After the Flood - by Bill Cooper
Europe traced back to Noah"
1. Lao-tzu, Tao-te-ching, tr. Leon Wieger. English version by Derek Bryce. 1991. Llanerch Publishers, Lampeter. p. 13.
2. Clarke, John. 1993. Nature in Question, Earthscan, p. 24.
3. My paraphrase of Wallace Budge's literal translation in The Gods of the Egyptians. Vol. 1. Dover. New York. 1969. pp. 308-313.
4. There is a superb account of the Akhnaten heresy in: Eliade, Mircea. 1979. A History of Religious Ideas: From the Stone Age to the Eleusinian Mysteries. Coffins. London. Vol. 1. pp. 106-109.
5. Psalm 14:1.
6. Not that such a task would be easy. One scholar, David Berman (author of A History of Atheism in Britain. Routledge. London. 1988), complains that atheism is hard enough to detect even when records, as for the last four centuries, are to be had in plenty. By the very nature of things, the task would be nigh hopeless when it comes to the woefully sparse, and doubtless sometimes heavily censored, records of the ancient world.
7. Hesiod, Theogony, (tr. Norman Brown, 1953). Bobbs-Merrill Co. New York. p. 15.
8. Barnes, Jonathan. 1987. Early Greek Philosophy. Penguin Classics. Harmondsworth. p. 95-97.
9. Plato. Timaeus and Criteas. (tr. Desmond Lee, 1965). Penguin Classics, Harmondsworth. p. 42.
10. Barnes, p. 61.
11. ibid., p. 68.
12. ibid., p. 73.
13. Plato. The Laws, (tr. Trevor Saunders, 1970). Penguin Classics. Harmondsworth. pp. 408-447.
14. ibid., p. 416.
15. ibid., p. 417.
16. Lund, Erik. A History of European Ideas C. Hurst & Co. 1976?. pp. 61-62.
17. Cicero, On the Nature of the Gods, (tr. Horace McGregor, 1988). Penguin Classics. Harmondsworth.
18. ibid., p. 130.
19. An excellent discussion of the development of (pagan) Greek theology is given in: Murray, Gilbert. 1925. Five Stages in Greek Religion. Oxford.--Murray traces the development of the primitive, anthropomorphic gods of Greece up to the concept of the First Cause, or Creator of the Stoics. The last chapter of the book, pp. 241-267, contains a particularly illuminating translation of Sallustius's On the Gods and the World.
20. This is very well documented in the apocryphal books of the Maccabees, and especially in: Josephus. (tr. Whiston). Pickering & Inglis. London. 1960. pp. 250-289 and 607-636 (Against Apion).
21. Cicero, p. 159.
22. Lucretius, On the Nature of the Universe. (tr. Ronald Latham. 1951). Penguin Classics, Harmondsworth.
23. ibid. p. 9.
24. ibid., p. 142.
25. ibid., p. 146.
26. Cicero, pp. 144-145.
27. Stroud, Barry. 1984, The Significance of Philosophical Skepticism. Oxford University Press. p. 141.
28. Cicero. p. 161.
29. Lucretius. p. 56.
30. ibid., p. 58.
31. Cicero, p. 124.
1. Flavius Josephus, Against Apion, (From Josephus's CompleteWorks. tr. William Whiston, Pickering & Inglis. 1981. pp. 607- 636).
2. See for just one example amongst countless others, Marsh, H. 1987. Dark Age Britain, Some Sources of History. Dorset Press, New York. pp. 175-190. And Marsh is amongst the gentlest of Geoffrey's critics!
3. ".... no Welsh composition exists which can be reasonably looked upon as the original, or even the groundwork, of the History of the Kings of Britain," (Lloyd, J.E. 1939). A History of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian Conquest, London. 2nd ed. p. 526. (cit. also in Thorpe. p. 15. See bibliography).
