
11. They are not older than the last interglacial epoch of the Pleistocene Period.
12. Closer determination requires study of much larger region.
13. The petroglyphs seem to merit a thorough investigation by expert archaeologists and comparative philologists."
At first thought the presence of ancient Chinese characters in Nevada would seem to indicate that our American Indians emigrated from Asia by way of Bering's Strait. In my opinion this is not so. I firmly believe that there was a Mongolian invasion of America, and probably more than one in the prehistoric Past, and that these invasions were bitterly resented by the American Indians, who were in possession of the soil. The outcome of this has been centuries of warfare, which is being carried on to this day.
I came to these conclusions, after spending three winters in Alaska, where for one year I lived among the Esquimaux on the Kuskokwim River. I learned to converse with them, I heard many of their traditions, and became well acquainted with a very learned Jesuit priest who was compiling a dictionary of the Esquimaux language. During this time I learned some interesting facts and came to some very definite conclusions.
1st. The Esquimaux are distinctly Mongols. They strongly suggest the Chinese. In my opinion they are a different race from the Indians.
2nd. The Esquimaux are a homogeneous people from Bering's Sea to Baffin's Bay. They inhabit 10,000 miles of the most inhospitable seacoast in the world. They speak the same language, use the same weapons, build the same boats and houses and yet the Esquimaux of Bering's Sea know absolutely nothing of those other Esquimaux inhabiting the Eastern Coast of America.
3rd. The Esquimaux of today live in a state of continual warfare with the American Indians. No Esquimau dares to go inland beyond certain boundaries. The Indians have driven them to the seacoast and are holding them there. The Russians arranged a truce between the Esquimaux and the Indians, during two weeks in August of each year for purposes of trade. After that the warfare begins again.
4th. They never inter-marry. The Indians hold the Esquimaux in utter contempt. If there was any blood relationship between the two races this would not happen.
My Jesuit friend and I discussed this question at length and came to this conclusion. That the Esquimaux are the remnant of a great Mongol invasion of America. That they probably came to America prior to the Ice Age. During the Miocene Period the Coast Range of California was emerging from the sea and formed a screen of protecting islands, similar to the coast line of British Columbia today. The Willamette Valley connected through to Puget Sound on the north and to the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys on the south in a vast system of protected inland waterways. Being such expert boatmen it is easy to see how they made the journey from Asia. They drifted across to the open plains of Nevada, where they found a country and climate similar to their Mongolian homeland, and left their inscriptions on the cliffs and in the caves. Attracted by the great buffalo herd, they made their way eastward and there they came in contact with the men from the South. Perhaps with the trained soldiers of the Mayas. They were driven northward until they came to the edge of the Ice-cap and there they made a stand. We concluded that this was some where near where St. Paul now is.
During thousands of years the pressure was maintained, and as the Ice retreated they were forced to follow it. Thus one branch made its way down the St. Lawrence River and came to Labrador. Another tribe went down the James River and came to Hudson's Bay. Others went down the Mackenzie to the Arctic, and still others went down the Yukon to Bering's Sea. As they could not come inland they were forced to make their living from the sea and gradually developed into the Esquimaux as we know them today. I am convinced if the American Indians were of Asiatic stock they would have amalgamated with the Esquimaux ages ago. That they have not done so satisfies me that they are a distinct and different race.
CHINESE WALL-WRITINGS IN NEVADA
These ancient Chinese characters were discovered by Capt. Alan Le Baron cut into the wall of a cave in the State of Nevada. Capt. Le Baron's investigations are based on the theory that the high plateau forming most of Nevada and parts of Utah and Arizona is the oldest land on earth. There are geologic maps which show that this area has not been submerged under the sea for more than 40 million years. It is therefore argued that it is the logical place to seek for the origin of man.
Recognizing these inscriptions as strongly suggesting Chinese characters,
Capt. Le Baron took the matter up with Mr. John Endicott Gardner, a student
of Oriental languages, and interpreter of Chinese for the courts in Berkeley.
