Darwin's Enigma
by Luther Sunderland  · ©1988  ·  PREV    NEXT


 


Endnotes
 

Chapter 1

1 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, reprint of 6th edition (London: John Murray, 1902), p. 341-342.

2 Richard B. Goldschmidt, The Material Basis of Evolution (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940), p. 390.

3 Stephen Jay Gould, "The Return of the Hopeful Monsters," Natural History, v. 86, no. 6, June-July 1977, p. 22-30.

4 David Pilbeam, "Rearranging Our Family Tree," Human Nature, June 1978, p. 39-45.

5 David Raup, "Conflicts Between Darwinism and Paleontology," Bulletin, Chicago Field Museum of Natural History.

6 Colin Patterson, personal communication to Luther D. Sunderland on April 10, 1979.
 


Chapter 2

1 Bert Thompson, The History of Evolutionary Thought (Fort Worth, TX: Star, 1981), p. 27-30.

2 Richard Leakey and Roger Lewin, Origins (New York, NY: E.P. Dutton, 1977), p. 25.

3 Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution (New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Co., 1968), p. 172.

4 Benjamin Farrington, What Darwin Really Said (New York, NY: Schocken Books, 1982), p. 110-111.

5 William Paley, Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity Collected from the Appearances of Nature, 1st edition (London: Tegg, 1802).

6 Farrington, What Darwin Really Said, p. 19.

7 Stephen Jay Gould, "Darwinism and the Expansion of Evolutionary Theory," Science, v. 216, April 23, 1982, p. 386.

8 Malcolm Bowden, The Rise of the Evolution Fraud (Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 1982), p. 4.

9 Charles Darwin, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809-1882, appendix and notes by granddaughter Nora Barlow (New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1958), p. 27-63.

10 Francis Darwin, editor, The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin (New York, NY: D. Appleton and Co., 1898), p. 277-278. 

11 Christopher Railings, The Voyage of Charles Darwin (from PBS series) (New York, NY: Mayflower Books, 1979), p. 161-163.

12 Thompson, The History of Evolutionary Thought, p. 64-72.

13 Himmelfarb, Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution, p. 240.

14 Francis Bacon, Novum Organum, edited by Joseph Devey (London: Henry G. Bohn, 1853).

15 Beverly Halstead, "Popper: Good Philosophy, Bad Science?" New Scientist, v. 87, no. 1210, July 17, 1980, p. 215-217.

16 Ibid.

17 Colin Patterson, Evolution (London: British Museum of Natural History, 1978), p. 145-146.

18 R.L. Wysong, The Creation-Evolution Controversy (Midland, MI: Inquiry Press, 1976), p. 31.

19 Karl Popper, Unended Quest (Glasgow: Fontana Books of Collins, Sons and Co., Ltd., 1976).

20 Halstead, "Popper: Good Philosophy, Bad Science?" p. 215-217.

21 Karl Popper, Letters -- "Evolution," New Scientist, v. 87, no. 1215, August 21, 1980, p. 611.

22 Neal C. Gillespie, Charles Darwin and the Problem of Creation (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1979), p. 75.

23 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species (London: J.M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., 1971), p. 13-14.

24 Arthur Koestler, Janus: A Summing Up (New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1978), p. 185.

25 PS. Moorehead and M.M. Kaplan, eds., "Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution," The Wistar Institute Symposium Monograph No. 5 (Philadelphia, PA: Wistar Institute Press, 1967), p. 13-14.

26 Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried (Boston, MA: Gambit, 1971).

27 Norman Macbeth, "What's Wrong with Darwinism?" personal interview with Luther D. Sunderland, May 29, 1982.

28 Ronald Brady, "Natural Selection and the Criteria by Which a Theory Is Judged," Systematic Zoology, v. 28, December 1979, p. 600-621.

29 Ronald Brady, "Dogma and Doubt," Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 17, no. 1, February 1982, p. 79-96.

30 Gregory Alan Pesely, "The Epistemological Status of Natural Selection," Laval Theologique et Philosophique, v. XXXVIII, February 1982, p. 74.

31 Gillespie, Charles Darwin and the Problem of Creation, p. 6.
 


Chapter 3

1 Darwin, The Origin of Species.

2 Ibid.

3 Preston Cloud, "Pseudofossils: A Plea for Caution," Geology, v. 1, no. 3, November 1973, p. 123-127.

4 Kai Petersen, Prehistoric Life on Earth (New York, NY: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1961), p. 56.

5 John Repetski, "A Fish from the Upper Cambrian of North America," Science, v. 200, no. 4341, May 5, 1978, p. 529-531.

6 G.G. Simpson, The Meaning of Evolution (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1953), p. 18.

7 T.N. George, Science Progress, v. 48, 1960, p. 1.

8 Preston Cloud and Martin Glaessner, "The Ediacaran Period and System: Metazoa Inherit the Earth," Science, v. 217, no. 4562, August 27,1982, p. 783-792.