1. Elvodug, archbishop of Gwynnedd, (otherwise Elbod, Elbodogus, Elvodogus or Elfoddw), is known to us from the Annales Cambriae. He was present, in AD 768, when the Britons changed their reckoning of Easter. Indeed, it was he who initially introduced the change. (768 an. Pasca commutatur apud Brittones super dominicam diem emendante Elbodugo homine Dei. Morris. p. 88). The second and last time he is mentioned is the entry for the year AD 809, which records his death (809 an. Elbodug archiepiscopus Guenedotae regione migravit ad Dominum. Morris p. 88).
2. See Morris, p. 9.
3. Is amlaid sin tugasdair ar senoirne uasal, i. Guanach, geinilach Breatan a cronicib na Romanach. 'This is how our noble elder Cuanu gathered the genealogy of the British from the chronicles of the Romans.' (Morris. pp. 19 & 61).
4. Set haec genealogia non scripta in aliquo volumine Britanniae, set in scriptione mentis scriptoris fuit. 'But this genealogy is not written in any book of Britain, but was in the writing of the writer's mind.' (Morris. pp. 19 & 61).
5. Whiston, p. 31. See Bibliography.
6. In case some should think that the British and Irish influenced each other on a cultural level to the extent that they were willing to tamper with and falsify their own royal genealogies (and we shall ignore the inevitable death penalty that this would have incurred), they need only ask themselves why that influence should have been confined only to the four generations named, and why there should exist such discrepancies between them both in source (Magog and Javan) and in succession of names (see chapter 9). Moreover, none of these names are those of famous figures of the past, nor yet those of mythical gods. So why should they have bothered?
1. Published by Humphrey Milford at the Oxford University Press as part of the Proceedings of the British Academy, Vol. viii. pp. 1- 28.
2. 'I, Walter of Oxford, translated this book from Welsh (Kymraec) into Latin, and in my old age have translated it a second time from Latin into Welsh.'
3. Happily, two English translations of this particular Welsh chronicle already exist: Roberts, Peter. Chronicle of the Kings. 1811. The sole surviving copy is at the Bodleian library, shelfmark Douce T., 301. (A poorly edited 2nd edition of this was brought out by Manley Pope under the title, A History of the Kings of Ancient Britain. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. London. 1862. As poor as his edition is, however, [Manley Pope interpolated comments of his own without marking them as such in the text, and he makes no acknowledgement whatever to Peter Roberts, whose translation he has clearly filched], Manley Pope does provide some very informative notes from pp. 155-216). The second translation is by Canon Robert Ellis Jones of New York. His untitled translation is a literal rendering into English of the Welsh text, and forms part of Griscom's book (see bibliography). Canon Jones died in 1929, the year of his translation's publication.
4. Caesar, pp. 99-100. See bibliography.
5. Geoffrey of Monmouth, p. 108, and Manley Pope, p. 60. See bibliography.
6. Nennius, p. 23. See bibliography.
7. Caesar, pp. 102-3.
8. Caesar,. pp. 111-2.
9. Geoffrey, p. 110 and Manley Pope, p. 60. As Flinders Petrie points out, while the shift in date may be due to tradition, it cannot agree with copying.
10. Geoffrey, (pp. 112-3) has Odnea. See Manley Pope, pp. 61 & 180-1.
11. Caesar, p. 87.
12. Caesar, p. 110 and Manley Pope, p. 61, 'Caesar was compelled to fly.'
13. Geoffrey, pp. 236 & 245-6. See also Manley Pope, p. 122.
14. Cottrell, (pp. 63-4. See bibliography) lists Spaniards, Hungarians, Germans, Syrians, Greeks, Africans, Gauls, and so on as some of the nationalities that made up the Roman legions in Britain. Hadrian's Wall alone was manned by Spaniards, Germans, Africans and Syrians.
