The Delivery System
Our first objective is to describe why the orbits of Neptune and Uranus came to be located 1.8 and 2.8 billion miles from the Sun. These distances are 19.2 and 30.1 a.u. from the Sun. Some groundwork must be laid.
Earlier, evidence was presented in the form of twin spins that both planets co-orbited in space somewhere beyond 900 a.u. from the Sun. How did planets such as Neptune and Uranus relocate from there to "here" in the visible, "inner" solar system? Our question is one of relocation, not one of creation.
A delivery by implication involves either a one time delivery, or more often, a delivery system. If a package is dropped on the doorstep with a "United Parcel" delivery label, that implies a delivery system. If such deliveries happen repeatedly, it implies a repeating route, and perhaps a periodic delivery schedule. Postal deliveries fall into this periodic pattern. So are deliveries in our cosmological theory.
A Comparison with Early 20th Century Cosmologies
In the 1910's, it occurred to James Jeans that the total of the planetary mass was only 0.14% of the Sun's mass. Yet these nine planet systems contained the bulk of the angular momentum in the Solar System. In fact, Jupiter along has 60%. The four giant planets carry 98% of the angular momentum of all matter this side of Pluto. The gigantic Sun carries only 2%. The law of conservation of angular momentum would seem to suggest that if the Sun and its plasma were the genesis of the Solar System, then the Sun should retain most of the angular momentum that is observed. The Sun isn't even close to conforming. This is why Jeans and others began searching for an extra-solar source, a passing star perhaps.
This principle is demonstrated in an ice skater, who spins with her arms extended. As her arms are withdrawn, she spins all the faster. But if that were an example of the Sun, the Sun is one of the most slowly spinning bodies of the Solar System. Its photosphere requires 26.8 days for a rotation at its equator.
Even more strange, the Sun's photosphere displays even slower rotations rates in its higher latitudes. At 60° latitude, it spins once in 30.8 days and at 75° latitude, it spins in 31.8 days.
Although the Nebular Hypothesis is still being taught as cosmological fact to many students, Press and Siever make the following damaging assessment:
To address this defect, Moulton and Chamberlin proposed that the Sun was approached by a much larger star, to a proximity of 4 or 5 billion miles. That huge star allegedly pulled out from the Sun a filament of material, providing material eventually condensing into the planets, into planet satellites, in spin rates, etc.
In the 1930's, Henry N. Russell recognized further defects. Instead, Russell postulated the Sun had been approached by a pair of stars, a binary system. Together they did the job whereas, he felt, Jeans' theory and Moulton's both failed. Note that early 20th century cosmologists continued to assume that the planets were formed from solar ejecta, billions of years ago. This was a major conceptual mistake.
Our concept of a delivery system contains the idea that the planets were delivered to the Sun. They were delivered from a region more distant than 1,000 a.u. The planets of this Solar System never were part of a gaseous filament pulled out of the Sun (or any other star.) Our concept is different and the details of our cosmology are far different from the "standard fare" of this 19th and 20th century.
DIFFERENCE # 1. One difference is that their approaching star, or binary pair of stars, approached from interstellar space, from beyond the nearer stars. We offer that the Sun was approached from a region less than 5% of the distance to the nearest star, that is, from between 1,000 and 2,000 a.u., or possibly from 3,000 a.u.
DIFFERENCE # 2. A second difference is that our delivery system body was not, and is not luminous. Their concept was one, or two co-rotating luminous stars, at least one of which was larger than the Sun. Had such a luminous star been in the neighborhood four billion years ago, it could still be seen and its path charted. No trace of such can be seen in the Milky Way..
DIFFERENCE # 3. A third difference is that our delivery system body is ONLY 3% TO 4% as massive as the Sun, + or - 1%. The view of Jeans, Russell and Lyttleton was that the approaching star or pair of stars was much heftier than the Sun.
DIFFERENCE # 4. A fourth difference is that in our delivery system, the delivering body came much closer to the Sun. They suggest such a theoretical approach was several billion miles from the Sun, and considerably beyond Neptune's orbit. Neptune is three billion miles distant.
Evidence exists that the intruder approached as close as 15,000,000 miles from the Sun, more than twice as close as Mercury. This evidence will be cited and presented, along with its ramifications, in chapters 7 through 10.