9 Stephen Jay Gould, "The Ediacaran Experiment," Natural History, v. 93, no. 2, February 1984, p. 14-23.

10 Nigel Henbest, " 'Oldest Cells' Are Only Weathered Crystals," New Scientist, v. 92, no. 1275, October 15, 1981, p. 164.

11 Simon Conway Morris and H.B. Whittington, "The Animals of the Burgess Shale," Scientific American, v. 241, no. 1, July 1979, p. 122-133.

12 Odin, Gale, Auvray, Bielski, Dore, Lancelot, and Pasteels, "Numerical Dating of Pre-Cambrian/Cambrian Boundary," Nature, v. 301, January 6, 1983, p. 21-23.

13 Chryl Simon, "In with the Older," Science News, v. 123, May 7, 1983, p. 300-301.

14 Chris Peat and Will Diver, "First Signs of Life on Earth," New Scientist, v. 99, September 16, 1983, p. 776-781.

15 Farrington, What Darwin Really Said, p. 48-49.

16 Darwin, The Origin of Species, p. 309.

17 Francis Crick, Life Itself (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1981), p. 79.

18 Ibid., p. 87-88.

19 Ibid., p. 117-141.

20 John Gribbin, "Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia -- and Life," New Scientist, v. 94, no. 1305, May 13, 1982, p. 413-416.

21 Monitor, "Smaller Planets Began with Oxidised Atmospheres," New Scientist, v. 87, no. 1209, July 10, 1980, p. 112.

22 Harry Clemmey and Nick Badham, "Oxygen in the Precambrian Atmosphere: An Evaluation of the Geological Evidence," Geology, v. 10, Marcy 1982, p. 141.

23 Philip Morrison, "Books," Scientific American, v. 250, no. 4, April 1984, p. 30-31.

24 Gribbon, "Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia -- and Life," p. 416.

25 Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasingle, Evolution from Space (London: J.M. Dent and Co., 1981), p. 141, 144.

26 Ibid., p. 28.

27 Ibid., p. 131.

28 "Hoyle on Evolution," Nature, v. 294, November 12, 1981, p. 105.

29 Encyclopedia Britannica, "Life on Earth," v. 10, 1974, p. 894.

30 John Maynard Smith, Evolution Now: A Century After Darwin (London: Macmillan Press, Ltd., 1982).

31 Stephen Jay Gould, "An Early Start," Natural History, v. 87, February 1978.

32 Fred Hoyle, "The Big Bang in Astronomy," New Scientist, v. 92, no. 1280, November 19, 1981, p. 521-27.

33 George Wald, "The Origin of Life," The Physics and Chemistry of Life (New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1955), p. 12.

34 Carl Sagan, "Cosmos," produced by Greg Andorger, broadcast on PBS, September-December 1980.

35 A.S. Romer, Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd edition (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1966).

36 Gould, Natural History, p. 22-30.

Chapter 4

1 Alan Feduccia and Harrison Tardoff, "Feathers of Archaeopteryx: Asymmetric Vanes Indicate Aerodynamic Function," Science, v. 203, no. 4384, March 9, 1979, p. 1021-1022.

2 John Ostrom, "Bird Flight: How Did It Begin?" American Scientist, v. 67, no. 1, January/February 1979, p. 46-56.

3 Roger Lewin, "How Did Vertebrates Take to the Air?" Science, v. 221, no. 4605, July 1, 1983, p. 38-39.

4 Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong (New Haven, CT: Ticknor and Fields, 1982), p. 34-36.

5 "Bone Bonanza: Early Bird and Mastodon," Science News, v. 112, September 2, 1977, p. 198.

6 John Ostrom, "Origin of Birds," lecture for MACUB Conference at lona College, New Rochelle, New York, November 5, 1983.

7 Duane Gish vs. Kenneth Miller, debate at Tampa, Florida, 1982.

8 "Whales of the World," supplement, National Geographic, v. 150, no. 6, December 1976.

9 Gerald Fleischer, Evolutionary Principles of the Mammalian Middle Ear (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1978).

10 R. Eric Lombard, "Review of Evolutionary Principles of the Mammalian Middle Ear," Evolution, v. 33, no. 4, 1980, p. 1230.

11 Tom Kemp, "The Reptiles That Became Mammals," New Scientist, v. 92, March 4, 1982, p. 583.

12 G.G. Simpson, Tempo and Mode in Evolution (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1944), p. 105, 107.

13 Roger Lewin, "Bones of Mammals' Ancestors Fleshed Out," Science, v. 212, June 26, 1981, p. 1492.

14 Gavin DeBeer, Atlas of Evolution (London: Nelson, 1964), p. 48, Colour Plate 3: Paleontology: Evolution of the Horses.