15. Geoffrey, pp. 90-100 and Manley Pope, pp. 38-46.
16. Livy, pp. 378-395. See bibliography.
17. Livy, p. 379. Compare Geoffrey, pp. 97-9 and Manley Pope, pp. 44-5.
18. Livy, pp. 383 & 395.
19. Geoffrey, p. 89.
20. See Probert, William, Ancient Laws of Cambria. 1823.
21. Flinders Petrie, pp. 8-9.
22. Geoffrey,. p. 64. Thorpe, (p. 341. See bibliography. Aledges that the name is an invention of Geoffrey's.
23. Bradford, Guide to the Greek Islands, Collins. London. p. 48.
24. cit. Hawkins, Prof. G. Stonehenge Decoded, Fontana. p. 34. Hawkins points out that as the Greek word for oak was 'drus', then Pliny's etymology for the name would appear to have been correct.
25. Bradford, p. 50.
26. Geoffrey, p. 81 and Manley Pope, pp. 28 & 167-8.
27. Geoffrey, p. 58 and Manley Pope, p. 10.
28. Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, G & C Merriam, Massachusetts. 1977. p. 1203.
29. Geoffrey, pp. 55-64.
30. Webster's, p. 340.
31. For a technical appraisal of the chronology, see my article The Early History of Man - Pt. 3. The Kings of the Ancient Britons: A Chronology, CEN Tech. J., Vol. 52 1991. pp. 139-142.
1. Groos, T.W., The Diary of Baron Waldstein, Thames & Hudson. London. p. 61.
2. Groos, p. 169.
3. For an invaluable introduction to this subject, see Bowden's Rise of the Evolution Fraud, pp. 7-17. (See Bibliography).
4. Bede,. p. 130. See Bibliography.
5. ... flu Geta, quiJitit, ut aiunt, fihius Dei: non ipse est Deus deorum...sed unus est ab idolis eorum, quod ipsi colebant. (Nennius §31); (i.e. '...the son of Geat), who was, they say, the son of God. But he was not the God of gods...but one of their idols whom they worshipped.' - My translation). Morris's translation of this sentence reads a little oddly-'...son of Geta, who said they were son of God...(sic!)' (Morris, p. 26. See Bibliography).
6. Magoun, (pp. 249-50. See Bibliography).
7. Keynes and Lapidge, (p. 229. See Bibliography).
8. ibid., p. 316. See Bibliography.
9. Corpus Christi College Cambridge, MS XCII (Parker Library).
10. Sisam, p. 317. (See Bibliography).
11. ibid., p. 320.
12. ibid., p. 322.
13. Reliq. Antiq., p. 173. See Bibliography.
14. It was, for example, the sole subject of the illiterate Caedmon's songs and poetry. See Bede p. 252.
15. MS. Cotton, Otho. B. XI., cit. Magoun p. 249.
1. The earliest instance in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of Woden's lineage (back to Geat) appears under the year 547 (Parker Chronicle). An older instance by about a century occurs in Nennius. See below. The Parker list and Nennius list differ in several points of detail, so it cannot be pretended that the later Parker list is merely a copy of Nennius.
2. Morris, p. 4.
3. The list could hardly have been the ad lib invention of Hengist and his men as they landed. It was clearly a long-established and important part of their historical tradition that they brought with them from the continent, making it already ancient by the mid-fifth century.
4. Morris, p. 26.
5. Henry of Huntingdon, p. 39. See Bibliography. We see an interestingly similar corruption in William of Malmesbury, (p. 97. See Bibliography), where he renders the name Sceaf as Strephius.
6. Campbell, J., The Anglo-Saxons, Penguin Books, 1982. p. 148.
1. Sellar and Yeatman, 1066 And All That, Penguin, 1962. p. 13.
2. Cusack, M.F., The Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868. Published in facsimile by Bracken Books, London. 1987.
3. Cusack tells us which Irish MSS were lost by her own day, and those which had survived. Those lost are: The Cuilmenn; the Saltair of Tara; The Book of the Uachongbhail; the Cin of Drom Snechta; and the Saltair of Cashel. Those surviving include: The Annals of Tighernach; The Annals of Ulster; The Annals of Inis Mac Nerinn; The Annals of Innisfallen; The Annals of Boyle; the Chronicum Scotorum; the Annals of the Four Masters; The Book of Laws (the Brehon laws), and 'many books of genealogies and pedigrees' (pp. 39-40).
