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Chapter   1
Chapter   2
Chapter   3
Chapter 39
Chapter 40
Chapter 41
Chapter 42

Overview of Job
Author's Preface
About the Author



Commentary on the Book of Job

Prepared by Walter Lang

Chapter 1:

Job's eminence and his family (1:1-5)
Devil's appearance before God (1:6-12)
First calamity (1:13-22)

Chapter 2:

Devil's appearance before God (1:1-6).
Second calamity (2:7.8).
Job's refusal to curse God (2:9.10)
Job's friends visit (2:11-13)

  The Syllogism (Chapters 3-26)

I. God Punishes Sinners (ch.5-14)

Chapter 3:

Job regrets his birth (3:1-16)

Chapters 4-5: (Eliphaz)

God punishes sinners (4:1-9).
Lions destroy the wicked (4:10.11).
Spirit type of vision (4:12 14).
Claim is made a vision shows Job living in a house of clay. Righteousness blesses even nature (5:1-27)

Chapters 6-7 (Job's answer)

Complains about deceit of friends (6:1-23).
Challenges them to point out his sin (6:24-30).

Complains God's treatment is unfair (7:1-21). Vanity chapter.

Chapter 8:

Bildad claims nature indicates that both righteous and wicked suffer.

Chapter 9:

Job complains about God, about His power and His punishment even on innocents.

Chapter 10:

Job further complains about God searching out sin, even from birth; yet Job has not sinned. Life and death twisted.

Chapter 11:

Zophar claims Job is lying; God cannot be bound to perfection. Claims Job is iniquitous.

Chapter 12:

Job claims he is as wise as his friends. Man learns from nature. Wisdom is ancient. God despises human wisdom. Sub wisdom chapter.

Chapter 13: (Job's answer)

God knows wisdom but Job's friends are liars. Job will trust in God though friends may be deceitful. If he is silent, he will die. Asks God to show his sin; accuses God of being unfair.

Chapter 14: (Job's complaint)

Death is end of man.
God judges, but why does He judge Job? Vanity chapter.

II. Job is Punished (ch. 15-21)

Chapter 15:

Eliphaz claims Job is lying and arrogant in his accusations: man cannot be clean and even heaven is not clean; trouble befalls the wicked and it has befallen Job; the wicked shall not prosper and Job has not prospered.

Chapter 16:

Job replies his friends are miserable comforters. He expected comfort but received none; God has delivered him to the ungodly; God is unfair. Still, Job trusts in God.

Chapter 17:

Job's breath is corrupt and his grave is ready. God has hidden the hearts of his friends from understanding; no wise man is included among his friends. Job awaits corruption and worms in the grave.

Chapter 18:
Bildad says light of the wicked shall be put out and terror shall reign. Confidence is rooted out. Roots are dried and there is no light. Seed sown in stony ground.

Chapter 19:

Job has been reproached ten times. He cried but there was no judgment; he was stripped of glory by God who also kindled wrath. His breath is strange to his wife and his bones cling to the skin. He asks that his complaints be written in a book and graven on a rock. Here is great confession of Redeemer and bodily resurrection.

Chapter 20:

Zophar says triumph of wicked is short and soon they suffer oppression. Heaven will reveal Job's iniquities.

Chapter 21:

Job contends the wicked prosper; accuses God of injustice.

III. Job Committed a Special Sin (ch. 22-31)

Chapter 22:

Eliphaz accuses Job of stripping a brother naked and withholding water and bread from hungry, sending widows away empty, breaking arms of fatherless. Job has no right to accuse infinite God of injustice.

Wickedness spawns evil while righteousness generates prosperity. God blesses innocent.

Chapter 23:

Job complains he cannot find God, while still insisting he is innocent. While acknowledging he is being refined as gold, he still complains about God. Wants to have legal confrontation with Him.

Chapter 24:

More complaints about prosperity of the wicked. Details their wickedness. Recognizes the wicked are exalted for a short time only.

Chapter 25:
In only six verses Bildad asks how Job can be pure when moon and stars are not.

Chapter 26:

Job answers: Bildad and others are like hell itself. They misinterpret nature. God's power is in clouds, in the empty place, in the crooked serpent, in the pillars of the heavens. God's order and power in nature are beyond human comprehension. To demonstrate his righteousness in Christ, Job emphasizes the good in nature. He is still at this point a sanctified paranoid.

IV. Job's Effort to Lead Friends to Gospel

Chapter 27:

In an apparent contradiction, Job says the wicked are punished. By first pointing their sins, he is trying to bring his friends to the Gospel. Law section of Job witnessing to friends.

Chapter 28: (Wisdom chapter)

Wisdom is not found in nature, though gold and precious jewels may be found and height and depth and ends of earth may be discovered, also lightning and rain. Wisdom is found only in the Gospel fear of the Lord (v. 28). Job is trying to lead his friends from nature to something higher. This is the Gospel section of his witnessing.

V. Summary of Job's Condition (ch.29-31)

Chapter 29:

Job now reminisces to demonstrate his blessedness prior to his calamities. He does not admit sin.