15 Bernarr Vance and D.F. Miller, Biology for You, 5th edition (Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1963), p. 531.

16 N. Heribert-Nilsson, Synthetische Artbildung (Gleerup, Sweden: Lund University, 1954).

17 A.S. Romer, Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd edition (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1966).

18 Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong, p. 30.

19 William Hill, C.O., Primates (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, v. 1, 1953), p. 25-26.

20 William R. Fix, The Bone Peddlers (New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1984), p. 150-153.

21 Ibid., p. 182.

22 Colin Patterson, Evolution (London: British Museum, Natural History, 1978).

23 Duane T. Gish, Evolution? The Fossils Say No! (Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 1981), public school edition.

24 Wysong, The Creation-Evolution Controversy.

25 Neal C. Gillespie, Charles Darwin and the Problem of Creation (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1979), p. 75, 77.

26 E.J.H. Corner, Contemporary Botanical Thought, ed. by A.M. MacLeod and L.S. Cobley (Chicago, IL: Quadrangle Books, 1961), p. 97.

27 B.C. Olson, The Evolution of Life (New York, NY: The New American Library, 1965), p. 94.

28 David Attenborough, Life on Earth (London: Collins/BBC, 1979), p. 310-311.

29 Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe, Evolution from Space (London: J.M. Dent and Co., 1981), p. 81.
 


Chapter 5

1 Darwin, The Origin of Species, p. 224-225.

2 Richard B. Goldschmidt, The Material Basis of Evolution (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940), p. 390.

3 Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as Fact and Theory," Discover, May 1981, p. 36-37.

4 George Alexander, "Alternate Theory of Evolution Considered," Los Angeles Times, November 19, 1978.

5 Jerry Adler and John Carey, "Is Man a Subtle Accident?" Newsweek, November 3, 1980, p. 96-96.

6 Steven M. Stanley, Macroevolution: Pattern and Process (San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1979).

7 Theodosius Dobzhansky, Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd edition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951).

8 Simpson, Tempo and Mode in Evolution.

9 Miranda Robertson, "Natural Selection," Nature, v. 309, May 10, 1984, p. 106.

10 Niles Eldredge and Stephen J. Gould, "Punctuated Equilibria: The Tempo and Mode of Evolution Reconsidered," Paleobiology, v. 3, Spring 1977, p. 145-146.

11 Robert M. Young, "The Darwin Debate," Marxism Today, v. 26, April 1982, p. 21.

12 Ernst Mayr and William B. Provine, The Evolutionary Synthesis (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980), p. 229.

13 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision (New York, NY: Dell Publishing Co., 1950).

14 Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval (New York, NY: Dell Publishing Co., 1955).

15 John Maddox, "Extinctions by Catastrophe?" Nature, v. 308 April 19, 1984, p. 685.

16 Stephen J. Gould, "Evolution's Erratic Pace," Natural History, v. 85, no. 5, April-May 1977, p. 12-16.

17 Norman Macbeth, "Darwinism: A Time for Funerals -- An Interview with Norman Macbeth," Towards, Fair Oaks, California, v. 2, Spring 1982.

18 Encyclopedia Britannica, "Haeckel," 15th edition, v. IV, p. 831.

19 Assmusth and Hull, Haeckel's Frauds and Forgeries (India: Bombay Press, 1911).

20 G.A. Kerkut, Implications of Evolution (New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1960), p. 66.

21 Charles Singer, A History of Biology (London: Abelard-Schuman, 1941), p. 487.

22 S. Schwabenthan, "Life Before Birth," Parents, v. 54, October 1979, p. 31-40.

23 Gavin DeBeer, Homology, an Unsolved Problem (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971).

24 Fix, The Bone Peddlers, p. 189.

25 Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Bethesda, MD: Adler & Adler Publishing, Inc., 1986).
 


Chapter 6

1 Benjamin Farrington, What Darwin Really Said (New York, NY: Schocken Books, 1982), p. XIV.

2 PS. Moorehead and M.M. Kaplan, "Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution," The Wistar Symposium Monograph No. 5 (Philadelphia, PA: Wistar Institute Press, 1967), p. vii.

3 Lecomte du Nouy, Human Destiny (New York, NY: Longmans, Green and Co., 1947), p. 34.

4 Douglas Hofstadter, Godel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1980), p. 548.

5 Leslie Orgel, "Darwinism at the Very Beginning of Life," New Scientist, v. 94, April 15, 1982, p. 151.

6 Manfred Eigen, Wm. Gardner, Pater Schuster, and Ruthild Winkler-Oswatitsch, "The Origin of Genetic Information," Scientific American, v. 244, April 1981, p. 88, 91.

7 Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, Evolution from Space, p. 96.

8 Ibid., p. 133.

9 Fix, The Bone Peddlers, p. 181.

10 Niles Eldredge, The Monkey Business (New York, NY: Washington Square Press, 1982).
 
 
 
 

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