4. Keating, G., (1634). The History of Ireland, Dublin. 1902-14. The Guildhall Library of London holds a copy of this intriguing work.
5. cit. Cusack, p. 43.
6. Cusack, p. 43n.
7. The Book of Leinster is kept in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, shelfmark H.2.18.
8. Keating, p. 109 and cit. Cusack. p. 43.
9. Brewer E.C., enl. ed., 1894. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 1112.
10. Genesis 11:6. ....Behold the people is one, and they have all one language, and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.'
11. 1 Samuel 8:7: 'And the Lord said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have rejected Me, that I should not reign over them.'
12. See, for example, the article 'King, Kingship,' The New Bible Dictionary, InterVarsity Press, London, 1972. pp. 692-3.
13. This is according to the Annals of the Four Masters, See Cusack. p. 58.
14. Cusack, p. 59.
15. Thorpe, pp. 100-1.
16. Nennius §13.
17. Mackie, J.D., A History of Scotland, Penguin Books, p. 16.
18. Cusack, p. 71.
19. (Ir. Conell MacGeoghegan), cit. Cusack, p. 20.
20. See Geoffrey of Monmouth, pp. 72-3. Geoffrey's Gogmagog appears to be a corruption of the name Gawr Madoc, the giant or great warrior Madog. Of these 'giants', we read, ...though their stature is exaggerated, yet it will be remembered that the stature of the ancient Britons was thought gigantic by Romans.' Pope. p. 164.
21. 1 Samuel 17:4. See also New Bible Diet, pp. 466 & 481.
22. Geoffrey of Monmouth, p. 123.
23. The Annals of the Four Masters, cit. Cusack, p. 75.
24. Cusack, p. 69.
25. Cusack, p. 85.
26. Cusack, p. 82.
1. See Bowden's Rise of the Evolution Fraud.
2. Corpus Christi College Cambridge MS. 173. For an English translation see Garmonsway. pp. 6-7.
3. Bodleian MS. Laud 636. See also Garmonsway. pp. 6-7.
4. MS. Cotton. Vespasian. D. IV. fol. 69v.
5. A principio mundi usque ad diluvium anni II CC XL II.
A diluvio usque ad Abraham anni D CCCC XL II.
Ab Abraham usque ad Moysen anni D C XL.
A Moyse usque ad David anni D.
A David usque Nabuchodonosor anni sunt D LX VIIII.
Ab Adam usque trausmigrationem Babyloniae anni sunt IIII DCCC LXX VIIIII.
A transmigratione Babyloniae usque ad Christum D LX VI.
Ab Adam vero usque ad passionem Christi anni sunt V CC XX VIII.
A passione autem Christi peracti sunt anni D CC LXXXX VI.
Ab incarnatione autem eius anni sunt D CCC XXX I.
(Nennius 1-4; see also Morris. p. 59)
6. Osgood, John. The Times of Abraham. CEN Tech. J. Vol. 2. 1986. p. 79.
7. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1985 ed. Vol. 15. p. 463.
8. The Mayans calculated a 584 day cycle, against the modern value of 583.92 days. See Ronan, C. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the World's Science. Newnes. Cambridge. 1983. p. 55.
9. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1985 ed. Vol. 15. p. 474.
1. See e.g. 'Behemoth,' The New Bible Dictionary, InterVarsity Press. London. 1972. p. 138.
2. ibid., pp. 729-30. See also Pfeiffer, C.F. 'Lotan and Leviathan,' Evangelical Quarterly, XXXII. 1960. pp. 208 if.
3. Thorpe, Lewis tr. The History of the Kings of Britain, Geoffrey of Monmouth. Guild Publishing, London, 1982. Pp. 101-2.