DIFFERENCE # 5. A fifth distance is conceptual. Traditional 18th, 19th and 20th century cosmologies have the Sun as the mother of the planets in a natal sense. In a natal sense, the planets are like afterbirth material which for some reason, the Sun expelled. In contrast, we offer that the Sun is the mother of the nine planets only in an adoptive sense, not a natal sense.
Some writers, including science fiction authors, have speculated on Solar System disturbances coming in from beyond the realm of visibility, beyond the orbit of Pluto. Those writers have named their fictitious intruders such names as "Planet X" and "the Nemesis Star", etc. We choose the name "Little Brother" since it evidently was 3% to 4% as massive as the Sun, and it penetrated deeply into the hot, inner region.
DIFFERENCE # 6. A sixth difference, if our hypothesis is correct, is that Little Brother continues to orbit the Sun. And on its own schedule, whatever that is, it will return in due time. When it returns, it will realign any planet that gets in its path. And when it returns, it could bring in a new package of planets and drop them off in the Inner Solar System.
Evidence, not science fiction writers, indicates Little Brother exists. We choose this name because the Sun is "Big Brother." Its "nickname" is "L. B." This nickname has nothing to do with any prominent politician from Texas.
If the Sun stripped the planets away from Little Brother, and if Little Brother delivered them, then that capture must have followed certain mathematical constraints. One constraint is that the planets Mercury through Neptune were all dropped off on the same plane, the orbit plane of "L. B."
A second constraint is the "Radius of Action" principle, the zone of control of Little Brother. As "L. B." approached the Sun, this zone inexorably kept shrinking. And as it returned to its aphelion, perhaps 1,000 to 3,000 a.u. distant. This is 5 to 15 light days distant. How expansive would be Little Brother's "zone of control" out there where the Sun's attraction is so faint? How extensive is that "zone of control" which allowed, at three billion miles from the Sun, for Neptune and Uranus to begin to get away? The Sun's mass is 332,000 as massive as the Earth, and 1,050 times as massive as Jupiter. Thus, Little Brother, if our analysis is correct, is about 30 to 40 times as massive as the giant Jupiter.
Control versus capture in our Solar System follows a principle, which Gerard Kuiper called the "radius of action". As geographers and engineers, we prefer to call it the "zone of control". It is the same thing.
For instance, in our present orbit, the Earth's zone of control, its radius of action, is out to 750,000 miles. At this distance theoretically the Earth would automatically lose any satellite forever to the Sun. At this distance, a satellite merely exchanges its orbit prime focus for the Sun.
For math buffs, Kuiper's equation is an approximation, not a rule, not a mathematical law. It is an approximation that merits some elaboration and qualifications. The approximation of a zone of control anywhere in this solar system
In this equation, RA is the radius of action. "" is the mass of the planet (Little Brother) divided by the total of the mass of the Sun and Little Brother. "a" is an astronomical unit, 93,000,000 miles.F2
The Capture of NeptuneUranus System
Neptune and Uranus had to co-orbit in two long, narrow, highly eccentric orbits. Both revolved around a "bary center," a point that is the common center of mass.
Most of the time, Neptune and Uranus were co-orbiting with a considerable distance in between. But with highly eccentric elliptical orbits, fast flybys and sharp spasms of catastrophism occurring every few years. As was discussed earlier, each flyby increased the spin rates of each planet, and the increase was in a reciprocal manner.
We suggest that when these two planets were co-orbiting, their bary center orbited Little Brother at a distance of about 600,000,000 miles. At about 2,500,000,000 miles (or 27 a.u.) from the Sun, the Sun stripped this binary away from "L. B." It captured them and dispersed or separated them. Uranus was sent nearer, Neptune farther.
In this cosmology, Little Brother performed the job of a delivery service. The Sun proceeded to separate Neptune from Uranus and redirect them into new, virgin, capture orbits. One ended up 1.8 million miles from the Sun and the other 2.8 million miles. Their twin spins are clues of their former co-orbiting relationship, when they were much much deeper in dark, frigid, remote, debris-strewn space.
When were the planets Neptune and Uranus dropped off at their present location? That is the $64,000 question for which we do not have the answer. However, there is no evidence for such an event being billions of years ago. There is evidence friendly to the thought that they were delivered less than 100,000 years ago. This evidence involves the capture of other planets, satellites and icy ring systems. We are tempted to get ahead of our story.