Dr. Gardner was much stirred by the discovery and wrote to Capt. Le Baron
Chinese Characters from a Cave in Nevada
Compared with Ancient and Modern Writing
I have just completed the very pleasant task of examining the photographic copies of the characters engraven on the rocks in the dim ages of the past, and now discovered by you in the State of Nevada, with the view of determining whether or not said characters could be identified with the ancient symbols forming the written medium of the Chinese people. As the result of such examination I do not hesitate to give the answer in the affirmative.
Considering the long interval between the two, the resemblance between them is astonishingly close. In fact some of your specimen characters were recognized by me as ancient Chinese at sight, the change in form being so slight. ... The remarkable feature that stood out during the course of my examination was that the resemblance between the characters you discovered in the solid Nevada rocks is actually closer to the ancient characters found and preserved in China than that between the latter and the characters now in current use in that country.
As to your discovery I regard it as one of the greatest contributions to philology the world has ever known. Hitherto Chinese archaeologists have struggled with ancient characters found within the bounds of their own land. They have done their work well, but apparently it has never occurred to them to look for material in foreign lands, especially in the far away land of America.
As a humble student of the Chinese written language in the ancient as well as the modern form, for upwards of a quarter of a century, I shall be glad, when you have finished photographing the thousands of characters, resuscitated as it were by you, after they had been embedded in solid rock for tens upon tens of thousands of years, I shall be glad to devote my leisure moments to identifying them with the characters used by the Chinese in the modern form, and translating them as my little mite toward the study of philology and the history of the world.
I am cordially yours,
JOHN ENDICOTT GARDNER
In confirmation of the above there is an authentic account of the discovery of the remains of a "Chinese junk" in the placer gravels of the Sacramento Valley in California, by the early miners, during the gold rush of 1849.
PRIMITIVE MAN AND THE DINOSAUR
Scientists contend, from what they believe to be indisputable evidence, that all dinosaurs were extinct millions of years before man appeared on earth, or as they put it, emerged.
As against this contention we have shown in these pages where some prehistoric man drew an outline of a dinosaur, where another man left part of his moccasin embedded in Triassic Mud, and the molar tooth of a third man was found in the early Tertiary of the Eocene Period.
How long ago did dinosaurs really disappear? Did they go all at once or did they go gradually? Did they mingle with the early mammals or were they gone before mammals stepped onto the stage?
Some contend that the atmosphere at the time of the dinosaurs was heavy with carbonic acid gas (CO2) and that they required such a condition for their development. That the dense flora of that period gradually absorbed the carbon out of the air and released oxygen, thus bringing about a condition favorable to animal life as we now know it, and fatal to the dinosaur family.
There are others who think dinosaurs were swept out of existence by a great flood. As the remains of dinosaurs have been found practically all over the world my personal opinion is that the flood theory is unlikely.
We now know that dinosaurs laid eggs and we have a right to assume that they acted very much as other Saurians do today. A female turtle comes out of the sea during the night time, digs a hole in the sand, deposits her eggs, covers them up with sand and then goes off about her business, leaving the eggs, and later on the young turtles, to their fate. A female alligator piles up rotting vegetation like a manure heap, deposits her eggs therein and, according to some observers, lies in wait in the nearby pool to see that they are not disturbed. This shows a glimmering of the mother instinct.
It seems to me likely that the lack of this mother instinct in the dinosaurs was one of the causes which brought about their extinction. I am beginning to believe that dinosaurs did persist well into the age of mammals, and that some forms, especially the aquatic dinosaurs, were here long after man appeared.
I am well aware that so far, dinosaur bones have not been found associated with the remains of the larger mammals, but that does not prove that some day they may not be so found. As a basis for my belief I found this: When we were making the casts of the dinosaur tracks out in the "Painted Desert," as shown in this pamphlet, I found what looks exactly like a wolf track. You have all seen the print of a dog's foot in a cement sidewalk? Perhaps you did not see the dog when he walked across the fresh cement, but you know just as well as if you had seen him, that the dog was there.
The wolf track I saw, associated with the dinosaur tracks, was almost as convincing. Unfortunately it was on the broken edge of the area con-taining the dinosaur tracks and was not accompanied by a succession of other wolf tracks, hence I can not offer it as evidence beyond a reasonable doubt.
