An Inspection of The Nebular Hypothesis Cosmology
Sir Humphrey Davy
This chapter is about demolition, which is actually an early phase of new construction. Under examination is the variety of the assumptions, notions and conclusions built into the popular Nebular Hypothesis cosmology. The Alfven variation, one of the most recent, is the variation under examination unless otherwise stated. Will the widely accepted Nebular Hypothesis, as a scientific theory, pass a rigorous, detailed "building" inspection?
Inspection Detail # 1
Centrifugal Force as a Mechanism
In the original Nebular Hypothesis, the mechanism for the distribution of the Sun's cometary tail in space was a function of centrifugal force. This mechanism threw solar material out into space far beyond the Sun where that material might cool, collect, condense and accrete.
The Sun's circumference is 2,700,000 miles. Its spin rate at its equator, where its material rotates fastest, is once in 26.8 days. Here, the velocity of rotation of the Sun's photosphere is 42,000 mph. But the Sun's mass is 332,000 that of the Earth, and l,050 that of Jupiter.
This mechanism was accepted for the first 150 years, but within the last 100 years its impossibility as a mechanism has been recognized and acknowledged. Thus, the original engine or mechanism of this theory has been faulty from its inception.
Inspection Detail # 2
Accretion Versus Dispersion in Space
In our Solar System, orbiting bodies have high velocities. The velocity of remote Neptune is 12,100 mph. Velocities of planets and asteroids increase as distance to the Sun diminishes. The Earth's velocity is about 66,600 mph. Mercury's velocity is l07,000 mph. At such velocities, accretion does not work.
When colliding, small grains of material would tend to fragment, or crack. Then they would ricochet into another orbit. This is a dispersal mechanism, not an accreting one. Cometary tails are good examples of dispersion. Asteroid distribution is another example of dispersion. Meteor streams are a third example of the real cosmos where dispersion is the pattern. Io's "smoke ring" of sulfurous gases is fourth example. Io orbits in 42.5 hours, and orbits back into its own sulfurous cloud, caused by an electrical flux tube. Io enters into its own smoke ring 42 hours after vaporization of its crust. This smoke ring is a fourth example of dispersion. Accretion is a false mechanism where velocities are high, as they are in the part of the solar system we know.
The principle of dispersion, not gathering, is functioning throughout the inner solar system. There are few exceptions. However, Alfven still proposes accretion as a mechanism, even if it is as impossible as centrifugal force. The lack of a functioning mechanism for the Nebular Hypothesis also needs to be cited, and red-lined.
Inspection Detail # 3
The Moon's Capture to Become an Earth Satellite
The old Nebular Hypothesis required the Moon to be formed "in place." The newer theses advocate the notion that the Earth somehow captured the Moon on the fly some four billion years ago, more or less. This implies that the Moon formerly orbited around the Sun, and crossed the Earth's orbit, approaching the Earth where it was captured on the fly.
The Earth's gravity is in a tug of war with the Sun's gravity in space. The Earth is 93,000,000 miles from the Sun. The Sun is 331,600 times as massive as the Earth. The gravitational tug of war calculates out that the Earth cannot have a satellite further than 750,0000 miles from the Earth's core without losing it to the Sun.
The Earth's orbit is rather round, at 1.67% eccentricity. The Earth's orbital velocity around the Sun is 66,600 mph. The Moon's solar orbit would have been more elliptical, or eccentric. This means that the Moon's theoretical velocity would have had to have been greater than 66,600 mph when it crossed the Earth's orbit.
The Moon's maximum trajectory through the Earth's "zone of control" (radius of action of 750,000 miles) would be for only 1,500,000 miles. The Moon would sail through this zone in less than 21 hours.
Gradualists have to assume that somehow the Earth could slow down the Moon, perhaps from 70,000 mph to 2,200 mph, its present velocity, all in 21 hours or less. Such a correction is not only impossible, but is far beyond the boundary of sanity. This subset idea of a capture of the Moon by the Earth, 93,000,000 miles from the Sun, is mathematical madness. The Earth under these conditions cannot even slow down a tiny asteroid. In fact, a tiny asteroid approaching the Earth speeds up a little.
The capture of the Moon on the fly by the Earth is a violation of celestial mechanics. But, there the Moon is. And in the Nebular Hypothesis, the Earth is alleged never to have had another orbit. Moon capture on the fly by the Earth in its modern orbit has to be red lined.
Inspection Detail # 4
The Distribution of Mass in Our Solar System
It requires less energy to throw a baseball 90 feet than 290 feet. It requires less energy for the Sun to theoretically throw a planet out 30,000,000 miles than 480,000,000, or perhaps 2,800,000,000 miles (where Jupiter and Neptune reside).