The story of the Sun's capture of the Neptune system and the Uranian system is story 6 in our new skyscraper cosmology. It involves planetary catastrophism deep in space, before capture by the Sun. We cannot agree that these planets are so far out because of "chance" or "coincidence". They are so remote from the Sun because they were co-orbiting at a similarly remote distance from Little Brother. That "similarly remote" distance from L. B. was some 600,000,000 miles, compared to their present remoteness of 1.8 and 2.8 billion miles.
The Capture of JupiterSaturn System
In a like manner, Little Brother once "owned" the Jupiter-Saturn binary, a co-orbiting pair whose bary center was perhaps 200,000,000 miles from "L. B." That is about as far as the asteroid belt is today from the Sun.
When Little Brother approached the Sun to a distance of some 600,000,000 miles to 700,000,000 miles (6.5 to 7.5 a.u.), the gravitational competition increased. It increased to the threshold where "L.B." was no longer able to retain this second co-orbiting binary either.
First, Saturn was stripped from Jupiter, and then from L. B. also. Following that loss, Jupiter was next, stripped away from L. B. as it inexorably kept approaching the Sun. As it was with Saturn, so also with Jupiter; each planet was wrenched from L.B. together with its satellite systems.
As Jupiter and Saturn were lost by the Little Brother system, that incoming system was stripped of about 0.3% of its mass; it also lost a similar amount of energy. Its orbit shifted just a wiggle. The L. B. system, now separated, also lost a little angular momentum. That angular momentum in the bodies of Jupiter and Saturn was relocated inward from one to three thousand a.u. all the way down to five to ten a.u.
The two captures by the Sun, Neptune-Uranus and Jupiter-Saturn, did not necessarily occur during the same incoming flyby of Little Brother. But it is a distinct possibility. There is evidence that Little Brother has made either one or just a very few such "delivery trips" to the doorstep of the Sun.
That evidence will be presented in a few chapters. The evidence of a paucity of trips by L. B. around the Sun is critical to our understanding as to how, and how recently this Solar System was organized. Thus we will present evidence suggesting that the Solar System is recent, less than a million years, less than a hundred thousand years perhaps. From the gradualist dogma of four billion years, this could be a reduction in time requirements of 99.975%
The question becomes, "Did Little Brother acquire the Jupiter-Saturn binary during the same orbit into deep space that it acquired the Neptune-Uranus binary?" If the answer were "yes", it follows that the Sun acquired all four planet systems within the same score of years. If the answer were "no", it follows that they were captured in different eras. Which is more probable? At this point in time, we do not know.
What we are sure of is that Jupiter and Saturn once co-orbited as a binary pair in remote space. Their twin spins are a solid pair of clues. Coupled with the spins of Uranus and Neptune, we now gather two pairs of solid clues. The Earth's acquisition of the Moon, likely in remote space, is a fifth clue that our "capture cosmology" is the best approach.
The seventh story of our catastrophic cosmology is the acquisition of their modern orbits by Jupiter and Saturn. It will be noticed that Uranus and Neptune were closely related in remote space. Today, Uranus and Neptune are still fairly closely related. They are the seventh and eighth closest planets. They still are next to each other, though not as closely as when under the dominion of Little Brother.
Jupiter and Saturn are our fifth and sixth most distant planets from the Sun. Although they were separated by the Sun, they also, as Inner Solar System planets, still remain next to each other, although they are not as close as when under Little Brother's dominion. Their place in the solar system, next to each other, fifth and sixth, is no accident, no coincidence, not a result of chance. The neighboring relationships of both Neptune-Uranus and Saturn-Jupiter are vestiges of the former age when they co-orbited and created reciprocal spins.
A Dating ClueThe Icy Rings of Saturn
The ice in the icy rings of Saturn does effervesce away constantly into space. Various estimates have been made of the rate the thinning of these icy rings. So far as we are aware, there is no consensus.
It could make an exciting study to examine the celestial brilliance of the rings of Saturn as they were on early photographic plates over 100 years ago. Comparing to the present reflectivity, one could then estimate the minute rate of effervescence - thinning of the ring system. Estimates have been made as to how long in the future Saturn's rings will last. Those estimates range from 10,000 years future to 100,000 years for the time left for the life span of those icy rings. The icy rings had a genesis when an icy satellite, an ice ball was rerouted too close to Saturn. "Too close" is 2.5 radii, as was defined by Roche's Limit.