4. Jones, G. and Jones, T. [tr.]. The Mabinogion. Revis, ed. Everyman's Library. J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd. 1974. pp. 209-212 & 217.
5. See Westwood, J. Albion, Granada, London. 1985. pp. 270, 275, 289.
6. Trevelyan, M. 1909, Folk-Lore and Folk Stories of Wales, (cit. Simpson, J., British Dragons, B.T. Batsford Ltd., London. 1980).
7. Whitlock, R., 1983. Here Be Dragons, Allen & Unwin, Boston. pp. 133-4.
8. This chronicle was begun by John de Trokelow and finished by Henry de Blaneford. It was translated and reproduced in the Rolls Series. 1866. IV. ed. H.G. Riley. (cit. Simpson, J., British Dragons., B.T. Batsford Ltd. 1980. p. 60).
9. ibid., p. 118. See also 'The Fighting Dragons of Little Cornard,' Folklore, Myths and Legends of Britain, Reader's Digest. 1973. p. 241.
10. True and Wonderful: A Discourse Relating a Strange and Monstrous Serpent (or Dragon--lately discovered, and yet living, to the great Annoyance and divers Slaughters of both Men and Cattell, by his strong and violent Poison: in Sussex, two Miles from Horsham, in a Woode called St Leonard's Forrest, and thirtie Miles from London, this present month of August 1614. With the true Generation of Serpents. cited in Harlejan Miscellany. 1745. III. pp. 106-9. (also cit. Simpson. p. 118).
11. ibid., p. 35.
12. ibid., p. 21.
13. Gregory, Lady, Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland, 1920. (repr. 1976). (cit. Simpson, pp. 42-3).
14. See Steiger, B., Worlds Before Our Own, W. & J. Mackay Ltd. Chatham, (England). 1980. pp. 41-66. (Steiger is by no means a creationist).
15. Caxton, Win, 1484. Aesop. folio 138. The only surviving copy of this book lies in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. This extract appears here by gracious permission of Her Majesty the Queen.
16. ibid. This extract appears here by gracious permission of Her Majesty the Queen.
17. The Times, 2lst July 1977.
18. 'Flying Dragons at Aberdeen,' A Statistical Account of Scotland. 1793. Vol. VI. p. 467.
19. See Morris, W., Volsungassaga.
20. Elton's translation cited by Klaeber, p. 259.
21. The Anglo-Saxon text relied on in this study is that of Klaeber.
1. Brit. Mus. Cotton. Vitellius. A. XV.
2. lines 1957-61 (Klaeber).
3. Alexander, M. Beowulf. Penguin Classics. Harmondsworth. pp.112-3.
4. Which incidentally verifies the pre-Christian origins of the Mercian, and therefore other pedigrees, proving that the early Saxon genealogies were in existence before the Saxons migrated to England.
5. Historae Franconim. Book III. chap. 3. See Thorpe, Lewis tr. Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks. Penguin Classics. Harmondsworth. 1974. p. 163.
6. cit. Klaeber. p. xli.
8. This is the one flaw that mars Michael Alexander's otherwise excellent translation of Beowulf. Surprisingly, Klaeber also makes the same error, having actually edited the original text of the poem.
9. Ythgewinnes. lit, a wave-thrasher. Its surface-swimming nature would explain the ease with which the creature was harpooned from the shore of the mere. It is also probably the ythgewinnes whose likeness was portrayed so often on the prow of Viking ships. Rather than being merely a superstitious emblem, perhaps that likeness had the very practical purpose of deterring other wave-thrashers from attacking the vessel.
10. Cartularium Saxonicum. (W. de Gray Birch ed.). ii. 363 ff. (cit. also by Klaeber. p. xxiv).
11. Beowulf lines 1345-1355 (Klaeber).
12. Alexander. p. 93.
13. Longman Literature Guides. (York Notes Series). Beowulf. p. 65.
"After the Flood" - is ©1995 by Bill Cooper.