Solar temperatures in the photosphere region rise to well over 10,000° F. Booster energies in that tortured plasma allow prominences and filaments to flare out some 25,000 miles. Spicules are suddenly ejected out of the Sun's chromosphere 5,000 to 10,000 miles. But all of these materials are rapidly brought back within the Sun's mass.
The Sun's flares are due to the enormity of the temperatures and the turbulence in the Sun's photosphere. But the rapidity of the recall of these flares is due to the enormity of the Sun's gravity. The masses of the combined planets is 0.0l3% compared to the Sun's contribution to the Solar System mass, which is 99.87%. Of the tiny total of the planetary mass, Jupiter has 71% and Jove is 483,000,000 miles from the Sun. Next largest is Saturn at 21%. Neptune and Uranus represent 3.8% and 3.3% of the planetary total.
The locations of the largest planets emphasize great distances. On the other hand, the closest planets, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, the Moon and Mars total only 0.4% of the total planetary mass. This kind of distribution indicates the Sun is not the "mother" of the planets except in an adoptive sense. Wherever the planets originated, however they got here, plainly their origin was not the Sun.
This rather straight-forward analysis of distribution of mass in the Solar System, to physicists, retired the original Nebular Hypothesis almost a century ago. Any chance discharge of mass by the Sun would throw its biggest planets nearby, and its tiniest planets farthest out. Such a logical pattern is precisely the opposite from the real solar system. Red-line the distribution of mass issue in the old junker.
Inspection Detail # 5
The Ecliptic Plane of the Solar System
The following orbital planes of the inner eight planets relate to the Earth's orbit plane as follows:
b. Venus 3.4°
c. Earth 0°
d. Mars 1.8°
e. Jupiter 1.3°
f. Saturn 2.5°
g. Uranus 0.8°
h. Neptune 1.8°
I. Sun's equator 7.2°
In all the variations of the Nebular Hypothesis, a diffusion of planetary materials should be in evidence. Such a diffusion in fact is the opposite of the real condition. The ecliptic plane is the orbital plane of the Earth. The Earth shares this plane with seven other planets. This plane looks very much like the plane, or the delivery route, by which the planets were delivered from deep space to be captured by the Sun. United Parcel Service has repeating routes and their couriers regularly drop off parcels along that route. Better it would be if we look at the planets and their satellite systems as parcels, dropped off at the Sun's doorstep by a certain, remote delivery system.
Red-line the old junker on the basis that this fact, the ecliptic plane, points to an external delivery system from remote space. A distribution of planets along a single route or plane belies the rationale of the Nebular Hypothesis. With respect to distribution of mass, red line the old junker for being illogical.
Inspection Detail # 6
Angular Momentum and the Solar System
The angular momentum of a spinning planet, revolving around the Sun, is (for its orbiting the Sun) the product of its mass, the square of the radius, and the rate of angular motion. To this is added a small amount for spin based on another equation. The principle of the conservation of angular momentum asserts that the total OF THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF AN ISOLATED SYSTEM is always the same, although its distribution CAN be shifted. This principle is illustrated by an ice skater who spins. As she tucks her arms in, she spins faster and faster. Angular momentum is transferred from her arms to her body.
In our Solar System including the Sun and all the planets, Jupiter alone (not the Sun) contains 60% of the total angular momentum. Yet, Jove is less that 0.1% of the mass of the Sun. The four planetary giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune together carry nearly 98% of the angular momentum in the Solar System. The Sun has less than 2%. Clearly this is a departure from what was expected in the l8th and l9th century thinking.
Angular momentum and its distribution is the reason for the introduction of several variations of the Nebular Hypothesis. James Jeans' "Cigar-Shaped Filament" in 1919 is an example. Angular momentum distribution is the reason for the existence of Russell's "Triple Binary Bypass" in 1935 followed by Lyttleton's series of revisions to that.
However, if the planets (with craters and satellite systems) were delivered to the Sun from remote space, along the plane of the ecliptic plane, then the entire picture changes. This is what we suspect. In this case, the Sun and its nine planets does not comprise an isolated system. Captures by the Sun and deliveries from deep space were involved.
One must keep in mind that the ecliptic plane looks like a delivery route for packages "addressed" to the Sun. The more meaningful questions are "What, When and Where did that delivery system function? How massive was it? How recent was its last delivery? Its "parcels" (at least 8 of the 9 planets, Mercury to Neptune) today comprise 98% of the angular momentum of this Solar System. This was a costly delivery to provide that much of the solar system's angular momentum.