In 1850, Edouard Roche studied the tidal effects of two planets, or a planet and a moon that theoretically were on a collision course. He found that due to sudden internal tidal stresses that would be generated, the smaller of two planets on a collision course would fragment before collision. He calculated the distance of fragmentation at 2.44 radii. He assumed two bodies of equal density, and with circular orbits.
Saturn has a radius of almost 36,000 miles. Thus, for an ice ball, and given Saturn's low density, its "Roche Limit" is about 85,000 miles. This distance is also the outer boundary of the icy ring system, a confirmation of the case for an icy fragmentation.
Most likely, this ice ball was redirected during a close Saturn-Jupiter flyby in the former age when they co-orbited Little Brother. The icy rings would begin to effervesce when Saturn was delivered to the Inner Solar System. Following this, we don't know how much ice originally orbited Saturn; we do know the masses of its inner ice balls. They may be similar in size to the fragmented ice ball. In this way, the icy rings of Saturn suggests some degree of recentness for Saturn's delivery to its present orbit. After more study, if the estimate of 100,000 years for present longevity of Saturn's rings holds up, then it points to a Solar System that is "shockingly youthful" (to gradualists.)
For Saturn's icy moons, it was chaos to experience a close flyby of Jupiter in the previous era. Mimas is Saturn's innermost surviving satellite, at 115,000 miles. It is just beyond the Saturnian Roche Limit. As was mentioned earlier, Mimas is an icy satellite pocked with craters and pitlets. Mimas has one crater that is one-third of its own radius. Perhaps some of its craters came from hits by icy debris from Saturn's icy fragmentation.
The density of little Mimas is 1.2 compared to water, at a density of 1.0. No one knows, or wonders about how much ice formerly was in the ring system of Saturn. Little Mimas has an orbit radius of some 115,000 miles. It has a physical radius of about 121 miles.
Largely composed of ice, its volume exceeds 7,000,000 cubic miles. No one knows whether the ice ball that did fragment was of a similar size, but it is a reasonable conjecture. Mimas might be an indication of how much ice originally might have been in Saturn's icy fragmentation. A fraction of that amount of ice settled into Saturn's resplendent icy rings.
As was the case with the capture of Neptune and Uranus, the dating of L. B.'s delivery of Saturn and Jupiter to the doorstep of the Sun is a $64,000 question. The icy rings of Saturn, and their rate of effervescence, are an indication of recentness as gradualist astronomers assess time past.
Saturn's rings point to our first theme, planetary catastrophism. These icy rings also point toward our second theme, a shockingly young solar system. And, Dr. Watson, the plot is about to thicken. The clue of Saturn's Rings, and their rate of effervescence is our story 8 of the new, catastrophic cosmology. That leaves some 62 stories yet to be erected.
The Capture of The Four Inner Planets
The Most Recent of the Snatches
We have modeled that the Uranus and Neptune pair formerly co-orbited L. B., as did the Saturn-Jupiter pair. The model of capture of the inner planets by the Sun also works very well if we model Venus and the Earth formerly co-orbiting in orbits of low eccentricity.
Venus has a mass 81.5% compared to the Earth. It has a density of 5.24 compared to 5.52 for the Earth. Venus has a polar diameter of 7,5l7 miles compared to the Earth's at 7,900 miles (polar). Physically, Venus is the Earth's twin. Mars, Mercury and the Moon, on the other hand, have masses with reference to the Earth, of only .107, .055 and .012 respectively.
The Original Quintet in the Pre-Capture Era
In size, the Venus and Earth pair are virtually twin planets. However, there are no twin spins, which means no close flybys in the previous age for Venus and the Earth. On the other hand, Mars has a twin spin with the Earth, indicating a third case of repeated planetary catastrophism in the former era. The model also works wonderfully well if we assume that, in orbiting L. B., Venus co-orbited with the Earth, and like the Moon, Venus was spinless - it showed the same face constantly to he Earth.
In addition, our model functions best if Venus co-orbited the Earth in the clockwise direction (as viewed from Polaris). This is the same direction it slowly rotates today, backward. All of the nine planets today orbit the Sun counter-clockwise. And eight of the nine all rotate in the counter-clockwise mode, all except Venus. Today, although Venus hardly rotates at all, what little spin it does have is backward.
