"IT'S A YOUNG WORLD AFTER ALL"
©1986 by Paul D. Ackerman    http://www.creationism.org/ackerman/ 



 
Footnotes/Endnotes

  --- Introduction ---

1. Robert F. Smith, "Origins and Civil Liberties," Creation Social Science and Humanities Quarterly, 3 (Winter 1980): 23-24.

  --- Chapter 1 ---

1. The anti-creationist magazine Creation/Evolution has recently published two articles in rebuttal of the creationists' moon-dust argument: "Space Dust, the Moon's Surface, and the Age of the Cosmos" by Frank T. Awbrey (Issue XIII, p. 21—29) and "Footprints in the Dust: The Lunar Surface and Creationism" by Steven N. Shore (Issue XIV, p. 32-35).

2. The Rand McNally New Concise Atlas of the Universe (London: Mitchell Beazley Pub. Ltd., 1978), p. 41.

3.  Robert T. Dixon, Dynamic Astronomy (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. 1971), p.  149.

4.  See footnote 1.

  --- Chapter 2 ---

1.  P. Stevenson, "Meteoritic Evidence for a Young Earth," Creation Research Society Quarterly 12 (June 1975): 23; cited in R. L. Wysong, The Creation-Evolution Controversy (Midland, MI: Inquiry Press, 1976): 171.

2.  In the introduction of this book I mentioned the joy with which I became a scientific creationist. I stumbled across a little book by Henry Morris called The Remarkable Birth of Planet Earth. It seemed like an intriguing topic so I bought it. What I expected to find was an array of dogmatic assertions and appeals to blind acceptance of authority. Instead, what I found was a tightly argued case for biblical creation, much of it having to do with the age of things. In terms of my background and training in scientific method and logic, this was the kind of reasoning and use of evidence one could applaud and emulate.

Once reading began, I found I could not put the book down. It was fascinating. At the end, Morris listed a number of evidences indicating that the earth is young. Reading down the list, I reached a particular item that for me was the "straw that broke the camel's back." That evidence, which was and still is very special to me, is none other than the "fossil" meteorite data presented in this chapter. Jumping from my chair, I began to dance through the house with joy. My wife, as she often did in those early days of my life as a Christian, thought that I had gone crazy. Happily, she has now joined me in this "craziness."

  --- Chapter 3 ---

1.  Much of the material for this chapter was obtained from Harold S. Slusher, Age of the Cosmos: ICR Technical Monograph #9 (San Diego: Institute for Creation Research [2716 Madison Ave., San Diego, CA 92116], 1980).

2.  Harold S. Slusher,  "A Young  Universe,"  Bible-Science Newsletter  13 (January 1975):  1ff.

3.  Slusher, Age of the Cosmos, p. 48.

4.  Ibid., p. 49.

5. Ibid., pp. 53-54.

  --- Chapter 4 ---

1.   "Eyes on Jupiter," Life (May  1979), p.  46.

2.  R. L. Wysong, The Creation-Evolution Controversy (Midland, MI: Inquiry Press, 1976), p. 177. This book is available from Inquiry Press, or from the Bible-Science Association, Inc.

3.   Ibid., pp.   177-178.

4.  "Dust Rings Our Solar System," Wichita Eagle and Beacon, 10 November 1983, p.  1A ff.

5.  Ibid.

6.  Ibid.

  --- Chapter 5 ---

1.  Material for this chapter is taken from Glenn R. Morton, Harold S. Slusher, and Richard E. Mandock, "The Age of Lunar Craters," Creation Research Society Quarterly 20 (September 1983): 105-108.

2.  Ibid., pp.   106-107.

  --- Chapter 6 ---

1.  John N. Bahcall and Raymond Davis, Jr., "Solar Neutrinos: A Scientific Puzzle, Science 191 (1976): 264-267.

2.  Ibid., p. 264.

3.  "The Sun Is Shrinking," Wichita Eagle and Beacon, 23 March  1980, p. 6B.

4.   Bahcall and Davis, "Solar Neutrinos,"  p. 264.

5.   Harold S. Slusher,  "A Young Universe,"  Bible-Science Newsletter  13 (January 1975):  1ff.

6.   "The Faint Young Sun and the Warm Earth," Science News 111 (5 March 1977): 154.

7.   Ibid.

8.   Wichita Eagle and Beacon, op. cit.

9.   John A. Eddy and Aram A. Boornazian, 'Analyses of Historical Data Suggest Sun is Shrinking," Physics Today 32, No. 9 (September 1979): 17.

10.  Russell Akridge, "The Sun Is Shrinking," Impact, No. 82, April 1980 (Institute for Creation Research).

11.  Irwin 1. Shapiro, "Is the Sun Shrinking?" Science 208 (4 April 1980): 51-53.

12.  Ibid.

13.  David W. Dunham, Sabatino Sofia, Alan D. Fiala, David W. Herald, and Paul M. Muller, "Observations of a probable change in the solar radius between 1715 and 1979," Science 210 (12 December 1980): 1243-1245.