In the light of this however, I predict that some day an area will be uncovered showing dinosaur tracks associated with animal tracks. If this proves to be the case it is easy to see how dinosaurs became extinct. Predatory animals like wolves and hyenas would watch the female dinosaur deposit her eggs and after she left, go and dig them up. Life thus attacked at its source could not long persist. It would therefore seem that the continuation of mammal life would depend on the protection the mother gives to her young.
In the Nevada desert, Capt. Alan Le Baron found what he called the "Hill of a Thousand Tombs." The tombs proved to be burial vaults about two feet square, the entrance to each one being cleverly concealed by stones fitted together without mortar. On the floor of each crypt was a layer of grey sand, and in the midst of this, a circle of yellowish red sand. Some of this latter was sent to the Coroner's office in San Francisco for analysis, and on being placed under the microscope proved to be human bones. "Earth to earth and dust to dust," is no figure of speech, it is the literal truth. On account of the small size of these vaults it is believed that only the human head was buried. Everything indicated a very great antiquity.
Out in the "Bad Lands" of Wyoming, Charles Sternberg found a dinosaur "mummy." He describes this find and shows a picture of it in his book "The Life of a Fossil Hunter." It was a "Trochodont," or duckbilled dinosaur. This specimen was acquired by the American Museum in New York and I saw it there myself. The dried up flesh was apparent, and also the texture of the skin. Some of it must have been exposed to view when Mr. Sternberg found it, and therefore subject to the disintegrating action of the weather.
I am content to leave it to the judgment of the disinterested reader as to which died first, the man or the dinosaur? The man's remains, enclosed in a tight tomb, in a desert climate and turned into dust. The dinosaur's remains, exposed to the weather, to rain, snow and frost, and still intact in the form of a dried out mummy.
If dinosaurs became extinct 12 million years ago I would like some scientist to tell me how a dinosaur's flesh and skin has lasted for 12 million years, under any conditions, and not been turned into dust.
A STONE IDOL?
THESE three views of what is probably a Stone Idol, were sent to me
by Mr. F. V. Hammar of Saint Louis. In his letter of June 23rd, 1926, Mr.
Hammar says:—"This queer relic was found by a man named Jordan near Granby,
Colorado. Mr. Jordan was excavating for a garage or a cellar
and uncovered this stone at a depth of 12 feet. He found many
utensils, etc., in the same place, thus giving the presumption of a settlement.
The stone is exceedingly hard green material, and like nothing ever known
of in the neighborhood. It may have been brought from
|This sculptured stone is of unusual interest to me because it shows,
carved in high relief, the figures of two dinosaurs and an elephant. The
are also of great interest, and some of them are similar to those I saw
in the Supai Canyon.
It is significant that the dinosaur and elephant are close together in the Supai drawings, and here they are sculptured together on the back of the same figure.
The dinosaurs suggest either the "brontosaurus" or the "diplodocus," while the elephant has a long curved tusk.
A Stone Idol. Dug up near Granby, Colorado.
That man and the elephant were coeval in America is not doubted by Col. James Churchward in his fascinating book, just published, entitled The Lost Continent of Mu. On Page 186 he shows a picture of the "Mastodon in Hava Supai Canyon"; and on Page 107 he says:—"In confirmation of the foregoing, Professor E. L. Hewitt of the Las Vegas University reports that he has found in the homes of an ancient people, fossil remains of the mastodon and sabre-toothed tiger; also utensils made out of LIVE, not fossil ivory, thus corroborating the Hava Supai Canyon picture."
Col. Churchward is equally definite on the subject of dinosaurs, for on Page 192 he shows a reproduction of the Hava Supai Canyon picture, and refers to the fact that the Zuni's had the following tradition concerning them:—"They were monsters and animals of prey; they were provided with claws and terrible teeth. A mountain lion is but a mole in comparison to them. Then those Above said to these animals: 'Ye shall all be changed into stone, that ye be not evil to men, but that ye may be a great good to them. Thus have we changed ye into everlasting stone.'