The model of delivery by Little Brother and capture by the Sun included a package of five small bodies - Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and the Moon. The model works best if the conditions of this little five group was the following:
Subset A. Originally in deep space, the Moon orbited the Earth in a roundish orbit at a distance of roughly 250,000 miles. This is similar to today. In so doing, the Moon rotated so as always to show the same face to the Earth. It still does. From the Earth's viewpoint, the Moon does not rotate. But from the Sun's viewpoint, the Moon rotates once in 29+ days, with one side always facing the Earth. However it has no spin axis.
Subset B. Second, in deep space, in the former age, Mercury orbited Venus also in a roundish orbit at a distance of some 300,000 miles. It also behaved like the Moon; it showed one face and one face only to Venus. It, too, lacked a spin axis.
Subset C. Third, in deep space, Mars orbited the Earth on a slightly different plane than the Moon. The orbit of Mars must have been long and narrow, i.e. highly eccentric. This is evident because the two developed reciprocal twin spins, just like Neptune-Uranus and Jupiter-Saturn. Twin spins developed from those close flybys long before the two planets were delivered to the doorstep of the Sun.
We model Mars in deep space in the previous age coming within 30,000 miles of the Earth but retreating a distance of several million miles.
Subset D. In the previous era, perhaps 1,000 a.u. from the Sun, Venus and the Earth co-orbited at a distance of perhaps 950,000 miles to 1,000,000 miles from each other. Its slow, backward rotation today corresponds to a slow, circular, backward revolving around the Earth in the previous age. The direction or co-orbiting was clockwise for Venus.
Thus, Venus orbited the Earth in the opposite direction that Little Brother orbited the Sun. This we call "retrograde" (uncommon) or "clockwise," as it is viewed from Polaris, the North Star. Thus, in deep space, the Earth had a co-orbiting partner (Venus) plus two satellites, Mars and the Moon. Its partner, Venus, also had a non-rotating satellite some 300,000 miles distant, Mercury. This was a sticky little quintet.
This quintet also was relatively close in to Little Brother (compared to Jupiter-Saturn and Neptune-Uranus.) . Hence, when stripping time came, if all the planet-stripping was done in one flyby, the quintet was the last system to be stripped off "L. B." and dismembered by the Sun, the Moon excepted. Hence these five comprise what some consider to be the "inner solar system" of today. All orbit within 160,000,000 miles of the Sun, compared to Jupiter's 480,000,000 miles.
In this last capture process, for the sticky quintet, first the Sun separated Mars from the Earth. Shortly, perhaps within days, the Earth was divorced from its co-orbiting partner, spinless Venus. Within a couple of weeks more, as "L. B." inexorably approached the Sun, little spinless Mercury was stripped from Venus. Venus, was deposited on the brink of Hell's Kitchen, and the other, Mercury, as it was separated, was sent into an orbit inside Hell's Kitchen itself where temperatures rise to 700° and 800° F. Only the Earth-Moon system had survived the process of dismemberment and realignment around the Sun.
This process of capture can be modeled. Figure 3 illustrates the last and the nearest to the Sun of the three packages of celestial captives.
The Delivery Orbit for Mars
Story 9 is about vestiges and the geographical relationships of the planets today. Mars was delivered to the inner Solar System. Evidently, it was delivered with a long, narrow, highly eccentric orbit, and it maintained that orbital trait into its second and even its third age. The "First Orbit of Mars" was when it orbited the Earth in the remote region 1,000 a.u. or more. The "Second Orbit of Mars" was ended when Mars met Astra in space, some 230,000,000 miles distant.
Astra fragmented. Mars gained a little mass, and some angular momentum. But it lost some energy in the crisis. But we are getting ahead of ourselves. "The Scars of Mars" is the title for Volume II, where the details of the Second Orbit, the Third Orbit, and the Fourth Orbit of Mars are analyzed, and why the shifts.
To summarize, somewhere between 150,000,000 and 200,000,000 miles from the Sun, both Little Brother and the Earth lost Mars. About 92,000,000 miles from the Sun, Little Brother lost the Earth, and shortly, some 67,000,000 miles, Venus (already stripped from the Earth) was also lost by "L. B." Finally, some 35,000,000 miles from the Sun, Mercury, already stripped from Venus, was also lost by Little Brother. Little Brother was picked clean of its satellites systems. Figure 3 illustrates.
Earlier, it was noted that Neptune and Uranus once co-orbited, and they are still in the same neighborhood in the Solar System, still next to each other. This is a vestige of the ancient age. Next it was noted that Saturn and Jupiter once co-orbited, and they also are still next to each other, a second vestige of the primordial age.