14.  John H. Parkinson, "New measurements of the solar diameter," Nature 304 (11 August 1983): 518-520.

15.  John H. Parkinson, Leslie V. Morrison, and E Richard Stephenson, "The constancy of the solar diameter over the past 250 years," Nature 288 (11 December 1980): 548-551.

  --- Chapter 7 ---

1.  Raphael G. Kazmann, "It's About Time: 4.5 Billion Years," Geotimes, September 1978, pp.   18-20.

2.  Information on the field galaxy mystery is based on information provided by astrophysicist Harold Slusher in a talk presented at Wichita State University in April 1982.

  --- Chapter 8 ---

1.  The material in this chapter is based in part on information provided by Barry Setterfield in a speech titled "The Velocity of Light and the Age of the Universe," presented at the 1983 National Creation Conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota. (A tape of this talk may be obtained from the Bible-Science Association, 2911 E. 42nd St., Minneapolis, MN 55406.) Information was also obtained from a technical monograph of the same title by Barry Setterfield and obtainable from Creation Science Foundation, Australia.

  --- Chapter 9 ---

1.  At first glance, the low amount of atmospheric helium seems to create a dilemma for Barry Setterfield's model involving decay in the speed of light, since faster light speed and corresponding faster uranium-lead decay should produce helium at a faster rate. Thus, whether the radioactive decay occurred over millions of years or only a few thousand, there should be the same amount of helium by-product produced
But where is the helium? The answer may be that in Setterfield's model it is predicted that the radioactive elements were originally confined deep in the earth's interior and only later intruded near the earth's surface as a result of catastrophic events. Helium is known to be extremely soluble in the magma of the earth's interior. Even under circumstances whereby the molten magma erupts through to the earth's surface, it will not release the helium readily. There are many known intrusions of igneous rock (cooled magma) that contain substantial amounts of helium without nearby uranium sources.

2.  John G. Funkhouser and John J. Naughton, "Radiogenic Helium and Argon in Ultramafic Inclusions from Hawaii," Journal for Geophysical Research 73, No. 14 (15 July 1968): 4601-4607.

3.   "Workers Find Whale in Diatomaceous Earth Quarry," Chemical and Engineering News,  11 October 1976, p. 40.

4.  Material on the research of Guy Berthault was obtained from a video documentation of his research, Experiments in Stratification from Sarong LTD, c/o 42, Bd d'ltalie, MC 98000 Monaco. The video may be purchased through Answers in Genesis. Go to < www.answersingenesis.org > and enter the name of the video, Experiments in Stratification, into their search engine.

5.  Material regarding the Mount St. Helens eruption was obtained from the following sources:
Steven A. Austin, Mount St. Helens: A Slide Collection for Educators, Geology Education Materials, P.O. Box 2892, El Cajon, CA 92021, 1991.
Steven A. Austin, "Mount St. Helens: Geologic Evidence for Catastrophism," an monograph distributed with the above cited slide collection package
Steven A. Austin, "Mount St. Helens and Catastrophism," Proceedings of The First International Conference on Creationism, Vol 1, (Creation Science Fellowship, 362 Ashland Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15228) 1986, pp. 3-9.

  --- Chapter 10 ---
 

1.  Steven A. Austin, Mount St. Helens: A Slide Collection for Educators (Geology Education Materials [P.O. Box 2892, El Cajon, CA 92021], 1991): 10-11.
 

  --- Chapter 11 ---

1.  Material for this chapter was obtained from the following sources: A talk entitled, "Astronomical Evidence for the Flood," presented by Barry Setterfield at the 1983 National Creation Conference in Minneapolis, Minnesota (this includes references to George Dodwell's research) and two articles published in Ex Nihilo —Carl Wieland, "An Asteroid Tilts the Earth," Ex Nihilo. January 1983, pp. 12-14; and Barry Setterfield, "An Asteroid Tilts the Earth?" Ex Nihilo, April 1983, pp. 6-8.

2.  Jody Dillow, "The Catastrophic Deep-Freeze of the Beresovka Mammoth," Creation Research Society Quarterly 14 (June 1977): 5-12.

3.  Ibid., p. 5.

4.  Ibid., p.  12.

5.  Wieland, "An Asteroid Tilts the Earth," p.   13.

6. Austin, S.A., Baumgardner, J.R., Humphreys, D. R., Snelling, A.A., Vardiman, L., & Wise, K, Catastrophic Plate Tectonics: A Global Flood Model of Earth History. Presented at the Third International Conference on Creationism, Pittsburgh, PA, July 18-23, 1994. http://www.icr.org/research/as/platetectonics.html
 

  --- Chapter 12 ---

1.  Robert V. Gentry, et al., "Radiohalos in Coalified Wood: New Evidence Relating to the Time of Uranium Introduction and Coalification," Science 194 (15 October 1976): 315-317.

2.  Ibid., p. 316-317.

3.  Ibid., p. 317.

  --- Chapter 13 ---

1.  George Wald, "The Origin of Life," in The Physics and Chemistry of Life, by the editors of Scientific American (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955): 12.

2.  W R. Bennett, Jr., "How Artificial Is Intelligence?" American Scientist 65 (November-December 1977): 694.


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