Given the Delivery System for the planets, then the countless craters on surfaces of Mercury, on the Moon and on the various satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus all indicate there must be a great deal of debris floating slowly around the Sun out far beyond Pluto. The fact that these giant planets have satellite systems suggests the same thing.
The true dimension of our Solar System is half way to the nearer stars, which is several light years in every direction. What astronomers can see within Pluto's orbit has been considered an "isolated system" by the gradualists cosmologists. This is just as mythical as is their call for 4.6 billions of years of time.
Planetary catastrophes were recent, within mankind's collective memory. Moreover, we shall cite four or five levels of evidence later in this book indicating that the Sun has experienced a vast catastrophe so recently it is still in the process of recovery.
What eyes can see with telescopes, as far out as Pluto, relates in volume to the Sun's domain, like a basketball relates to a sphere with a radius of 6 or 7 miles. Our ignorance of this vast region beyond Pluto is profound. This is a fact that the Nebular Hypothesists of the l8th, l9th and 20th centuries and their various tune up mechanics seem to have forgotten.
Out there the totality of the solar system, that volume of debris, and larger items, planets for instance, and their satellite systems, is slowly circling the Sun, half way to the nearer stars. Most of it man cannot see because reflected light in those regions is too dim for even our most advanced telescopes to detect.
Radio astronomy helps, but just a little. Noise is created by "some things" out beyond Pluto but nobody knows what or why. Apparently they are rotating, or else they would be silent. What has been our problem as humans? As cosmologists, in the vanity of our humanity, we have been unable to conceive or consider that which we cannot see.
What is needed, as a substitute for better searching of the Solar System beyond Pluto, is therefore a compilation of evidence, if any, clues as to the existence of such a delivery system, a United Parcel Service of the cosmos.
We suspect there is a massive amount of angular momentum within the Sun's radius of action, but its zone stretches half way out to the nearer stars, several light years in length. Some angular momentum apparently was shifted, dropped off at the doorstep of the Sun. It merely changed location. The redistribution of angular momentum of the Solar System could be just that simple in theory.
The inspector's review of the Nebular Hypothesis includes the issue of angular momentum and its distribution. The old junker, as a functioning idea, fails badly once again and is again red-lined. Jeans, Russell, Lyttleton and others have identified the problem, thankfully, but as traditionalists, they did not look carefully to deep space to supply the correct solution.
We cite a summary by Robert H. Baker:
A variation known as the "tidal hypothesis" supposes that the envelope was torn from the sun by a passing star. This version is not favored, because in order to produce such effect the disturbing star would have to pass too near the sun to have introduced the present angular momentum of the solar system.F1
The door is open for anyone to come up with a better hypothesis. Physicists and astronomers have tried. Now we, a geographer and an engineer, shall put in our "two cents." We shall search for clues of planetary catastrophism among the scars of Mars, the scars of Venus, the scars of Mercury and the conditions ("scars") of the Sun. We search for physical evidence, especially from the recent space mission photography. From that data we then make the obvious, logical conclusions.
Our conclusions may not be "politically correct" according to the bureaucracy of astronomy, a bureaucracy that has embraced gradualist dogmas. But our conclusions shall be grounded to facts. Many, perhaps most of these facts are new, products of the space missions of the last three decades.
Velocities of Debris in Remote Space at 1,000 AU
One "a.u." is one astronomical unit, and its value is 92,959,000 miles. It is the average distance, Earth to Sun. The "a.u." is just another measurement of length, like the inch, the centimeter, the yard, the rod and the furlong. The only difference is that it is a bigger measure than those measures with which most people are familiar.
Kepler discovered three laws of planetary motions. One law is that orbit velocities follow a certain equation. If the distance from the Sun is increased, the period of that orbit also increases at a proportional rate. Kepler found that if the distance of an orbit was cubed, the period of that orbit is the square root of the cubed value. For instance, Jupiter. Jove is located (average) at 5.2028 a..u. (480,000,000 miles from he Sun.) The cube of 5.2028 equals 140.8356. Take the square root of 140.8356, which is 11.8674. This number, 11.8674, is the number of years in Jupiter's orbit, that is, its period.
Remote Pluto has a velocity of 10,600 mph. Pluto is 39.44 a.u., or 3,67l,000,000 miles from the center of the Sun. Pluto's period is 90,465 days, or 247.68 years.