Now, we see that Mars and the Earth once co-orbited in the remote frigid region. And when the Sun stripped them, they continued to be next to each other. This is a third vestige. In addition, Venus and the Earth co-orbited, and they are still next to each other, a fourth vestige. Finally, little Mercury was a satellite of Venus and after it was stripped from Venus, it also settled down into an orbit next to Venus. Such is our fifth vestige. All of these five vestiges are geographical catastrophism and the geography of the cosmos.
This series of separations from L. B., and repositions of the various planets may seem complicated. It isn't. There are only three bunches of planets that were separated from L. B., and (or) delivered to the Sun. First was Uranus-Neptune with satellites, second was Jupiter-Saturn with satellites, and third was Venus-Earth, of which two of the three satellites were stripped off, Mars and Mercury.
Because of their greater distance from the Sun, Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter each retained their satellite systems. But because Venus and the Earth were separated so close to the Sun (within 100,000,000 miles), two of the their three satellites, Mercury and Mars, were stripped off. Today we call them planets, tiny ones to be sure.
In science, there is a maxim that almost always valid. When science is faced with two explanations for a phenomenon, a simple answer and a convoluted one, the simple answer is almost always the correct one. It is known as "Occam's Razor."
In the 1300's, William of Occam (Ockham) wrote, "Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem." Loosely translated, it says that complications ought not to be multiplied except out of necessity. In his century, Occam was scientifically quite correct, although he was politically incorrect (and he paid the price of that age.)
Our relatively simple, straight-forward theory of capture of three clusters of planets needs to be compared with, and contrasted to the many convolutions, and revision after revision of the nebular hypothesis. The nebular hypothesis, still a favorite of gradualists some 200 years later, tries to affirm all planetary components were extruded from the Sun. More on this convoluted, "popular" (frequently taught) approach is reserved for Chapter 10.
The Placement of The Dismembered VenusEarth Binary
Earlier, it was noted that Uranus and Neptune were separated from each other, but in that separation still remain somewhat close by each other. The same can be said for the Jupiter-Saturn binary; they too are still somewhat close by each other. Now, once again, we note that even though Venus and the Earth were separated from each other, they still remain fairly close to each other, side by side in the order of the planets. These are vestiges of delivery and capture; they are not three coincidences.
The Earth formed a 360-day orbit, its "second orbit." Its first orbit was around Little Brother. This second orbit around the Sun was some 92,250,000 miles from the Sun, almost 1% closer than is the present arrangement.
The "second orbit" of Mars in our model has Mars in a new, capture orbit where it may have came in to a region some 64,000,000 miles to the Sun but yet returned out to approximately 230,000,000 miles. Today this region, 230,000,000 miles from the Sun, is known as the heart of the asteroid belt.
As was mentioned earlier, the "Second Orbit of Mars" will be discussed at some length in the next volume. Then, and in that context, occurred its sudden conversion, or deterioration into the infamous "Third Orbit of Mars." In the process Mars acquired an interesting display of scars on its surface.
Thus, the Sun's radius of action broke up both the ancient Earth-Venus and the Earth-Mars relationships. It also broke up the Venus-Mercury relationship. But it did not break up the Earth-Moon relationship, merely because the Moon originally was so close to the Earth. The Moon never ventured out anywhere near 750,000 miles from the Earth, where it, too, could have been picked off.
Figure 3 illustrates this original quintet, as the group orbited L.B. Mars, Earth-Moon system, Venus, Mercury. Such was the order of separation and delivery to the Sun, or, put in another way, it was the "order of capture" by the Sun.
It was something like an adoption agency, sending five siblings all from the same family off in four different directions, allowing only the smallest of the five siblings to stay with the largest.
Mars was separated from the Earth, yet maintaining its ancient long narrow orbit. Gravities attract, and Mars continued to cross the Earth's orbit. In a sense, Mars continued to "search for" and to seek the Earth, its former major focus. But with little success, at first.
The Backward Slow Rotation of Venus
The slow, backward rotation of Venus has been a mammoth-like conundrum, probably the greatest conundrum of all for gradualists during the 20th century. Venus, deeply in the Inner Solar System, together with Mercury, are right there where accretion from the Sun's ejecta was supposed to have condensed to the maximum, but instead somehow it has functioned to the minimum. This failure can no longer be swept under the rug.