Chapter 30: (Cave Man chapter)

Job describes present condition. Cave people despise him. Terrors are on him. Pierced bones and sinews give him no rest. Bowels are broken, garments are changed by disease. He is a brother to dragons and his skin is black.

Chapter 31: (Job's Righteousness)

Once again Job details his righteousness--no vanity and no adultery. No trust in gold nor worship of heavenly bodies. No revenge. Aided poor and fatherless. His interest in ecology. Wants legal confrontation with God.

VI. Elihu's Speeches
Deeper Gospel/Loving Criticism (Chapters 32-37)

Chapter 32:

Excitedly, young Elihu speaks. He will not flatter and is not concerned whether people accept him.

Chapter 33:

Elihu says Job's accusations of God are unjust. Elihu has proper vision from God (v. 15). Gives Job deeper Gospel in "Messenger in a Thousand" that will make his flesh fresh as a babe's, (v. 23-25).

Chapter 34:

Elihu censures Job for accusing God of dealing unjustly. All flesh is as dust. God knows what is right and is in control, helping the poor. Speaking without knowledge, Job has added rebellion to his sin. In love, Elihu treats Job like a ruler on a throne, while censuring him.

Chapter 35:

Elihu accuses Job of regarding his righteousness as greater than God's; this is vanity. God does not accept a vain person.

Chapter 36:

God is almighty. He listens to the righteous and causes the wicked to suffer. Cautions Job not to accuse God of injustice. God controls the weather.

Chapter 37:

God's voice is in thunder. He cares for beasts. He balances clouds. Of himself, man cannot find God, but must fear Him.

God's Whirlwind Talks (38-41)

39 Scientific Questions (Ch.38:1-38)

1. Where were you when the foundations of the earth were laid? (v.4)

2. Who laid the measures of the earth? (v. 5)

3. Who stretched a line on the earth? (v.5)

4. On what are the foundations (sockets) of the earth fastened? (v.6)

5. Who laid the cornerstone of the earth? (v. 6)

6. Who shut up the sea with doors? (v. 7)

7. Can you command the morning? (v.12)

8. Can you cause the dayspring to know its place? (v.12)

9. Have you entered into the springs of the sea? (v.16)

10. Have you walked in search of the deep? (v. 16)

11. Have the gates of death been opened to you? (v. 17)

12. Have you seen the doors of the shadow of death? (v.17)

13. Have you perceived the breadth of the earth? (v. 18)

14. Where is the way where light dwells? (v. 19)

15. Where is the place of darkness (v. 19)

16. Do you know the bounds of darkness? (v. 20)

17. Do you know the paths of the house of darkness? (v. 20)

18. Were you born and present at the creation of light and darkness? (v. 21)

19. Have you entered into the treasures of the snow? (v. 22)

20. Have you seen the treasures of hail? (v. 22)

21. By what way is light parted? (v. 24)

22. Who divides watercourses for floods or a way for lightning? (v. 25)

23. How does lightning cause rain? (v. 26)

24. Does rain have a father? (v. 28)

25. Who has begotten the drops of dew? (v. 28)

26. Out of whose womb came ice? (v. 29)

27. Who gendered the hoary frost of heaven? (v. 29)

28. Can you bind the sweet influences of Pleiades? (v. 31)

29. Can you loose the bands of Orion? (v. 31)

30. Can you bring forth Mazzaroth or the signs of the Zodiac? (v. 32)

31. Can you guide Arcturus or the Bear with his sons? (v. 32)

32. Do you know the ordinances, or laws, of the heavens? (v. 33)

33. Can you set the dominion or duplicate the ordinances of the heavens? (v. 33)

34. Can you lift up your voice to the clouds and make it rain? (v.34)

35. Can you send out lightning at will? (v. 35)

36. Who has put wisdom in the inward parts? (v. 36)

37. Who has given understanding to the earth? (v.36)

38. Who can number the clouds in wisdom? (v. 37)

39. Who can stay the bottles of heaven and keep it from raining? (v. 37)

The Eleven Wild Animal (Job 38:39-41:34)

1. Can you hunt prey for the lion? (v. 39)

1b. Can you fill the appetite of the young lion? (v. 39)

2. Who provides the raven his food? (v. 41)

Chapter 39:

God cares for wild animals:

3. wild goats (1 -4).

4. wild asses (5-8).

5. auroch or a mammoth. (9-12)

6. ostrich (13-18).

7. fierce war horse (19-25).

8. hawks (26)

9. eagles. (27.30).

Chapter 40:

God demands that Job be humble before His majesty and for the first time, Job says he is vile (3-5).

10. Behemoth is described (15-31). This is a plant-eating dinosaur.

Chapter 41:

11. Leviathan--description of meat--eating dinosaur, a plesiosaurus in the ocean.

Chapter 42:

Job's final repentance. Sacrifice for his friends. His previous blessings are doubled.

CHAP. 39
CHAP. 40
CHAP. 41
CHAP. 42