Now we turn to a zone 25 times farther than Pluto, to 1,000 a..u. This region is 93,000,000,000 miles (93,000,000 x 1,000) from the Sun. We cube the distance of 1,000 a.u. which is one billion. We take the square root of a billion, which is 31,622. This is the approximate period in years of a planet in that region orbiting at 1,000 a.u. We are interested in the velocity of a body at 1,000 a.u. from the Sun, some 25 times as far out as Pluto. We assume a circular orbit. Its orbit circumference is 6263.2 a.u., or 2 x pi. This value is multiplied by 93,000,000 (miles) and that product is divided by 365.256 (the number of days per year), by 24 (the hours per day) and by 3l,622 (the number of years for an orbit). The result is a velocity of 2,101 mph in that cold, dark, remote region.
This velocity happens to resemble the velocity of the Moon, orbiting the Earth at 2,289 mph. Perhaps this is the right kind of environment in which the Earth could capture a slow-velocity object such as the Moon. Perhaps this is the kind of an environment where the Moon could first acquire numerous craters, broadly distributed, if the miscellaneous debris in that region happens to be numerous. If so, the debris would collide with the Moon, at velocities in excess of 1,000 mph depending on the angle of the hit.
We inspect the Nebular Hypothesis for its theory on Moon capture by the Earth. When both were near the Sun, with high velocities, we find a capture on the fly to be mathematical madness. Yet, there the Moon is. Red-line the old junker once more for being unable to explain the Earth's capture of the Moon, an event which evidently did happen.
The Backward Rotation and "Poky" Spin Rate of Venus
Over the years the problems with the Nebular Hypothesis have increased. The surprising results of space mission photography of the physical geographys of the crusts of the planets and their satellites have been legion.
For example, why does ever-so-hot and lonely Venus have numerous fresh-looking craters? Our answer is in part, because Mars formerly had a ring system, and during the Mars-Venus Wars some of the debris therein was swept out of the ring system by Venus and some hit Venus.
Interesting as that feature may be, it is not the big issue of Venus. Venus rotates backward compared to the direction of rotation of the Sun and all other planets. In addition, and to make matters worse, its spin rate is the slowest of all planets, only once in 243.01 days, backward, or "retrograde."
At its equator Venus rotates backward at only 4.1 mph, walking speed. This is about as fast as a good, gradualist geologist can hike across level ground. At our equator, as Venus' sister planet, we rotate forward at a velocity of 1,037.6 mph, which is supersonic jet speed.
Of all the problems in the Solar System that need logical explanations, the SLOW, BACKWARD ROTATION OF VENUS has been the most baffling to gradualist cosmologists. The first cosmology which explains this unique condition among the planets might become the dominant cosmology of the 21st century. And possibly of even the entire third millennium A.D.
PREVIEW. We understand the problem. We have the answer. It is presented later in this book. The answer is to be found on a coming story of our new cosmological skyscraper.
Many of the other Solar System conditions have been considered "coincidences" or are otherwise "unexplainable" by the nebular hypothesis folk. Such a track record is not one of a winner.
The Nebular Hypothesis is red-lined for yet other prominent short-comings. It cannot explain why Mars has a nearly identical spin rate as the Earth, or why Venus rotates so slowly, retrograde. Nor can its apologists explain why Mars has a 24° tilt to its spin axis, nearly identical to our planet's tilt at 23.5°. Is this another "coincidence" or is there a better explanation?
Preview. This logical explanation of this phenomenon, "twin tilts," is our second volume, "The Scars of Mars".
We, as planetary catastrophists, have no problem explaining all three of the preceding conditions in a logical manner. In our cosmological skyscraper of planetary catastrophism, these conditions are explained as soon as the proper grounds have been laid.
Almost 2,600 years ago, Jeremiah wrote something that touched on the topic of solar system history:
Almost a dozen red-linings of the old junker have been made, and more collapsing logic will be pointed out. The old junker's days are coming to an end. We know it is ready for demolition, and on this same site, on Cosmology Avenue, we have plans to erect a skyscraper to planetary catastrophism.
The plans describe a tall, pyramid-shaped building with some 70 stories, some 750 feet tall. On each story will be one or more account of scars left by past planetary catastrophism in our solar system. Thus, we refuse to demolish an old, collapsing structure of thought with no thought of a better replacement. Actually, demolition, after planning, is the second phase of new construction. We do not want to demolish the old junker and leave only a vacant lot.
There are more areas for red-lining, but nearly a dozen are more than sufficient to close the case on the famous old junker. The building inspector issues the demolition permit, and frankly, it is about time. The rickety old mansion is ready to come down and the rubble hauled to the dump.
F 1 Robert H. Baker, Astronomy. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1959, p. 269
The Recent Organization of The Solar System by
Patten & Windsor