Somehow, some way, Venus, the morning star, rotates backward. And ever so slowly. Its backward (retrograde) rotation rate is once in 243.01 days - once in 5,832 hours. Its equatorial rotation measures to be only 4.05 mph., walking speed. The Earth rotates 1,037.6 mph in the other direction, prograde, counter-clockwise.
This conundrum is easily solved. All that is needed is a well thought out model of capture and delivery. The key is the pre-capture era. Venus in the pre-capture era co-orbited with the Earth, at a distance of almost 1,000,000 miles. Both moved from the outer solar region to the inner region by orbiting, or revolving around L.B. clockwise - backward, or retrograde.
In addition, Venus did not rotate, but, like the Moon, its ancient "face" "looked at" the Earth constantly. The model works best if the two planets co-orbited around "L. B." in the clockwise mode, opposite to the mode "L.B." orbited the Sun.
Given this model, Venus would be picked off by the Sun, separating it first from the Earth, and second from "L. B.". Venus was sent into an orbit with an average radius of some 68,000,000 miles. With its retrograde direction of orbiting, at the moment of separation and capture, Venus kept facing the Earth. After separation, even today, Venus still in fact looks back to the Earth. (Gradualists, please note).
Venus was like a lover, being separated from her husband during World War II. He, the soldier, boarded the troop train, or the boat, leaving forever. She, the wife left behind, on the dock departed, slowly throwing BACKWARD a final kiss to her beloved. This kind of thing happened many times to GIs and their brides in the early l940's. And many soldiers in fact never did return.
The liberty (and ability) to a think in terms of planetary catastrophism frees us, as cosmologists, from the straight-jacket and the jail cell of gradualism. This is something like Copernicus and Kepler being freed from the tragedy of geocentricity. Copernicus and Kepler went on to provide the first two birth pangs of something entirely new to the history of man. It was the discovery of a system of natural law, which we now call "science".
The tenth story in our cosmological construction is the acquisition of backward rotation by Venus. If gradualists choose to refute planetary catastrophism, this is where they should begin. This is certainly one of their biggest dilemmas, and we know a secret. It, the backward, slow rotation of Venus, will continue to be their foremost dilemma until they chuck gradualism.
The Prograde Slow Rotation of Mercury
Story 11 of our skyscraper is concerned with the ever-so-slow rotation of Mercury, prograde. Mercury rotates once in 58.65 days. At Mercury's equator, it rotates 6.7 mph. It compares to Venus, which rotates at 4.l mph at its equator. Both have such slow rotations because they were non-rotating satellites in the primordial age, when they revolved around "L. B."
Mercury was dropped off into Hell's Kitchen because it was the last of the satellites to be stripped. This means that Little Brother approached at least 28,000,000 miles close to the Sun, because such is Mercury's distance today.
Mercury's orbit period is 87.97 days. For reasons presently unknown, Mercury's rotation and is orbit period are in 3:2 resonance.
Recently, it was determined that Mercury is not a liquid planet with a crust like Venus, the Earth and Mars. It is a solid planet. This is an indication that Mercury's center was very cold when it was delivered, and it hasn't warmed up a great deal since the time of delivery.
How the Earth-Moon System Acquired Its Ancient 360-Day Orbit
The twelfth story of our celestial skyscraper of cosmology concerns how the Earth-Moon system acquired its ancient 360-day orbit, some 92,250,000 miles from the Sun. This location for the Earth is in the middle of a 15,000,000-mile slot in the Solar System. In this narrow slot, and only in this slot, water neither boils constantly (as on Venus) nor does water freeze permanently (as on Mars.)
This "slot" happens to be the one and only favorable location in the solar system where chloroplasts and chlorophyll can function. And where a planet can be greened. But we are getting ahead of our story.
Whether by chance or design, the Earth was dropped into that marvelous, advantageous slot. It was 92,250,000 miles from the Sun, just 25,000,000 miles from Venus where surface temperatures rise to 700° F. The Earth was dropped off into "the slot" due to its previous distance from Little Brother and due to the geometry (and geography) of capture by the Sun.
Our age, in part framed by gradualist dogma, is the age of the vanity of humanity. Our good fortune for our planet's location "in the slot" is not widely appreciated. Compared to vanity, humility is better, and an age of humility would be best. Job learned this, before it was too late, long ago.
Job, viewing the grandeur of creation in a new light, was utterly speechless.