"There may be readers who will say that these have nothing to do with the Pueblos and that they do not prove that the tradition is not a myth. For the benefit of such doubters let us consider the Hava Supai Canyon in Arizona. There, drawn and carved on a rock, is a picture of the most terrible carnivorous dinosaur that ever existed on earth, the gruesome Tyrannosaurus of the late Cretaceous Period. This picture was probably drawn more than 12,000 years ago."
TO analyze the evidence presented in the foregoing pages and arrive at a satisfactory conclusion is by no means an easy task. It strikes me as being a case for more readjustments.
Science has presented to the world a "Theory of Evolution," which attempts to account for the succession of life on this planet, and which most of us have accepted as the truth. As everyone knows this theory is predicated on the idea that life began in the sea in a single cell, and through evolution and "Natural selection" gradually changed into the complicated forms we are all familiar with: from seaweeds to mollusks; mollusks to fishes; fishes to reptiles and birds; then to mammals; and finally last of all came the crowning achievement, Man.
If the evidence presented for your consideration in these pages is true, then the Theory of Evolution we have all been so carefully taught, is not true. If man goes back to the Eocene, or to the Triassic, or if man actually saw a live dinosaur, then there is something radically wrong with the succession of life as taught by the Evolutionists. The facts presented in these pages show that Man was the first mammal to appear and not the last one.
Evolutionists tell us that Man and the anthropoid Apes had a common ancestor, and scientists are continually looking for the "Missing link." If there was a Triassic Man, and there is any relationship at all between Man and the higher Apes, then the Apes are a degenerate offshoot from the Man stock.
If the reader will bear with me a moment, I will work this out in my own way. Let us first get down to the foundation of things.
As Man, on the material side, we are air-breathing land mammals, and in common with all other mammals we are absolutely dependent on four things: Earth, Air, Fire, Water. Solid, liquid, gas, all held in adjustment with each other in the presence of a beneficent Heat. Change that heat but a few degrees, up or down, and life as we understand it on this planet, would instantly cease.
Now these four things are in turn dependent on two greater things, Space and Time. Through the special endowment bestowed upon us by an all wise Creator, and not enjoyed by any other mammals, we are now enabled to define the Laws governing these things. We now know that Gravity is the law of Space, and Evolution is the law of Time. There is no more doubt about the fundamental truth of Evolution than there is that an apple falls from the bough to the Earth, "inversely as the square of the distance."
The trouble is not with the Law, but with our interpretation of the Law. Let me illustrate what I mean. Many, many years ago our chemists devised the Atomic Theory, predicated on the apparent fact that the Atom was the smallest divisible portion of matter. The Theory worked and seemed susceptible of proof. But the chemists left God out of their calculations. They overlooked the fact that a Supreme Intelligence which could create the Infinitely Great could also create the Infinitely Small. So when Madame Curie showed us Radium, we were astounded to find that instead of an atom of radium being no longer divisible, it was in reality a miniature Solar System with a central sun and 84 tiny planets in the form of electrons revolving about it at an amazing speed, ana all in the compass of an atom.
The Atomic Theory was not all true, it was only partly true. Now it seems to me something like that is the matter with our Theory of Evolution. It is only partly true. It has concentrated on the material and animal aspect of Man's development and left out the evolution of his God-given Soul.
Is it too great a strain on our credulity to believe that a Divine Power
which could conceive of, and put into operation, the great Law of Gravity,
would not have the power to create Man in Its own image? May we not look
forward to the day when Science and Religion, like twin brothers, will
go hand in hand down the corridors of Time, seeking ever for new Truths?
Science finding new wonders in Nature; Religion revealing greater glory
In Xanadu did Kubla Khan A stately pleasure dome decree Where Alph the sacred river ran Through caverns measureless to man Down to a sunless sea. And twice five miles of fertile ground With walls and towers was girdled round.
NOTE—The abutment of a white
sandstone dig in the Hava Supai Canyon, bearing a striking resemblance
to the Parthenon on the Acropolis at Athens. Figure suggesting Sphinx