The sixth story in our skyscraper is how the orbits of Neptune and Uranus came to be, and why Neptune and Uranus still are neighbors. Their ancient spin rates were nearly identical before separation and still are.
The seventh story is how and why, if not when Jupiter and Saturn were picked off and captured by the Sun, some 480,000,000 miles and 880,000,000 miles respectively from the Sun. Part of the story is why they, too, are still neighbors. Like the Neptune-Uranus case, their spin rates also were nearly identical and still are.
The eighth story is related to the seventh. It is probable that Saturn already had its icy rings before it was ferried close to the Sun and delivered. Since then, the solar radiation has been effervescing away those splendid rings; they are a mere shadow of what they once were. The rings of Saturn are one kind of dating mechanism for the origin of the solar system, and as such, indicate recentness.
The eighth story is the breakup of the quintet in the inner region of the solar system. A two-planet co-orbiting binary, with three satellites, revolving around "L. B." was converted to four planets and just one satellite, all revolving around the Sun.
The ninth story of our skyscraper is how an early orbit of Mars and Earth was changed; Mars was liberated first from the Earth and next, from Little Brother. It features the new second orbit of Mars. It was still long and narrow, but Mars now orbited the Sun instead of L. B. In the earlier age, Mars had sought the Earth repeatedly. And next, despite having been separated from the Earth, it continued to seek our planet.
The tenth story of our skyscraper of cosmology addresses why Venus rotates so slowly, and why it rotates in the backward mode. Gradualists have pondered this for 100 years and have yet to gain even an inkling. This story also reveals why Venus orbits on the other side, on the edge of Hell's Kitchen, only 65,000,000+ miles from the Sun. We are pleased to announce that understanding this condition is merely by understanding its previous co-orbiting of the Earth and related conditions. Given a good model, the unique, backward, slow rotation of Venus isn't that hard to solve.
The eleventh story of our skyscraper is why tiny Mercury rotates so slowly. The reason is because formerly it had no spin axis at all when it orbited Venus in the previous, primordial era. Once non-rotating, its geometry of capture dictated a very, very slow prograde rotation. Mercury rotates in 58.65 days. The twelfth story in our catastrophic cosmology is an observation that the Earth-Moon was dropped off in "the slot." It acquired a new orbit around the Sun, one conquered neither by superheated waters like Venus, nor by perpetual ices like Mars. Coincidence? Perhaps. By design? More likely.
For some 200+ years, gradualists have always looked to the Sun for cosmic supplies to stock the Solar System. Having admitted their error in part (after over 100 years), they now have settled for claiming the Sun and planets formed simultaneously out of a cloud. Sublime in misdirection, the gradualists have been looking in just exactly the wrong region for the origin of the planets, the region of inner space, near to and in "Hell's Kitchen." They should have been looking to the region 1,000 a.u. or so from the Sun in dark, remote, frigid space.
However, evidence indicates that spin rates were acquired in a remote region at or beyond 1,000 a.u. or more from the Sun. So were satellite systems and craters in abundance. A delivery into the Inner Solar System requires a properly modeled delivery system, and a logical route. The logical route is simply the ecliptic plane.
The delivery system is some super-planet along the lines we have modeled, a super-planet 30 to 40 times as massive as Jupiter in mass, also 9,000 to 12,000 times the Earth's mass. If its density is similar to the Earth's, Little Brother could have a diameter of 190,000 miles.
If these eight planets were delivered to the Sun into the inner Solar system, there must be a delivery system, a United Parcel Service of the cosmos. The deliveries of the Neptune-Uranus pair and the Saturn Jupiter pair are two items in evidence. The delivery of the quintet is a third indication that a delivery system exists. But, is there more evidence? PREVIEW. Surprisingly, as one proceeds into an analysis of the planets in "Hell's Kitchen," including the Sun itself, three or four more scars, or clues, can be observed, scars of Little Brother's last flyby around the Sun. Read on.
We offer our model with logic interspersed with various kinds of evidence. PREVIEW. As it so happens in good movies, while the previously mentioned clues are good evidence of this delivery system, the United Parcel Service of the cosmos, nevertheless the best clues are left for the last. Those clues, three or four of them, can be seen inside the orbit of Venus. Read on.
F2 Kuiper, Gerard P., Planets and Satellites. Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1961, pp. 577-578.
The Recent Organization of The Solar System by
Patten & Windsor